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Full text of "Illinois Wesleyan University : continuity"

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Continuity exchange 



Illinois Wesleyan 
University 

Continuity & Change 

1850-2000 



Minor Myers, jr. • Carl Teichman 



Illinois Wesleyan University Press 

in cooperation with 

WDG Publishing 




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Illinois Wesleyan 
University 



Continuity 
Change 

1850-2000 



Minor Myers, jr. • Carl Teichman 



Frontispiece: Hedding Bell from Hedding College in Abingdon, Illinois that merged with Illinois Wesleyan University 
in 1930. This monument was erected with contributions from students and dedicated in 1934- 



Illinois Wesleyan University Press 

in cooperation with 

WDG Publishing 



Illinois Wesleyan University: 
Continuity & Change 
1850-2000 



Published in partnership with 

Illinois Wesleyan University Press 

and 

WDG Publishing 

Creative Director: Duane Wood 

Design: LeeAnn Williams, Kristine R. Smith 

All images are from the Illinois Wesleyan University archives unless otherwise noted. 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, 
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, 
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without 
prior written permission from the publisher. 



Copyright 2001 Illinois Wesleyan University Press 

First published in the United States by: 

WDG Communications Inc. 

3500 F Avenue, N.W 

Post Office Box 9573 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa 52409-9573 

Telephone: (319) 396-1401 

Facsimile: (319) 396-1647 

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 

Myers, jr., Minor, 1942- 

Illinois Wesleyan University : continuity & change, 1850-2000 / Minor 
Myers, jr., Carl Teichman, Bob Aaron. 

p. cm. 
Contemporary photography by Marc Featherly. 
Includes index. 

ISBN 0-9651620-4-4 (alk. paper) 

I. Illinois Wesleyan University-History. I. Teichman, Carl, 1956- 

II. Aaron, Bob. III. Title 
LD2433 .M94 2001 
378.773'59»dc21 

2001005138 



10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 



able ©t CUoiit( 



;ents 

5 Intro-diietion 

O AcJknov* LeolgeniLents 

8 F roin Illinois University to Illinois Wesleyai 

20 I "> ri -lit Beginnings to Disaster Averted 

54 Tke Civil War to 1888 

62 Wilder and Beyond 

82 Ikenip and tlie Collegiate University 

102 Realizing tlie PillsWry Plan 

118 1 lie Depression A ears 

136 World War II 

150 Post-War Expansion 

164 The 1960s 

180 Tlie 1970s and 1980s 

202 lowarcl a u»esquicentennial 

234 Index 



Continuity & Change 



Illinois Wesleyan University: Continuity & Change, 1850-2000 is dedicated to all the 
students, alumni, faculty, and staff — past, present, and future — who love this University 
and share these sentiments: 

Come all ye students now, let every loyal man 

Join in a song, in accents strong, for dear old Wesleyan. 

And as the chorus swells the air, we'll hand in hand unite 

And with a cheer, both loud and strong, we'll wave our banner bright, 

Dear old Wesleyan, our own dear old Wesleyan, 

No other shrine can brighter shine, 

Than our dear Wesleyan. 

Dear Old Wesleyan 



Illinois Wc-.slrv.ui Univcrsi 



loll Years oi History o <, olrast is JProlognc 



Charles William Eliot, a reform-minded educa- 
tor, was president of Harvard for 40 years, 1869- 
1909. He was honored one night at a dinner 
party by faculty who toasted his achievements. 
The competition was keen when it came to 
piling plaudits on the campus chief executive. 
"Since you became president," one unctuous 
professor told Eliot, "Harvard has become a 
storehouse of knowledge." 

Eliot, tongue-in-cheek, replied: "What you 
say is true, but I can claim little credit for it. It 
is simply that the freshmen bring so much and 
the seniors take so little away." 

While many "spins" might be placed on 
this fable, we choose to focus on the notion 
that no one person is responsible for any orga- 
nization's achievements, including a great 
university. That's the message of this book — 
a message in the spirit of an aphorism credited 
to Sir Isaac Newton. When the great English 
scientist was asked why he was able to see so 
far, he reportedly credited his achievements 
to the fact that he stood on the shoulders of 
giants — his predecessors. 

That's what Illinois Wesieyan University: 
Continuity & Change, 1850-2000 is all about. 
It's about those who preceded us — about how 
and why they built this great "storehouse of 
knowledge." It also is about some of the great 
personalities who have populated this campus 
over the last century and a half — their dreams 
and their accomplishments. Consequently, this 
is a book about people and ideas. 



As the authors pawed and pondered over 
numerous history-laden documents — for exam- 
ple, President William H.H. Adams' handwrit- 
ten Civil War memoir, including how he 
recruited African-American troops for the 
Union Army — we were struck by how the 
University was often close to events that 
shaped our nation and the world. Oftentimes 
this vicarious experience was through the 
achievements of alumni whose careers and 
intellect were shaped by early adulthood experi- 
ences at Illinois Wesieyan. For example, a 
touch of Illinois Wesieyan was at the pinnacle 
of national power when an alumnus of the 
1850s, Adlai Stevenson, served as Vice 
President of the United States in the 1890s, 
or when Scott Lucas, class of 1914, was U.S. 
Senate Majority Leader during the politically 
turbulent early Cold War years. The University 
got a peek at the frontiers of science through 
Carl Marvel, class of 1915 and a National 
Medal of Science winner, whose innovations 
in chemistry helped pioneer synthetic rubber 
during World War II. A handful oi Illinois 
Wesieyan alumni also were there when science 
was put to work to harness atomic energy, and 
one alumnus was an eyewitness, when that ter- 
rible atomic weapon was unleashed in the skies 
over Japan to end a war. Alumni have taken 
the University to the world's great opera hous- 
es, the sound stages of Hollywood, cutting-edge 
research laboratories, the top of professional 
athletics, and the corridors of some of 



Continuity & Change 



America's greatest corporations. 

But, great events over the decades also 
have directly touched Illinois Wesleyan. 
The years of the Great Depression saw across- 
the-board belt-tightening, including tuition 
payments in the form of farm produce — not 
dollars, which was a humbling experience. 
And, of course, the world's battlefields sad- 
dened the Bloomington campus as students- 
turned-soldiers were consumed by gunfire and 
disease, never to return. Great crises of a more 
local nature also shaped the University's evolu- 
tion — landmark events like the 1943 Hedding 
Hall fire, which crippled but didn't crush the 
campus, as well as the inevitable financial 
ups-and-downs that, at times, brought the 
University to the brink of bankruptcy. Yet, 
the University rebounded from these and 
other setbacks with a fierce determination 
reminiscent of the moniker attached to the 
remnants of the great building destroyed in 
the 1943 blaze— Duration Hall. 

Through it all, Illinois Wesleyan was 
on the cutting edge. A one-armed Civil War 
veteran, John Wesley Powell, brought a new 
approach to teaching science to students in 
the 1860s with path-breaking explorations of 
America's frontier. And, in the 1890s, a new 
and powerful telescope — a scientific instrument 
reputed to be the eighth largest in the world at 
the time — gave students and faculty a wonder- 
ful teaching tool to study the heavens. Seven 
decades later, the Illinois Wesleyan community 



got an idea of what it was like to touch the 
heavens, when Apollo VIII commander Frank 
Borman visited the campus shortly after circling 
the moon. And, a century after Illinois 
Wesleyan inaugurated its wonderful telescope, 
the University's scientific genius was seen 
again, when the $25-million Center for 
Natural Sciences caught the attention of 
Project Kaleidoscope, a science-education 
program sponsored with support from the 
National Science Foundation and other groups. 

This book also is a tribute to bits of Illinois 
Wesleyan legend and lore that are no longer 
part of our "academical village," to use a term 
coined by Thomas Jefferson. Continuity & 
Change gives us the opportunity to reflect 
on important — but ephemeral — aspects of 
the University such as the law school, home- 
economics program, oratory department, corre- 
spondence school, graduate courses, and the 
Wilson School of Art. While these entities 
did not survive to the 21st century, they con- 
tributed mightily to Illinois Wesleyan's maturity 
and development. 

The great architect and city planner Daniel 
Burham had a credo: "Make no little plans, 
they have no magic to stir men's minds." As 
readers travel through the history of Illinois 
Wesleyan, they will be struck by the size and 
scope of the plans — the dreams — envisioned by 
our forebears. Some, like the ill-fated Pillsbury 
Plan of the 1920s, remained unfulfilled. Others, 
however, like the admission of women and 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



In rei idui i ii w 



African- Americans to the University in the 
1860s and 1870s, as well as construction of 
Evelyn Chapel, the Shirk Center, and various 
libraries and science buildings over the years 
were repeatedly fulfilled. 

The tale of Illinois Wesleyan also is the 
saga of people who believed in the fundamental 
value of education and were willing to invest 
their treasure in the minds of youngsters. 
Continuity & Change will introduce you to 
countless benefactors from Isaac Funk to 
B. Charles Ames, class of 1950, and Joyce 
Eichhorn Ames, class of 1949, who graciously 
have put their money to work for the benefit 
of others. From generation to generation, these 
benefactors shared a vision of Illinois Wesleyan 
akin to what the Ames family said when they 
announced a new $12-million fund-raising 
challenge to fellow alumni: "We believe Illinois 
Wesleyan University has a unique opportunity 
to rank among the top 40 national liberal arts 
institutions in the United States within the 
next few years. For this reason, we are willing 
to make a substantial commitment of funds if 
our fellow alumni will join with us to achieve 
this goal." 

As a consequence of this type of support, 
Illinois Wesleyan has been most fortunate over 
the past decade: raising $115 million, con- 
structing about $90 million in buildings, and 
increasing enrollment from 1,800 to 2,000 
students, as well as increasing the quality of 
those students. Continuity & Change is the story 
of how Illinois Wesleyan positioned itself over 



the years to achieve its contemporary success. 
This success also includes being ranked among 
the nation's most selective liberal-arts campuses 
by U.S. News & World Report; being ranked 
12th nationally by Kiplinger's Personal Finance 
Magazine among private colleges and universi- 
ties in delivering high-quality education at an 
affordable cost, and being ranked the 8th 
"most wired" college in the nation by Yahoo! 
Internet Life. 

So, as you read about the Illinois Wesleyan 
University adventure take pride in your 
University's success — success nurtured and 
cultivated through hard work and genius by 
men and women over a century and a half. The 
authors hope that you will chuckle at campus 
capers like a Pajama Parade or the Uprising of 
the Mules and that you will take pride in the 
University's Goldwater Scholars, 1997 national 
basketball championship, and faculty research 
and writings. 

And, as you read with pride about your 
University's accomplishments, you might hum 
the lyrics of Fight Wesleyan: 

Fight Wesleyan, keep a-fighting every man, 

Our team will stay, right in the fray 

And Wesleyan will win today, 

So plunge through that line 

Make a touchdown every time, 

The crowd a' yelling, the cheers a' swelling. 

Fight, Fight, Fight, Fight, Fight, 

Fight for Wesleyan. 



Minor Myers, jr. • Carl Teichman 



Continuity c* 1 Change 



A. r.i >\vi i [•< ,i-mi-.i - 



The authors want to thank countless individu- 
als and organizations for their assistance in the 
researching, writing, editing, and publishing 
of Illinois Wesley an University: Continuity & 
Change, 1850-2000, a project that unfolded 
on a crash course over 18 months. 

Several organizations — on and off cam- 
pus — played key roles in providing primary 
and secondary-source documents, as well as 
rare and valued photographs that illustrate the 
remarkable history of our University. Among 
these organizations are the U.S. Senate, U.S. 
Geological Survey, U.S. Marine Corps, Illinois 
State Historical Society, American Chemical 
Society, McLean County History Museum, and 
the University of Arizona, as well as Illinois 
Wesleyan University's Sheean Library, particu- 
larly the University Archives, the Argus, the 
Wesley ana, and the Office of University 
Communications. 

Several histories of Illinois Wesleyan 
University and memoirs were invaluable 
resources in preparing this manuscript. Among 
those references, we respectfully acknowledge: 
The Illinois Wesleyan Story, 18504950 by Elmo 
Scott Watson; The Professor Goes West by 
Elmo Scott Watson; Illinois Wesleyan University. 
Growth, Turning Points, and New Directions 
Since the Second World War by George Vinyard, 
class of 1971; A Personal Memoir of the Bertholf 
Years at Illinois Wesleyan University, 1958-68 by 
Lloyd M. Bertholf; Pictures at An Exhibition : 



Illinois Wesleyan University, 1968-86 by Robert 
S. Eckley; and Through the Eyes of the Argus: 
100 Years of Journalism at Illinois Wesleyan 
University, by Jennifer L. Barrell '94 and 
Christopher J. Fusco '94- 

The authors gratefully acknowledge the 
painstaking and diligent research of three 
Illinois Wesleyan students without whose 
professionalism and dogged determination this 
volume would not have reached the printing 
press. Sara Scobell, class of 2000, who was 
named a 1999 Lincoln Academy Scholar by the 
State of Illinois, was selected to be a principal 
researcher for this volume. Her meticulous 
efforts, combing through large stacks of dusty 
documents, enriched this volume, adding color 
and broadening its scope. Her scrupulous atten- 
tion to detail and Sherlock Holmes-like persist- 
ence in searching for evidence did much to 
ensure the accuracy of information presented 
here. Following Ms. Scobell's graduation, 
Kathryn L. Weber, class of 2002, an English 
major, and editor-in-chief of the Argus, very 
ably and enthusiastically took over research 
responsibilities. Katherine Edwards, class of 
2002 and an English-literature major, played 
the pivotal role of photo researcher. She sifted 
through thousands of aging negatives, photos, 
and slides — some tucked away in basements 
and musty file cabinets that were untouched for 
decades — probing for just the right photo to 
illustrate a point. Her valuable work was made 



Ac KM IWI 1:1 H ,hMI:.'. I- 



more difficult because so many precious 
photographs were lost in the 1943 Heckling 
Hall blaze. Each of these students showcased 
on-the-job research, writing, and analytical 
skills that are so fundamental to a quality 
liberal-arts education. 

The photography component of Continuity 
& Change would not be possible without the 
efforts of Marc Featherly, university photogra- 
pher and a member of the Office of University 
Communications staff. Many of his photos — as 
well as those of others — taken over the years 
illustrate this volume. However, he also spent 
numerous hours — often after midnight — in the 
precise and tedious process of copying photos 
out of timeworn University publications, 
photos for which negatives were unavailable. 
Additionally, he spent countless hours doing 
photo research and in the darkroom develop- 
ing batches of film so that the authors could 
review photographs for possible inclusion in 
this volume. 

The Office of University Communications 
also was instrumental in bringing Continuity & 
Change from concept to reality. And, the staff, 
as always, took on this sizable and persistent 
project with good cheer and their trademark 
professionalism even as they grappled with a 
myriad of other projects — ranging from news- 
media inquiries to news releases, feature stories, 
writing various publications, preparing slide 
shows and videos, and quarterly production of 



the Illinois Wesleyan University Magazine, The 
communications staff played several roles in 
preparing this volume, including legwork in 
pinpointing sources of information and photo- 
graphs, fact-checking, proof-reading, and 
reviewing copy. Consequently, many thanks 
are in order to: Stew Salowitz, class of 1976 
and director of news services; Sherry Wallace, 
assistant director of University communica- 
tions; Tim Obermiller, editor, Illinois Wesleyan 
University Magazine; and Tina Williams, office 
coordinator. In addition, special thanks is 
owed Bob Aaron, former director of University 
Communications, for his tireless efforts with all 
aspects of this manuscript. 

And, of course, thanks also are in order 
for our partners in this project, WDG 
Communications of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 
particularly Duane Wood, publisher, LeeAnn 
Williams and Kristine Smith, graphic designers 
and JoAnn Wood, Shari Boyle, Linda Whitman 
and Vonda Olson, production. Their creativity 
and cooperation contributed much to the 
success of Continuity & Change. 

But, most especially, the authors want to 
acknowledge the contributions of our predeces- 
sors — students, alumni, faculty, and staff. For 
without their vision, foresight, hard work, 
and diligence, this history of Illinois Wesleyan 
University — published on the campus' 150th 
anniversary — would have been impossible. 
This book is their story. 



Minor Myers, jr. • Carl Teichman 



Continuity & Change 






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r ^ hat Bloomington would have a college seems a given, based on the 

eastern background of the early European settlers. Its form and 

specifics, though, depended very much on politics and details. 



Old North, the University's 
first building, was razed 
in 1966 to make room 
for Sheean Library. 



A kit of this history would have been conjectural 
at best were it not for John Barger, principal 
founder of Illinois Wesleyan who at the request 
of the University's Board of Trustees wrote five 
long columns on the institution's early history 
for the Western Whig in the spring of 1851. He 
was asked to do so by Methodist meetings of 
March 8, 1851. 

In the decade from 1820 to 1829, 22 new 
colleges were founded in the United States. 
That number was increased by 38 during the 
next decade. Various factors, including economic 
conditions contributed to slowing down this 
movement, so that there were only 42 colleges 
established from 1840 to 1849. But in the next 
10 years from 1850 to 1859 that number more 
than doubled to 92 campuses. 

In the early 19th century colleges continued 
to be educational extensions of church denomi- 
nations. In the years before the American 
Revolution Congregationalists, for example, 
established Harvard and Yale, Baptists created 
Brown, and Presbyterians launched Princeton 
and Washington and Lee. 

Early Bloomington 

Bloomington, Illinois, had begun life as 
Blooming Grove in 1822 as the first settlers of 
European stock arrived. James Allin, a shopkeep- 
er originally from North Carolina, moved from 
Vandalia to Blooming Grove in 1829, recogniz- 
ing the locale's commercial potential.Though 
there were barely 100 residents in the town, the 
entrepreneurial Allin led a movement to create 



a new county with Blooming Grove as the 
county seat. These efforts were successful when 
McLean County was created on December 25, 
1831, with a renamed Bloomington as the coun- 
ty seat. McLean County grew to a population of 
about 4,000 by 1840, leaping to 10,399 when 
Assistant Marshal William McCullough counted 
heads in 1849. 

Westward migration was a given in those 
American decades. Several factors coalesced to 
make Bloomington a developing center of popu- 
lation and economic activity. The extraordinari- 
ly fertile soils drew the farmers and the farmers 
drew the merchants, lawyers, and doctors. That 
pattern was common enough, but geography 
gave Bloomington a special boost as more than 
a railroad town. It was a railroad junction. 

In the 1840s Chicago and St. Louis were 
prominent economic centers waiting to be 
linked by the spreading network of railroads. 
Tracks reached Bloomington from the south 
in 1852, and by 1855 it was normal to ride the 
260 miles between Bloomington and St. Louis in 
15 hours and 30 minutes. Perhaps less inevitable 
was the Illinois Central, which went north 
and south through the state like a backbone. 
Chartered by Congress in 1850, the Illinois 
Central tracks reached Bloomington in 1854- 
But the railroad's greater impact came later. By 
1856 the Illinois Central was running a national 
campaign to attract settlers to Illinois on farms 
along its tracks. Land was $5 to $25 an acre and 
economic success for new settlers was all but 
guaranteed. Land sales were strong, and the 



Continuity & Chant 



From Illinois Univhrsity to Illinois Wlslli \n 



Chicago and Alton and the Illinois Central rail- 
roads crossed only at Bloomington. In addition 
the east-west railroad completed in 1870 offered 
still a third window to national commerce and 
economic growth. That the Chicago and Alton 
made Bloomington the location for its shops 
only intensified the pattern. And so by 1860 
Bloomington's population reached 8,000. 

Early Elementary Schools 

Settlers of European stock moved west across 
America in the 19th century. Some towns have 
strong southern roots, others pure New England 



editors, or ministers. Delia Mullin began with 
her log-cabin school for small children as early 
as 1825 in Bloomington. William Hodge ran a 
school in the village in the 1830s and Lemuel 
Foster, a Presbyterian minister, had a school 
in 1834. In the early 1840s Martha Tomkins 
operated a school for girls at the corner of 
Washington and Center Streets in Bloomington, 
while Dr. W C. Hobbs had a school for boys. 
There was a pair of academies in the late 
1840s. The Baptist minister Charles E. Dodge 
opened the Bloomington Male Academy on 
September 4, 1848, where he taught reading, 




origins. Bloomington settlers came from 
Vermont through North Carolina, with many 
coming from inland states to the west. These 
settlers brought a general enthusiasm for educa- 
tion, with mixed backgrounds on how it was 
supported. New England used state funds to 
support common schools. Early Illinois followed 
southern and western models, depending more 
on local efforts which were not long in coming, 
though highly intermittent. Only in 1855 did 
Illinois establish a system of public schools, 
while state-supported universities started only 
in 1857. 

Early education at every level in Illinois 
was dependent on entrepreneurship or public 
benevolence, often both. Teaching offered an 
extra source of income for doctors, lawyers, 



penmanship, English grammar, arithmetic, 
and geography for $3 per quarter and more 
advanced courses for $4 and $5 per quarter. 
About the same time George W Minier and 
Mary M. Spaulding opened the Bloomington 
Female School. The primary department 
covered reading, spelling, and arithmetic, 
while the advanced department delved into 
astronomy, ethics, history, and elocution. 

Merriman Dreams, January-May, 1849 

A key figure in Bloomington and its vision was 
Charles Merriman, editor of the town's newspa- 
per The Western Whig. He was first to imagine 
a college in Bloomington, just as he was later to 
be a partner with Jesse Fell in transforming his 
old paper into a new one, which he named The 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



Flu >M ll MM > is IjNIVMisll V li i ]] I IM i|s Wl -LI i ' 



Pantagraph. With his classical background, 
Merriman knew that moniker meant "write all." 

Records are unclear on Merriman's back- 
ground, but it is clear that his life began with 
some uncertainty. He was born in Hatley, a town 
the residents thought was in Vermont. In fact, 
he was born in Canada, which probably explains 
his attending a Catholic college near Montreal 
and returning as a bilingual professor of mathe- 
matics at a seminary in Newbury, Vermont. 
Why he went to run a school in Athens, 
Georgia, is as inexplicable as the forces which 
brought him to Bloomington to take over a 
school in 1844. He started The Western Whig 
two years later. He was a community-minded 
citizen, who over time was president of the town 
board of trustees and mayor of Bloomington. 
But he is best remembered as newspaperman. 

Merriman also is a sad character in this tale. 
Once he was the well-to-do editor and educa- 
tional visionary. Yet, in later years, he was out of 
the newspaper business and reduced to running a 
bookstore, at least until he found an intermittent 
job as a language teacher at Evergreen City 
Commercial College and, ironically, Illinois 
Wesleyan. 

Merriman's articles in 1849 left no doubt: 
Bloomington should have a college. Readers on 
May 19, 1849, found he was doing more than 
thinking or dreaming. He was ready to act. 

Together with the Baptist minister Charles 
E. Dodge he proposed to establish "a seminary of 
learning in Bloomington." It would be called the 
McLean Collegiate Institute and it would teach 
ancient and modern languages, math, science, 
and philosophy, "together with all the usual 
branches of an English education." If he could 
raise $5,000, the institute would have a building 
and start classes by January, 1850. An advertise- 
ment ran at least twice, and a separate printed 
version had a plan for a building. No copy 
survives. A very distinct trait of the plan was 
explicit: the institute was to be free of "all politi- 
cal and sectarian bias." It would be a college for 
a community, not just for one denomination. 



Merriman's advertisement invited subscribers 
to come forward. How many did is unknown and 
little more was heard of the McLean Collegiate 
Institute that summer, but Merriman was mov- 
ing forward nonetheless. 

Teachers' Institute, 1849 

A teachers' institute was organized in the 
summer of 1849 by Merriman and George W. 
Minier, as well as three subscription-school 
teachers: A. H. Brown, Joseph Macon, and 
Henry Louis Shafter Haskell. The quintet met 
on Friday nights and at one of these conclaves 
Haskell was asked to discuss: "How can we best 
advance the cause of education in McLean 
County?" 

Haskell argued that the county needed a 
university, "a fountain from which recruits would 
come for every branch of learning and science." 
Bloomington was a logical venue for a university 
because it was "eligibly situated on the projected 
line of the Illinois Central and other roads, with 
no colleges east of us or near us." 

Likewise, in early summer 1849 The Western 
Whig announced: Mrs. R. Merriman, surely the 
editor's wife, will open a school in the north 
room of the Lucas house, on the first Monday in 
May, for a term of four months, and will teach 
the common branches of an English education. 
Terms were $3 per session, or 75 cents per 
month, for each scholar. The school was open 
to students regardless of age or sex. 

If his wife was running a primary school in 
1849, Merriman himself began making plans for 
the classical school he began advertising in 
February, 1850. In association with George W 
Minier, the school would offer the elements of 
English education, mathematics, and philosophy, 
plus Greek, Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and 
vocal music. These offerings sound like an acad- 
emy or high school about to become a college. 

Illinois Methodism 

The early years of Illinois Wesleyan are 
incomprehensible without an introduction 



Continuity & Change 



From Illinois University ro Illinois Weslfi \\ 



to Methodist vocabulary and organization. 
Methodists continued the tradition of Anglican 
bishops, but rather than have the bishop respon- 
sible for administering a diocese, the denomina- 
tion organized a series of representative commit- 
tees, assemblies, which together operated a 
Conference. Illinois in the late 1840s was divid- 
ed into two Methodist conferences. Dividing 
by a line that ran roughly from Rossville in the 
east to Hamilton in the west, the Rock River 
Conference organized Methodists north of that 
demarcation, while the Illinois Conference 
incorporated the remaining southern portion of 
the state. Bloomington sat near the borderline. 

The Illinois Conference had two colleges 
under its patronage in the late 1840s. 
McKendree College for men began in 1828, 
while MacMurray, which opened in 1846, was 
for women. The Rock River Conference had 
committed itself to starting a Methodist college 
in Evanston, now Northwestern University. 

John Barger 

There is little question that if the title founder 
of Illinois Wesleyan is bestowed on a single per- 
son that person is John S. Barger (1803-1876). 
Born in Kentucky, he knew colleges well by the 
time he arrived in Bloomington as a Methodist 
minister, serving as head of the Bloomington 
district from 1847-50. Indeed, no one could 
have known better that colleges are both born 
and face life-threatening situations. 

For two years Barger had been the financial 
agent for McKendree College, beginning in 
1837. Financial planning at that time conclud- 
ed that McKendree would be on a firm fiscal 
footing if it raised an endowment of $50,000, a 
very large sum, but one which could be managed 
if the college sold 100 scholarships at $500 each. 
Such was the development plan adopted. Sales 
went well, but fiscal details are uncertain. Yet, 
it would appear that 100 commitments were 
made, perhaps being paid in installments by 
the "donors." 






The Panic of 1837, an economic downturn, 
intervened, sending McKendree into a tailspin. 
The scholarships gave a family the right to send 
a student tuition-free "in perpetuity." How long 
that was to last is unclear, but suddenly donors 
found they could not pay their scholarship com- 
mitments, and the college could find no students 
who otherwise could attend. McKendree refund- 
ed its donations, called in its scholarships, and 
hoped for $200 donations. As Barger put it in 
1851, writing the history of Illinois Wesleyan, 
then barely a year old: "Thus vanished the 
endowment of M'Kendree College." Faced with 
debt of over $10,000, rather than an endowment 
of $50,000, the college suspended. More than 
anyone in Bloomington, Barger realized how 
dependent educational dreams are on fiscal 
resources. 

McLean College Organization 

Charles Merriman's dream for a college and his 
plans for classical education were certainly well 
known in the community, though his classical 
school was not announced until February, 1850. 
Yet, John Barger knew as well as anyone that 
the idea of a college had taken hold. 

The annual meeting of the Methodist 
Illinois Conference met from September 19-26, 
1849 in Quincy, Illinois. At these meetings 
Barger became a key figure in local college 
politics. He knew of the interests in the 
Bloomington community and he talked with 



i m ii in i. ■ In 



his Methodist colleagues. The hint was passed 
back and forth, that if Bloomington organized 
a college, the Methodist organization might 
help it or take it under its control. 

John Barger was the chief informant when 
the Committee on Education heard several infor- 
mal proposals for setting up "schools of academic 
grade" in Bloomington and Jacksonville. The 
Conference named committees to hold talks with 
citizens in Bloomington and elsewhere about the 
"practicality and expediency of opening schools 
and erecting buildings as soon as circumstances 
shall justify." Certainly the most significant 
phrase in the documents of that meeting was 
the promise that if the conference embraced a 
school it would extend "its official patronage." 
The committee assigned the task of talking to 
the citizens of Bloomington about establishing 
a school to John Barger and Thomas McGee. 

McLean Trustees Hear about the 
Methodist Thoughts, 1849 

Barger's five contributions to The Western Whig 
in 1851 leave no doubt as to what happened 
next. "The friends of education in Bloomington, 
met, organized, and elected a Board of Trustees 
under the name and style of McLean College." 
Without a roster of names, Barger did record 
the composition: "In this board all the churches 
of the place, were represented; and several gen- 
tlemen, not connected with any church, but of 
high standing in society, were elected Trustees." 
Ultimately both Barger or McGee were added 
as the Methodists on the board, which was still 
operating with Merriman's hope of creating a 
non-sectarian college. 

From that moment Barger played two roles. 
He was a trustee of McLean College, then only 
an idea with a non-sectarian board. And, he 
was also a representative of a denomination 
he hoped would patronize a new college in 
Bloomington. 

Once formed complete with officers, the 
board did little. Whether Barger means some- 
thing by his definite first phrase is unclear: 



"But from some cause, this attempt at a College 
organization proved abortive. At the request of 
the Conference committee, a meeting of the 
Trustees was called on the evening preceding 
the fourth quarterly meeting conference of the 
Bloomington station, July 5, 1850. But failing to 
obtain a quorum (none present by the President 
and Secretary of the Board), the projected 
enterprise was considered defunct." 

It is hard to know whether Barger was 
disappointed or delighted, given what hap- 
pened the next day. He perhaps wanted a 
non-sectarian vision to be defunct, as he 
now saw the possibility of a Methodist reality. 
As though worried a still dormant rival might 
spring up over a year later, Barger in recording 
his facts in 1851 added: "No attempt has since 
been made to revive the undertaking." 

Barger was not to be stopped. He foresaw 
a larger Bloomington, a new Methodist confer- 
ence encompassing the central part of the state, 
and a major college in Bloomington. On July 6, 
1850, less than 24 hours after he called the 
McLean College board defunct, Barger and 
McGee reported to the quarterly meeting of 
the Bloomington area. They had tried to confer 
with the trustees of McLean College, but they 
"from some cause [the same phrase again], have - 
failed to perfect their organization." If no others 
would do it, the Bloomington station should 
go ahead, set up a college, open a school, and 
"provide as soon as shall be deemed advisable, 
suitable buildings." Quite simply, a college was 
both "practical and expedient." 

As usual, things went to a committee, 
which reported on July 8 with vigorous recom- 
mendations. Concurring with Barger on every 
point, E. Thomas, L. Graves, and J. Allin 
recommended that the local Methodist group 
move ahead to create an institution of learning 
"under the patronage of the M. E. Church." 
The Bloomington-area group itself would 
appoint nine trustees "who shall take the 
necessary steps to perfect their legal organiza- 
tion under the statutes of this State." 



Continuity & Change 



13 



From Illinois Umvh<mii i> • Ii i.ivi--. \Vinj.v\s 



Barger, Magee, and Allin immediately were 
named to the hoard, with Barger to coordinate 
finding the other six trustees and carrying the 
project to the September conference meetings. 
The quarterly conference opted for Illinois 
University as the name of their now independ- 
ent rival. 

In short order the hoard consisted of these 
nine: John Barger, H. J. E. McClun, L. Graves, 
Dr. E. Thomas, James Allin, James Miller, C. P. 
Merriman, W. C. Hobbs, and John Magoun. 

Merriman had dreamed of a non-sectarian 
college and an alliance with the Methodist 
Conference probably was not what he had 
in mind, though he would be one of the first 
trustees of Illinois Wesleyan. But denomina- 
tional association governed vision, as is evident 
in an analysis of the need for a new college in 
Bloomington. 

Bloomington, Methodists learned, needed 
a college because others were too distant. 
Local students otherwise had to go to Evanston, 
Jacksonville, or Indiana. Completely invisible 
in this analysis were Knox, started by the 
Congregationalists in Galesburg in 1837, 
and Jubilee College at Robin's Nest, an 
Episcopal school under the direction of Bishop 
Philander P. Chase, the founder of Kenyon. 
The Literacy and Technological Institute of 
the Lutheran Church of the Far West, later 
known among other names as Hillsboro 
College (now Carthage) had started in 1846 
and Shurtleff College though it dated to 1826 
at Alton was Baptist. 

Quarterly Meeting Conference of 
Bloomington Station 

Barger reported that "very recently" Illinois 
University had been organized, and would be 
interested in discussing cooperation with the 
Methodist conference. He wrote in The Western 
Whig of May 21, 1851: "A Board of nine 
Trustees, citizens of Bloomington, have 
been appointed by the Quarterly meeting 
Conference of the Station, who are waiting 



the approaching session of the Illinois 
Conference, to place the Institution under 
the control of the Church." 

Rock River is Dubious, July 18, 1850 

John Barger, Thomas McGee, and Wingate Jones 
Newman went to the Rock River Conference 
meetings in Plainfield, Illinois, on July 18, 
1850. On July 19, they asked that Rock River 
Conference join with the Illinois Conference in 
taking the new Illinois University under its 
patronage, sharing in governance and supervi- 
sion, particularly in choosing members of a 
Board of Visitors. They proposed particularly 
that the Rock River group elect visitors who 
would meet with the Illinois-conference group 
in September. 

In that same session, papers establishing 
Northwestern University were under discussion, 
but Barger and the others also presented a pro- 
posal on "Illinois University." They addressed 
the Conference as the Board of Trustees of 
Illinois University and the Conference in turn 
referred the question to its Committee on 
Education. They were not the official visitors 
Barger had requested, but they did come to 
the September meetings in Bloomington. 

Barger had much to learn as well as tell. 
He discovered that Rock River already had 
"friends of education in the city of Chicago" 
planning a new major university nearby, The 
North Western University. Rock River had 
an even grander collaboration in mind, for it 
would work with Methodist conferences in 
Wisconsin, Iowa, and Indiana. Barger probably 
was surprised when he found they even had in 
mind asking the Illinois Conference for help 
with the project. 

Another issue was afoot, uncertain but 
logical. The suggestion was strong that the 
middle part of the state be made a third and 
separate conference, in which case Illinois 
University would be the obvious school for that 
Conference, just as North Western would be for 
Chicago, and McKendree and MacMurray were 



I I 



M/iimii's Wi'.slcvdii University 



Fndm iii.ikui-. i ;-.i\ ( i'-i 1 1 n . Iilim n- Wi-ij-, \.\ 



to the southern counties. On July 23, in the 
morning session, the Rock River group named 
a committee to confer with their colleagues in 
the Illinois Conference. 

The Rock River Conference expressed 
interest in the project, but failed to offer "pecu- 
niary aid" because it was pledged to support 
another Methodist institution, North Western 
University at Chicago, and trustees were 
named for that institution on July 23, 1850. 

September 17, 1850 

In mid-September John Barger was now a 
man of many hats. He was a prominent figure 
in conference politics, yet he was also the 
intellectual leader of the Illinois University 
hoard. He spoke constantly in both capacities. 

Barger's report the next day says that on 
the evening of September 1 7 the Board of 
Trustees of Illinois University met to discuss 
an alliance with the Methodist denomination. 
They liked the plan and anticipated making a 
presentation to the Conference on September 
19. Further, they voted to expand the roster 
of trustees from nine to 30, as Barger reported, 
"to extend the influence of the institution more 
generally through the Conference and over 
the State." 

The Illinois Conference Meets, 
September 18, 1850 

When the Illinois Conference opened its 27th 
annual session on September 18, 1850, the 
Bloomington university project met with more 
success and some unexpected travails. Barger 
and Magee presented a report, summarizing 
their meetings with Bloomington citizens "on 
the subject of a seminary of learning at that 
place." The Illinois University trustees were 
willing to work with the Methodists and willing 
to expand the board to 30 seats. The Confer- 
ence agreed to his suggestion that a special 
five-person panel confer with the Rock River 
Conference and Illinois University trustees. 



September 19, 1850 

It was probably on September 19 that the 
special panel of five held a joint meeting with 
the Illinois University trustees and three Rock 
River Conference delegates. Barger reported 
what happened at a very amiable conference. 
The special committee reported hack that the 
trustees of Illinois University "have tendered 
to the Conference the patronage and control 
of their Institution." In turn the committee 
recommended that "we accept the tender of 
the said Illinois University, and hereby adopt 
it as the University of Illinois." They submitted 
their report, together with an eloquent docu- 
ment from Barger and J. C. Finley on behalf of 
Illinois University. Barger probably wrote that 
one, too. 

The document from the University board 
stressed the growth of Bloomington, the fertili- 
ty of the soils, and the beauty of the country. 
It noted: "We cannot begin too soon. The 
inctease of our own population — the increase 
of foreigners are pouring upon us. The tide of 
emigration is rolling its ceaseless current 
through us — and the great highway of nations 
uniting the extremes of Europe and Asia, will 
soon pass by our doors; and the wealth of the 
world will be poured into our treasury; and by 
the time we can acquire the experience neces- 
sary for the conduct of a College, the liberality 
of our people will have furnished the means, 
and the youth of out Country will be pressing 
to our Halls for that instruction which it is our 
duty to provide for them." 

This was more than rhetoric. Since Barger, 
the assumed author, assured the Conference 
that: "Buildings fully adequate to conducting 
a large High School are now ready," and since 
the burgeoning wealth would provide ready, 
spontaneous support, the conference would 
have a college at virtually no cost. Indeed, as a 
trustee of Illinois University Barger assured his 
Conference colleagues that Conference patron- 
aye "will not for the present involve them in 
either expense or harassing responsibility." 



Continuity & Change 



Fkom Iii.inois Uniylkslm m Illinois VVlsli v\r. 



It was a proposition hard to resist: control 
and public acclamation at no cost. There was 
some opposition to the idea in the Committee 
on Education, but the panel still reported it out 
favorably, and with no objections the confer- 
ence voted to accept the offer. A year later 
Barger was moderately bitter. His reports had 
been received, he wrote, with "oblivious calm 
of indifference," and his eloquent statement 
on behalf of the trustees was never printed 
or distributed. 

Barger was equally disappointed by the 
response of his northern colleagues. The three 
representatives of the Rock River Conference 
left Bloomington saying they thought the 
conference would encourage the project. All 
they did, however, was present a resolution 
of encouragement with the clear stipulation 
they could offer no "pecuniary aid." 

The report by Barger and a colleague was 
a ringing endorsement of need for improved 
education in Bloomington, declaring: "We 
cannot begin too soon," especially as the 
area's population grew through immigration 
and its wealth increased. "It is our duty," the 
report proclaimed, to provide education under 
these circumstances. 

The report was referred to the Committee 
on Education. Part of the committee's reluc- 
tance to move on the Illinois University 
proposal might have been tied to a previous 
Quincy Conference initiative to shift 
McKendree College to Bloomington. 

"Because of this," Elmo Scott Watson 
wrote in his centennial history of Illinois 
Wesleyan, "they opposed, or at least reluctantly 
consented to, the establishment of the project- 
ed Illinois University under the patronage of 
the Illinois Conference. At least, Barger hints 
that there was such opposition, but states that 
it was not strong enough to make itself evident 
on the floor of the Conference." 

Ultimately, the Conference adopted a reso- 
lution, "That the Illinois University be received 
under the patronage of this Conference in 



accordance with the request of the Trustees and 
committees of the Conference." 

September 23, 1850 

Within days, the McLean College Institute 
board was transformed. The original nine were 
now increased to 30, and the roster filled with 
Methodists. What some had hoped would be 
a non-denominational college was suddenly 
coopted. The new board gathered for the first 
time on September 23, 1850. 

At that point the board signed a declara- 
tion of intent to form a corporation under 
the 1849 Illinois Act for the Incorporation of 
Institutions of Learning. The state statute man- 
dates most of the text of that declaration: the 
number of trustees, subjects to be taught, the 
professorships to be established, and perhaps, 
most interesting of all, in this case — the name. 

As the document was drafted and copied 
out for signature there was no doubt about the 
name — Illinois University. The Methodist 
Conference later printed the full minutes of all 
its September sessions. The printing probably 
was completed in October, and there can be no 
doubt, when the Methodist meetings finished 
in Bloomington, the local church leaders had 
opted to start Illinois University. 

Manuscript records of the Conference even 
refer to the University of Illinois, and in fact 
when The Western Whig ran the first advertise- 
ment for the school on October 12, 1850, it 
announced that Reuben Andrus had been 
retained to head the preparatory department for 
the new "University of Illinois." Classes were to 
begin on October 28, and on November 27 
a new advertisement appeared. It ran weekly 
through the spring reporting the curriculum at 
"Illinois University." That term continued at 
the head of the advertisements for the new 
school through April, 1852. 

The beginnings of Illinois Wesleyan are 
distinctly odd and uncertainty about the name 
may encapsulate far more than early historians 
were willing to record. 



16 



Wesleyan University 



From Illinois Univl-kmti ro Ii.i.iki >is Wi-h va:; 






1 " *z^< ^c 




£• 










Articles of 
Incorporation 
showing the addition 

'Wesleyan" 

the name. 



Illinois Wesleyan began with a preparatory 
school and no president of the college faculty. 
At first there was a president pro tern, followed 
by a president in absentia, followed by a 
president who lasted a year. Only in 1856 
would the denomination, which had claimed 
the name Illinois Wesleyan, offer funds to keep 
the school going. 

The records are lacking, but it is not diffi- 
cult to surmise what happened. John Wesley 
had founded the Methodist sect of the Anglican 
church, which in America declared itself to 
be a separate denomination in 1784, at which 
time Francis Asbury and Thomas Coke became 
its bishops. 

Like other denominations, the Methodists 
had been active in establishing colleges, with 
varying patterns in the names. Methodist sup- 
port in Connecticut had created Wesleyan 
University in 1831 in Middletown. Georgia 
Female College in Macon began in 1831 and 
changed its name to Wesleyan Female College 
in 1843. Ohio Wesleyan had begun in 1841, 
perhaps setting a model of combining state and 
denominational names. 

In any event, in November, 1850, when 
the board began organizing, someone probably 



suggested Illinois Wesleyan as a formal name. 
There may have some reluctance, but the word 
Wesleyan was added to both copies of the 
original papers of incorporation with a carat 
showing where the word should be inserted. 

In the meantime some were unsure of the 
use of the denominational ties, and thus the 
first newspaper advertisements continued for 
"Illinois University," with no mention made 
of a denominational attachment. The first 
announcements had said classes would meet 
in the Methodist church, a detail omitted 
later. Once maybe a misprint, but the same 
advertisement appeared again and again for a 
whole season. 

"Wesleyan" had been inserted in the 
name when the document was filed in the 
courthouse on December 3, 1850, but the 
advertisements remained unchanged. The 
name Illinois Wesleyan was in place at least 
by April 23, 1851, when Barger wrote to the 
conference meetings in Peoria. 

And so, "an Institute of learning of 
Collegiate grade" was established in 
Bloomington which "shall be known in law 
and equity or otherwise by the name and 
style of Illinois Wesleyan University." 



Overleaf: 

Main Street in early 
Bloomington looking 
toward the north. 



Continuity & Change 



17 



\ 





-*mm 



f 



fa 



m 



1 



» 




V "\ V v 



\ 






JUL JDriglkt JB eg i linings to JOisasfer Averted 



tudents have long come first at Illinois Wesleyan. Indeed, there were 
students before there was either a president or an organized board of 
trustees. The first classes gathered at nine o'clock in the morning of 
Monday, October 28, 1850, at the Methodist Episcopal Church. 



Built in 1836, this small church stood at the 
comer of Olive and Main Streets. There were 
seven students that day, aged 14 to 22 years. 
As planned, Reuhen Andrus was there to hegin 
instruction in language, geometry, algebra, 
philosophy, English grammar, orthography, 
and arithmetic. The advertisements had called 
him "an eminently successful practical teacher" 
and there is no reason to think those seven stu- 
dents did not get their money's worth at tuition 
rates running from $3 to $5 a quarter. 

The all-male student body that first day 
included: Edwin Miller, Archibald E. Stewart, 
Edwin Fell, Fletcher Wilson, John Perry, George 
Stubblefield, and James Stevenson Ewing. James 
Ewing was the son of trustee John W. Ewing. 
He would later practice law in Bloomington 
with his cousin, Adlai Ewing Stevenson, another 
of Illinois Wesleyan's early students who would 
ultimately become vice president of the United 
States under Grover Cleveland. President 
Cleveland also named James Ewing, Minister 
to Belgium, where he served for four years. 
Archibald E. Stewart became a doctor, a farmer, 
a member of the Illinois legislature, a circuit- 
court official, an acting county superintendent 
of schools, and a newspaperman. Many years 
later Andrus would write about that first year: 
"The list of students was gradually enlarged until 
in January 1851 there were present in the classes 
forty five (45) persons, the maximum number 
for the year." Education went well in the first 
days of Illinois University as the institution 
continued to call itself in advertisements. 



However, organization and funding were com- 
pletely different topics. 

Filing the Document with a New Name 

Only when the Board of Trustees met on 
December 2, 1850, was William H. Allin 
instructed to have the September 23 declaration 
entered "on the records of McLean county 
and [to forward] one copy of the same to the 
Secretary of State in Springfield." The next day 
Allin filed the document with himself, for he 
was, in fact, clerk of the circuit court. Nine 
days later the board met again to elect officers 
and begin writing a new constitution, adopted 
on December 18, 1850. Early plans for a non- 
sectarian college were now transformed into 
one where a majority of trustees were to be 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

When trustees met in Bloomington 's court- 
house in January, 1851, their agenda was about 
as comprehensive as it could possibly be: acqui- 
sition of a site for the University, building 
construction, choosing a president, assembling 
a faculty, publicity, and, above all, finance. 

They had no way of knowing that discus- 
sions of a site would go on Kir four long years. 
Classes had begun in the Methodist church, 
with every expectation that the whole operation 
would move to the new church building to be 
completed in the summer of 1851. Yet all agreed 
a college needed a campus. In February, 1851, 
two trustees, William H. Allin and James Miller, 
later Illinois state treasurer, each offered 10-acre 
tracts for the new University's home. The 



Continuity & Change 



BPHiiii Rh.iwiN!.'- if IV.Wku Amkii.i- 



The only known 

existing photo of 

the University's first home 

was taken in 1900, after 

it had been converted 

from a church into 

a livery stable. 



trustees voted to approve AUin's offer, a site 
located north of Chestnut Street and east of 
the Chicago & Alton Railroad. However, in 
May the trustees voted the conditions Allin 
offered unacceptable and debate dragged on. 
Staffing went marginally better. Andrus 
had arrived for the opening of the school, but 
in July, 1851, he received a new title, and 
perhaps a demotion. Andrus was now professor 
of mathematics and natural philosophy, and he 
was to be joined by an old acquaintance from 
the McKendree staff, William Goodfellow, who 
was professor of natural science. Goodfellow, 
like Andrus, was a Methodist minister, but the 
older man now supplanted Andrus as head of 
the school. In addition, Erastus Wentworth was 
elected president. 



The First President: Erastus Wentworth 

Erastus Wentworth (1813-1886) was a natural 
choice for president. He was just finishing four 
successful years as president of McKendree, a 
role which made him well known to local 
Methodist leaders. 

Wentworth was born a Congregationalist 
in Stonington, Connecticut, finished Wesleyan 
in 1837 and then combined teaching science 
with the Methodist ministry in New York and 
Vermont. Out of the blue, he was named presi- 
dent of McKendree in 1846, a position he 
accepted for the unexpected reason that the 
climate would be healthier for his wife. After 
four years he was ready to head back east to be 
professor of science at Dickinson, and he was 
not to be stopped by the new college in 
Bloomington, as the board heard from him 




11 



Illinois YW sic van I 'nii'i'i.sifv 



Brk.iit Beginning m l>i- a-ti-j; Avmi-.h 




in September. After four years in Pennsylvania, 
he spent the next eight years as a missionary in 
China, before returning to churches in New 
York and Massachusetts. 

Reuben Andrus (1829-1887), who was 
named professor of mathematics and natural 
philosophy, had long McKendree associations. 
Born in New York, he came to Illinois quite 
young, started at Illinois College, but finished 
at McKendree in 1849. He already was ordained 
a minister. 

William Goodfellow, a native of Wooster, 
Ohio, moved north to join his former student, 
Andrus. He had been in charge of the prepara- 
tory program at McKendree and he had experi- 
ence at raising money for buildings, both useful 
talents in Bloomington. Whatever his title, 
Goodfellow appears in the records for months 
as though he is coordinating all aspects of the 
program. Only in July, 1852, did the board make 
the actual official, when it made him president 
pro tern at the same time the trustees tried to 
choose another president. 

Admissions and Fundraising 

Charles Merriman and John Barger continued 
their efforts for the college. They had hoped to 
appoint an agent to seek donations and students 
in early 1851, but when such an appointment 
did not materialize they printed a broadside 
circular instead, a document which captures a 
lot of changing circumstances. 



First funds raised for the nascent university 
came from a source all-but-unknown today, 
but common in the 1 8th century, when artists 
would paint a great picture and visitors would 
pay a small fee to view it. Elisha Hunt was a 
Bloomington portrait painter. For most artists 
then, portraits were merely a way to make 
money. Great historical or religious scenes were 
real art, and like many of his artistic colleagues 
a great work would make a display to which the 
public would pay admission. Hunt produced his 
version of the Last Supper. It was placed on view- 
in the new Methodist church, and The Western 
Whig of August 13, 1851, called it a "magnifi- 
cent painting on which Mr. Hunt has spent a 
vast amount of labor," adding that 1 12 people 
paid a quarter each to see it. Proceeds of $28 
arrived at the University in September, 1851. 

In August, 1851, the University made 
the appointment it had been unable to make 
earlier in the year. Thomas Magee became the 
University's agent and started combing the coun- 
tryside for financial support. The Western Whig 
reported in the spring of 1852 that Magee's efforts 
had resulted in $15,000 of local support. Further 
work on the East Coast found that the "liberality 
of friends in Boston, New York and Philadelphia" 
had made it possible to purchase a "philosophical 
and chemical apparatus" and add 500 volumes to 
the library. By year's end, Magee had raised nearly 
$17,000, but most of these funds were earmarked 
for buildings to house the University. 



Continuity & Change 



WINNINGS TO Plv\s I l.l( A\ bKTtl i 



The Second Fall of Classes 
after a Successful First Year 

On July 31, 1851, The Western Whig character- 
ized the preparatory school's inaugural year as 
successful, noting that the institution had 50 
students, two faculty members had been select- 
ed, and that the trustees were seeking funds to 
construct buildings, purchase equipment, start 
a library, and endow professorships at $10,000 
each. Despite this optimistic outlook, financial 
problems loomed. 

In a reminiscence written decades later, 
Principal Andrus recalled: "There were classes 
the year through in arithmetic and English 
grammar — in the elements of Latin and 
Greek — also in algebra and geometry together 
with elocutionary and rhetorical exercises . . . 

"After a vigorous campaign in the interest 
of . . . [Illinois] Wesleyan during the summer 
months at Quarterly meetings — camp meetings, 
etc. — the second year opened in September, 
1851, in the basement room of the new M.E. 
[Methodist Episcopal] church, situated near the 
South East corner of the Court House Square . . ." 

An advertising circular reveals Illinois 
Wesleyan was organized on four levels in the 
summer of 1 85 1 . The preparatory program had 
two divisions, the classical and the scientific. 
Classical tuition was $5 a term, while students 
who did not study Greek paid only $4- There 
were classical and scientific options for college- 
level work but the fee was $6 in either case. 
The circular listed not only trustees but students, 
by name. There were then 43 students listed for 
the preparatory program, 1 who were in the 
"classical" and probably college-level course. 

During the late summer of 1851, Reuben 
Andrus and John Barger traveled through cen- 
tral Illinois advertising Illinois Wesleyan in an 
effort to attract students in conjunction with 
other publicity efforts. A "mass meeting" in 
Bloomington to explain the program must have 
been very persuasive, for things looked good 
when the 1851-52 school year opened. Surely 
the lower level. of the new Methodist church 



was more appealing than the old building, and 
enrollments were good. Of 101 students attend- 
ing the preparatory department, now headed by 
J.W Sherfy, 20 were in the classical course and 
81 attended the scientific program. However, 
at the college level, there were seven freshmen 
and a single sophomore in the classical course 
of study and 16 juniors and 10 seniors in the 
scientific course. Seventy-eight of the students 
were Bloomington residents, while J. Mayfield, 
called Terre Haute, Indiana, home. 

Fall 1851 and Women's Education 

In the fall of 1851 the question of women's 
education arose. Should girls be included in 
the new preparatory programs or the college ? 
Solemnly, the board adopted a resolution in 
October, 1851, that ladies were "inexpedient" 
as students. In July, 1852, however, the board 
allowed the McLean Female Seminary to use 
the chapel and apparatus for lectures. 

The Next "First" President: 
John Dempster 

Waiting until June, 1852, to seek a president 
was leisurely to say the least. Goodfellow had 
been running things, and the board now elected 
his father-in-law president. John Dempster 
(1794-1863) was an odd choice, for even from 
the first it appeared Dempster would be an 
absentee leader. 

Dempster was a distinguished man. His 
father was an alumnus of the University of 
Edinburgh, who had been sent to North 
America by John Wesley, the founder of 
Methodism. Born in upstate New York, 
Dempster managed to learn Greek, Latin, 
Hebrew, theology, and philosophy without 
attending college. He became an itinerant 
Methodist minister at age 21 and his work 
took him all over America and as far away 
as Buenos Aires, where he spent seven years. 
In 1847, however, he was in Concord, New 
Hampshire, starting a Biblical institute. It 
flourished and later moved to Boston, where 



'I 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



I >i-.\Mii< Ami; II 1 1 




it became the oldest segment of Boston 
University. He resigned his post in Concord, 
when he was elected president of Illinois 
Wesleyan by the trustees on June 7, 1852. 

However, Illinois Wesleyan University 
founder Reuben Andrus wrote in his 
Reminiscences that: "Dr. Dempster's appointment 
to the Presidency was understood to be only 
nominal . . . and to this arrangement he con- 
sented in deference mainly, it was believed, to 
the wishes of his son-in-law, Prof. Goodfellow." 
Consequently, the Board of Trustees appointed 
Goodfellow to act as president pro tern of the 
University in Dempster's absence. 

Dempster's role at Illinois Wesleyan is still 
debated, if only to discover what it was. Some 
historians write that he resigned his Concord 
position once he was chosen president in 
Bloomington, while others maintain he was 
never in Bloomington, even once. There is no 
doubt that he did preside at the first commence- 
ment, but his strange presidency ended in June, 
1854, when he concluded that he would start 
another Bible institute in the Chicago area. He 
headed north and began what is now Garrett 
Theological Seminary of Northwestern 
University. 

Andrus Leaves 

One of the stranger events in the first few years 
of Illinois Wesleyan was the departure of Reuben 
Andrus. At the first session of the July, 1852, 



board meeting, trustees heard that Andrus did 
not want to continue as professor of mathemat- 
ics and natural philosophy. However, the next 
day they elected him to just that position. He 
also was chosen corresponding secretary of the 
board. The very next day, as the same meeting 
continued, he was made fiscal agent as well, 
whereupon he resigned as professor. The board 
then turned to electing a new mathematics pro- 
fessor, only to find Andrus one of the nominees, 
though someone else was chosen. 

Chances may be Andrus was miffed after 
being passed over for president, for he went 
on to a most interesting career. He was next 
principal of an academy at Springfield, president 
of Quincy College (later named Chaddock) 
from 1866-67, and served as president of Asbury, 
now known as DePauw, from 1872-75. 

The First Catalogue 

Dempster did little as Illinois Wesleyan presi- 
dent, but he may have had a hand in producing 
the first catalogue, which appeared in the fall of 
1852, though it purported to describe the year 
1851-52. It perhaps made Illinois Wesleyan look 
like more of a college than it was. For in the fall 
of 1852 there was a faculty of five (one of whom 
had left, another, the president, who almost 
never was there). Yet the catalogue could name 
eight students in the classical college course and 
26 students in the scientific course. There was 
an astounding 101 students in the preparatory 
course and the catalogue goes on to outline the 
full course of study, text by text, for both levels. 
The library already numbered 1,000 books, but 
the big surprise was 1,700 scientific specimens, 
a collection that would grow to significant size 
in the 19th century. German was a modem 
language, not quite offered. The University had 
found a teacher, if any student was interested, 
but it appeared none had been so far. The cata- 
logue reported that building would begin on 
a "New College Edifice" next year, while class 
work continued in the Methodist church, which 
could accommodate up to 150. 



Continuity & Chat 



-^ 



iH.illT Bt'CINNINi ,s | ( i I )ls..\ in; \\ I |; I I I 



The First Commencement 

Illinois Wesleyan was ready to have its first com- 
mencement on July 3, 1853. Two degrees were 
awarded that day. A bachelor of arts degree, gen- 
erally regarded as the first, went to James Hugh 
Barger, son of the Methodist Episcopal minister 
who had played a major role in establishing the 
University. The other degree was a master of 
arts, in cursu, really an ad eundem in cursu. 
Daniel Wilkins, Jr. was "an alumnus of four years 
standing" from the University of Michigan. 
Normally in the 19th century an M.A. followed 
in cursu, that is in the normal course of things 
three years later. Virtually nothing other than 
receiving the degree needed to be done. Colleges 
also gave local residents their own degrees 
comparable to what recipients had earned 
elsewhere — the ad eundem degree. Wilkins, thus, 
got from Illinois Wesleyan the degree he would 
have earned for just showing up at Michigan. 

Adlai E. Stevenson 

Among the University's earliest students was a 
future vice president of the United States, Adlai 
E. Stevenson (1835-1914). Although official 
records of his attendance at the University are 
lost, he tells his story in a 1908 autobiography. 

Stevenson was a lad, age 17, when he 
arrived in Bloomington in July, 1852, accompa- 
nied by his parents, aboard a horse-drawn wagon 
that had made the trek from Kentucky. Other 
sons had preceded Stevenson's parents to 
McLean county, setting the scene for a family 
reunion. 

Education was a concern in the Stevenson 
family. "... the conclusion reached," according 
to the 1893 [Illinois] Wesleyan Echo was, "to send 
Adlai to the Illinois Wesleyan University." He 
stayed about a year and then he and his cousin 
went off to Centre College, where Stevenson 
married the president's daughter but did not 
graduate. He returned to Illinois, practiced law 
in Metamora and Bloomington, was elected to 
Congress in 1874 and 1878, served as first assis- 
tant postmaster, general under President Grover 




Adlai E. Stevenson 



Cleveland and in 1892 was elected vice president 
on the winning ticket with Cleveland, serving 
from 1893-97. In later years the former vice presi- 
dent taught in the University's law school. 

The Board Revolution of 
December, 1852 

Despite a happy first commencement in 1853, 
things were clearly rocky the previous December. 
The community spirit, which pervaded the early 
ideas for McLean College, had fallen apart in late 
1852, when the board met at Goodfellow's house. 
Of 10 trustees who were up for reelection, only 
five were retained in office. The board voted 
thanks to their old president Dr. Hobbs and took 
two ballots to choose James Miller as his replace- 
ment. It took three ballots before James Allin was 
reelected vice president. These facts are not the 
traits of a happy board and a lot of questions 
remained unresolved. 

Trustee Jesse Fell was clearly ascendant at 
that meeting, for he is the author of three con- 
secutive motions that were adopted. Perhaps 
most interesting was the grand conception of the 
building which he led the board to adopt. There 
would be a "main edifice with two wings or sub- 
ordinate buildings situated on either side and at 
convenient distances from the main structure." 
No plan survives, but clearly this was to be a 
symmetrical elegant college structure on an 



26 



Minim's Wcsleyun University 



Bun .in Bi:i.innin< .-, to Disaster Averted 





III lEil 

I I EjIfllJF 





Proposed early 
college plan. Only 
North Hall, with 
cupola, was built. 



impressive scale. Work in 1853 would begin 
with one of the wings at a cost no greater than 
$6,000. 

However, unanswered questions from that 
meeting were: Where would it he built and how 
would it be funded? 

The December, 1852, meeting gave the 
illusion of progress on the building's location. 
The board had been talking about the location 
of a college since February, 1851. At that time 
two trustees, James Miller and James Allin, 
had each offered to donate 10 acres. The board 
thanked Miller and accepted Allin's proposal. 
Complications arose in May. Allin had insisted 
on some conditions respecting his gift. Barger 
moved to go ahead anyway, but his motions and 
Allin's conditions were voted down. Later that 
month the board started anew finding a site, 
and when it sorted multiple offers in August 
the trustees once more chose James Allin's 
proposition: 10 acres north of his house, 
which was north of the city. 

In 1853 and 1854 the board struggled to 
find construction funds. Agents were appointed 
and pledges were made, yet ready funds were not 



yet adequate. Nonetheless, the board dreamed 
in April, 1854, of adding a boarding house to 
plans for the college grounds. 

The prime vehicle for funding in the plan- 
ning of 1853 was selling scholarships. In a plan 
parallel to what McKendree had done earlier, 
Barger and his colleagues planned to build a 
$150,000 endowment by selling scholarships. 
A commitment of $25 brought four years of 
tuition for a student, $50 brought nine years, 
and $100 earned the right to send students for 
25 student-years. The plan had not worked 
well at McKendree and fared no better in 
Bloomington. A year later Barger had sold 104 
scholarships netting only $5,325. 

In October, 1853, the board was either con- 
sidering a new site or was told it ought to after a 
town picnic. In 1899 Mary Hoover's memories 
were distinct. Shortly after she had come to 
town, she and friends took basket suppers and 
like many others, walked up Center Street to a 
picnic "held in the grove that had been selected 
as the site for the Illinois Wesleyan University." 
She was unsure in 1899 whether the picnic itself 
was where Old North was built, or farther west 



Continuity & Change 



Bku.III hh ,I\MM,- h i |l|".\s|] |; A\IK1II> 



and a little north. Forty-five years later she 
remembered the leaves of red, gold, and brown 
against the steel blue sky, an altogether brilliant 
outing. 

Work actually began on the Allin site. 
Lumber and other materials were gathered for 
construction. Yet very strangely in June, 1854, 
the board raised anew the whole question of 
location. Once more there were three sites, in 
addition to Allin's, that remained live options. 
Linus Graves offered 10 acres on Grove Street, 
near the Illinois Central depot, Kersey Fell 
offered land near the two railroads, and finally 
nurseryman Franklin Kelsey Phoenix had a 
proposition. 

Phoenix would sell Illinois Wesleyan 8.5 
acres "including his fine grove situated a little 
east of Main Street and north of the city." If 
the trustees accepted the offer, he would give 
$1,000, half in cash to the University, the other 
half in trees and shrubs. Immediately the board 
learned that if the Phoenix site was accepted, 
there would be four pledges of $500, including 
ones from David Davis, William Allin, and 
James Allin. It was a proposition hard to resist 
and immediately the Allin site was given up. 
Illinois Wesleyan would rise on the Phoenix 
nursery grounds. 

Bloomington as a College Town 

In the summer of 1854 Bloomington surely 
saw itself as a college town, but Illinois Wesleyan 
was only marginally part of that scene. Daniel 
Wilkins, who received an M. A. at the first 
commencement, was now head of the Central 
Illinois Female College. After the University of 
Michigan, Wilkins had traveled about teaching 
landscape painting, settling in Bloomington in 
1851. His college opened in 1853, and that first 
fall Wilkins had 221 pupils at the school and 
college levels in an old seminary building at 
Main and Olive. Many of his trustees were also 
on the Illinois Wesleyan board. If Illinois 
Wesleyan had one college graduate by 1854, 
so did the Central Illinois Female College, 



which awarded Sarah Funk the degree Mistress 
of the Liberal Arts. The college lasted at least 
until 1857, when it seems to have migrated to 
Abingdon, Illinois, where Hedding took the 
official name Hedding Seminary and Central 
Illinois Female College. 

Then there was the colorful Dr. J. R. Freeze, 
who built College Hall on Center Street, just 
west of the courthouse. There he hoped to open 
the Western Law and Medical College. Freeze 
wrote all about it in Bloomington's first city 
directory of which he was author and publisher 
in 1855. Chartered in 1853, the school listed 
a roster of eight on its medical faculty. Though 
its building was finished, "unavoidable circum- 
stances" delayed regular course work. In the 
meantime College Hall was a veritable cultural 
center for Bloomington with public lectures on 
science and concerts by the Bloomington band. 

College Life 

Illinois Wesleyan was barely a functional college, 
but its students and faculty showed real signs of 
college life nonetheless. That the University's 
Philomathian, a literary society, gathered for a 
program in College Hall on December 5, 1854, 
is about the only record the group ever existed. 
Music brought together talent from many 
sources. Both Mr. and Mrs. Wilkins were quite 
musical, as was J.W Sherfy, head of the prepara- 
tory program at Illinois Wesleyan, who for a time 
was conductor of the new Musical Association, 
which performed at College Hall. Vocal music 
was part of the program at the Female College, 
even though one business leader threatened to 
withdraw his support unless the institution 
stopped what he thought a "waste of time and 
energy." 

Students went to political talks, too, some 
at College Flail, some at Major's Hall, others at 
the courthouse. Former U.S. President Millard 
Fillmore appeared in June, 1854, and Abraham 
Lincoln and U.S. Senator Stephen A. Douglas 
appeared on the Nebraska question — an event a 
youthful Adlai Stevenson remembered attending. 



28 



Illinois Wrslrvmi University 



[ )| ! \\ hi: I 1 



Probably more exciting to the students of 
Illinois Wesleyan and the Central Illinois Female 
College was the possibility of a joint outing. The 
Illinois Central Railroad started regular service to 
Bloomington on May 24, 1853, and within two 
weeks one group had mounted a special railway 
excursion to a grove 20 miles north along the 
Mackinaw River near Kappa. The next spring 
the professors of both colleges probably arranged 
tor extra cars, for nearly 200 faculty, students, 
and friends gathered for picnics with fishing rods 
and swings. The 8 a.m. train was scheduled to 
take an hour and 17 minutes to run the 22 miles 
to Kappa, but that was part of the tun. All had 
a wonderful day in the country until the south- 
bound train came through Kappa at 5 p.m. 

Summer 1854 

In 1853 and 1854 there had been wrangling over 
the University's site, funding seemed to lag, the 
board leadership was constantly changing, and 
Illinois Wesleyan was far from flourishing. Illinois 
Wesleyan President Dempster was very seldom 
present and in summer 1854 he chose to resign 
to work on his Bible institute in Evanston, 
Illinois. The board voted to "regret the loss of 
Dr. Dempster's presence," an odd phrase when 
some historians have thought he was never in 
Bloomington. 

Things worsened in the fall of 1854 and the 
early winter of 1855. There was wrangling over 
costs of moving lumber from the old site to the 
new one and Goodfellow resigned, leaving the 
institution without a president or president pro 
tern. The board tried, unsuccessfully, to retain 
Andrus again and tried to make Peter Akers 
president. Akers, a trustee, was a Methodist pre- 
siding elder in another area. He would accept the 
post only if it was endowed with $15,000. Under 
the circumstances, that was another way of say- 
ing no. Later that month, the board debated sus- 
pending the school entirely. Andrus was invited 
to return to take charge of instruction, not quite 
offered the presidency. He declined. Contractors 
talked about liens on the college tor unpaid bills 



and the board even considered building on the 
old Allin site. Given all these circumstances, 
comparatively few students were enrolled and 
the board was way behind on paying the faculty. 

Isaac Kenyon, a student during that period, 
kept a diary. On January 22, 1855, he wrote: 
"The Illinois Wesleyan University suspended 
operations this morning, the school not being 
sufficiently large to support the teachers." While 
Illinois Wesleyan wondered what might happen 
next, the hoys acted. Twenty-seven of them went 
to the corner of Main and Olive and somehow 
signed up at the Female College. They were 
welcome there, at least until April 30 as 
Kenyon's diary continued: "The young men 
have been thrown out of the school on account 
of the dissatisfaction of some of its patrons, their 
wish being none but the ladies be permitted 
to attend." 

The expulsion was fortuitous, tor it ottered 
at least a minimal enrollment tor the plan being 
developed by Illinois Wesleyan's loyal Clinton 
Sears (1820-1863). Sears had appeared in 
Bloomington in two roles in 1852. He was 
professor of ancient languages and he was a 
fund raiser. Born in New York, he graduated from 
Wesleyan University in 1841, went to seminary 
in Cincinnati, and served several churches before 
becoming a professor. 

When the board met in April, 1855. Sears 
offered a plan for the future, which was accepted 
in June now that there were at least 27 potential 
students. Sears spoke with vigor as he outlined 
details in August. He prescribed "efforts be made 
immediately and energetically in its behalf by 
opening the school, by providing tor new build- 
ings and perfecting the endowment." 

His plan for the future revealed difficulties in 
the past. Earlier decisions made in one meeting 
had been overturned in later discussions and for- 
ward movement had been impeded by unending 
debate and continual reopening of old questions. 
Sears' plan: he would be president and head of 
the board. Board decisions were put in the hands 
of an executive committee ot five with power 



Continuity & Change 



29 



Bright Beginnings to Disaster Averted 



to act on a continuing basis. Sears structured 
incentives to succeed: his annual salary would 
he $800 plus a percentage of donations raised, 
yet he aimed at finishing the college building, 
constructing a sidewalk to town, building a dor- 
mitory to cost no more than $12,000, and estab- 
lishing an endowment of $50,000. The sidewalk 
was of critical importance. Bloomington's center 
may seem relatively close to the campus now, 
but it was then considered a long, muddy walk. 
Sears gave the board a mandate: if it wanted 
him to do all this, then the building and side- 
walk must be finished by October. The board 
agreed and suddenly Illinois Wesleyan had a 
president, its first in residence. 

Optimism was premature. The building and 
the sidewalk were completed after Sears provid- 
ed part of the funds for the sidewalk himself. Yet 
fund-raising lagged, and at the board's meeting 
in July, 1855, the first ever in the "College 
Building," Sears had not raised the funds he 
had hoped. When the board saw the numbers, 
it realized the president had been paid a salary 
$60 less than Sears had spent himself on the 
sidewalk. Sears quit. After he left in October, 
1856, Sears was pastor of Methodist churches in 
Springfield and Urbana, Illinois, and Cincinnati. 
He was a chaplain with the 95th Ohio 
Volunteers during the Civil War. 

Once more Illinois Wesleyan had no presi- 
dent and a very uncertain future. It was a 
Methodist school in a town with many churches 
and two other colleges. In a word the school 
had a sectarian image, uncertain management, 
and no money. The board now hit on a new 
approach: if it was to be a Methodist school, 
could the local conference fund it? This had not 
been part of the original model. The Methodist 
Conference annual meetings in Peoria in 1856 
were the place to ask. In the meantime, the 
board adopted this terse resolution: "that the 
school be suspended until a sufficient amount 
can be raised to pay off all the indebtedness of 
the Board of Trustees." 

With an exiting president, an unpaid faculty, 



an unfunded building, an ever-changing board, 
two alumni (another had graduated in 1854), 
and heavy debt, Illinois Wesleyan closed for the 
second time in six years. Most probably thought 
it would never reopen. High on that list was the 
board, which in August, 1856, voted to sell the 
fabled sidewalk and rent the building to "any 
one who will carry on a good school." 

Peoria, 1856 

The Peoria meetings of the Methodist 
Conference offered new hope. Changes will 
seem very subtle to those not versed in ecclesias- 
tical politics. Illinois Wesleyan previously had 
been an independent institution whose rules 
required that a majority be members of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. Other than that, it 
was an independent corporation with a self- 
perpetuating board. The old board now offered 
to turn over control completely to the Illinois 
Conference in the south of the state and the 
new Peoria Conference. The conferences would 
choose trustees and the expectation was they 
would provide funds directly. The University 
would become a church agency "under their 
exclusive control." 

Delegates to both conferences agreed to the 
proposition. Motions adopted stipulated a new 
charter reflecting the organizational changes and 
the name was to "be so changed as to be called a 
college." The preparatory department was to be 
reopened on a solid basis. Within the next few 
months as the conferences nominated their own 
trustees, some of the old community leaders who 
had worked for the dream of a non-sectarian 
college in their community disappeared from 
the roster. 

Probably the best part of this new arrange- 
ment, however, was the arrival of the Munsell 
family. 

The Munsell Brothers 

There is no denying that Illinois Wesleyan 
University owes its existence to the three 
Munsell brothers: Oliver S., Charles W C, and 



30 



Wesleyan University 



[-hi- \- n-i' .Ami-' ii i 




Oliver S. Munsell 



Charles W. C. Munsell 



Edward. The University had halted operations 
in 1856 when perhaps any rational manager 
would have quit. 

To be sure, the University had 10 acres of 
land, hut resting on that property was a half 
finished, debt-ridden building. Efforts to raise 
endowments had foundered, enrollment was 
soft, assets were nil, and the trustees were 
obligated to pay 22-percent interest on a debt. 
Adding to these financial woes was the fact 
that 1857 turned out to be a notable depression 
year, when a financial panic struck New York. 

Ohioan Oliver Munsell (1825-1905) had 
studied under private tutors and then attended 
Asbury College in Indiana, now DePauw 
University. With his father's encouragement, 
after Asbury, Munsell spent a year studying law 
and was admitted to the bar in 1846. "Though 
admitted to practice, he never followed the 
profession," according to An Historical Sketch 
and Alumni Record, J 855- J 896, "as a revolution 
had taken place in his thoughts and plans. In 
September of the same year he was licensed to 
preach." From 1851 to 1854, when his health 
failed, Munsell was principal of Illinois' Danville 
Seminary. Somewhat recovered, he moved to 
Mount Morris, Illinois, in 1856, where he 
taught at the Rock River Seminary. 

Munsell was elected president of Illinois 
Wesleyan in July, 1857. He recognized needs 
and possibilities, so he made a contract with 
the Board of Trustees very similar to what 



Sears had sought. He would come to Illinois 
Wesleyan, if he had complete financial control 
and could select the faculty. Surely the most 
amazing part of this arrangement was his plan 
to run the University for three years at his own 
personal expense. Who could resist? 

His brother Charles W C. Munsell 
(1822-1915) was to be financial agent and 
trustee of the University. Also a native of Ohio, 
Charles Munsell came to Illinois in 1832 and 
was admitted to the Methodist ministry in 1846. 
He already had played a key role in raising funds 
for founding Illinois seminaries in Danville and 
Shelbyville. 

The Munsell agenda aimed at improving 
finances by $75,000 to pay off debts, erecting 
additional facilities, and building an endow- 
ment. On July 31, 1857, the Daily Pantagraph 
reported on Munsell's progress, observing that 
"doubtless many of the citizens of Bloomington 
have been led to consider the Illinois Wesleyan 
University as defunct, to use a vulgar but expres- 
sive word." But, the newspaper added, "it is, 
perhaps, time that such a mistaken notion 
should be corrected." While Munsell had 
not raised all the money needed, the Daily 
Pantagraph reported that "the Trustees have 
made arrangements for the opening of the 
University this coming fall and are able to 
assure the public that the Institution, so far as 
the maintenance of the school for three years 
to come is concerned, is upon a reliable basis." 



Continuity & Change 




A vocal quintet from 1868 with Joseph Fifer, 
Governor of Illinois 1870-74, middle, seated. 



For three years a third Munsell brother, 
Edward B., was part of the University. From 
the fall of 1858 to 1861 he was professor of 
mental and moral science. 

Back in Business 

Oliver and Charles Munsell were undaunted by 
neither troubled finances nor the Panic of 1857. 
They got the University back in business. The 
Munsells found money to complete the building 
or "College Edifice" as it was then called. In 
September, 1857, 17 students started courses. 



Within a week, however, six of these 1 7 bad 
left school because, as Munsell in later years 
recalled, "They said it was so lonesome. The 
students advised the faculty to leave also, but 
we stayed." 

Munsell even organized a second catalogue, 
which came out in the summer of 1858. One- 
can count the improvements. The College 
Edifice was described as "new, spacious and 
convenient; beautifully located in a pleasant 
grove." It had recitation rooms and a chapel, 
the library was growing, and "philosophical and 



Illinois Wesh 



Bright Beginnini is ro I Usaster Averted 



chemical apparatus" (a standard term for 
scientific equipment) had been bought from 
eastern cities. 

Munsell cast a broad appeal for students. 
Though Illinois Wesleyan had Methodist 
support, it was not just for Methodists. Daily 
chapel was required, but students were allowed 
to attend any of the seven churches in town on 
Sundays. Students were prohibited from amuse- 
ments on Sundays, as well as being absent from 
their rooms "at improper hours," they couldn't 
drink, write on furniture, wear firearms, contract 
debts, use profane language, or refuse compli- 
ance with any faculty requirement. 

In the fall of 1858 Illinois Wesleyan still 
had a long way to go. The new edifice would 
house instruction facilities for 250 students. 
The catalogue listed three sophomores, four 
freshmen, and 40 in the preparatory department. 
For financial purposes Munsell must have been 
delighted to have 1 3 additional students even 
though they were "irregulars." The next two falls 
the composite enrollment hovered around 90 
students. Gradually students came and stayed, 
regular catalogues appeared, and the roster of 
preparatory students, college students, and 
graduates grew. 

In 1860 Oliver Munsell's three-year 
contract was up and financial control reverted 
to the Board of Trustees. However, Munsell 



insisted on financial discipline, and the Board 
of Trustees agreed. 

The catalogue for 1857-58 shows a surpris- 
ingly interesting university for an institution 
that so recently was in a perilous condition. 
There was a faculty of five for a college-student 
population of 20 at most. 

By the end of the 1850s, Illinois Wesleyan's 
financial complexion was brighter. The 
University's accounts in 1858-59 showed 
$11,700 in resources versus $12,584 in liabili- 
ties. The $25,000 endowment campaign was 
going well and by October 12, 1859, only 
$1,250 of the $25,000 remained to be raised. 
Ninety-two students enrolled for the 1860-61 
school year on the eve of civil war, including 
two seniors, six juniors, eight sophomores, 16 
freshmen, and 60 preparatory students. 

The Daily Pantagraph reported on July 4, 
1860, Independence Day, that the "Messrs. 
Munsell Bros, are laudably expending much 
money and labor to make their Institution 
what it ought to be and we trust their labors 
of love may early begin to meet their merited 
reward. They speak cheerfully of the prospects 
of the Institution and think the school will 
be large this fall, should the crops turn out 
favorably." 



Continuity & Change 



33 



■ : 'A%^-° 



Vi>.,i: 




"tff,7*W 



W! 



mm 








III. Tlie C 



I V I 



ar to 1888 
A v^ollege and Um versify Become I 



C?:! 



lity 




braham Lincoln's election as president of the United States 
crystallized the national political forces and the simmering 
debate over slavery that drove the nation to civil war in the 
early hours of April 12, 1861. 



Old Mam, later 
Hedding Hall, was 
the center of campus 
life from 1871 until its 
demolition in 1967. 



Confederate forces took Fort Sumter and every 
aspect of American culture was touched for the 
next four years. Paradoxically, compared to ear- 
lier years, Illinois Wesleyan flourished. 

There is no record that Lincoln ever spoke 
at Illinois Wesleyan, but Adlai Stevenson, a 
future U.S. vice president, was one Illinois 
Wesleyan student who remembered hearing him 
and Stephen A. Douglas, a U.S. Senator from 
Illinois, speak in Bloomington. Members of 
Illinois Wesleyan's Board of Trustees played no 
small role in Lincoln's election to the White 
House. Trustee Kersey Fell first encouraged 
Lincoln to run for president, and trustee David 
Davis was a Lincoln confidante. The Munsells 
had known Lincoln since 1840, when the future 
U.S. president stayed in their house and the 
future Illinois Wesleyan president, Oliver 
Munsell, was a 15-year-old. Munsell was not for- 
gotten in Washington, when Lincoln appointed 
him head of the Board of Visitors of the United 
States Military Academy at West Point in 1863. 
Ralph Waldo Emerson, the great man of 
American letters, served on the same panel. 

Munsell set a new model, for he was 
president, professor, and scholar. In 1871 as the 
new building opened, Appleton in New York 
published his Psychology, or, The Science of Mind, 
a book that was to go through many editions as 
the century went on. Future Illinois Wesleyan 
faculty would henceforth be publishing scholars 
as well. 

On the eve of the Civil War, Illinois 
Wesleyan with its 92 students was doing the 



things colleges normally did in the spring as the 
Belles Lettres Society had its first annual exhibi- 
tion. Three months after the Fort Sumter battle, 
the University convened its first wartime gradua- 
tion on July 3, 1861, as two more students 
received diplomas. One of the graduates that day, 
Harvey C. DeMotte ( 1838-1904), would join the 
faculty in September as professor of mathematics 
and librarian and spend the rest of his life com- 
ing and going at Illinois Wesleyan. 



**S 




Kersey Fell 

Born in Illinois Regiment, DeMotte found 
his way to Bloomington in 1856. Faculty would 
remember him as a colleague with a "special 
aptitude as a tutor and remarkable ability as a 
student in mathematics." After serving as a lieu- 
tenant with the 68th Illinois Regiment, DeMotte 
resumed his teaching of mathematics until 1884, 
when he accepted the presidency of Chaddock 
College in Quincy, Illinois. In 1877 DeMotte 



& Change 



^ 



The Civil War to 1888 




Joseph (left) and George Fifer 



had received a Ph.D. in absentia from Syracuse 
University. 

The University's first two graduates — James 
H. Barger and W.F. Short — received master of 
arts degrees in cursu at the 1861 commencement. 
Alas, John Barger, the first alumnus, died four 
months later after a hunting accident. 

When the 1861-62 academic year opened, 
enrollment stood at 96 students, including one 
graduate student and 45 students in the prepara- 
tory department. Ironically, University enroll- 
ment grew during the Civil War. And by 1864- 
65 the University could count 236 students, still 
all male, 57 in the Model School, 1 38 in the 
preparatory program, and 41 in the college. 

The increased student body came from 
new programs, new funds, good marketing, 
and a burgeoning population base. However, 
students were not just local, but regularly came 
from Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky, Indiana, 
Iowa, and Ohio, as well as Illinois. Even in the 
1850s there had been students from Texas and 
New Jersey. 



President Munsell announced new scientific 
developments in the catalogue of 1862. New 
chemical "apparatuses" were on the way and the 
state of Illinois had provided many new geologi- 
cal specimens for students to use. The State 
Natural History Society had located its collec- 
tions in Bloomington. In 1858 the Illinois 
Natural History Society had brought these col- 
lections to Bloomington, where they were the 
basis of the first public museum in Illinois, locat- 
ed in the Phoenix block on Courthouse Square. 
For students science was not just books, it was 
also fully illustrated "in the museum and in the 
field," according to the 1862 catalogue. 

Early in the Civil War the University's single 
building ran into some tough times when a 
windstorm blew off its roof. Repairs cost $ 1 ,000. 
"When the roof blew off," President Oliver 
Munsell said, "people thought it a misfortune, 
but I thought it a blessing. For the citizens of 
Bloomington came to our help and by their aid 
we got a new and better roof." 



Illinois Wcsleyan University 



The Civil War to 1888 



The University and the Civil War 

In 1942 the Argus researched Illinois Wesleyan's 
rule in the Civil War and found that many stu- 
dents found their way into a volunteer company 
of 200 that entered the conflict as a state militia 
guard unit. In time the company petitioned for 
regular status and became part of the 68th regi- 
ment stationed at Wheeling, West Virginia. 

Sophomore George H. Fifer enlisted in the 
Union army on August 10, 1861. He died oi 
wounds received during the attack on Fort 
Esperanza, Texas, in the winter oi' 1863, making 
him the first alumnus battlefield casualty. 

George Fifer's younger brother, Joseph ( 1 840- 
1938), also served in the Union army. He was a 
member of the class of 1868 and the 37th stu- 
dent to earn an Illinois Wesleyan diploma. On 
July 1 3, 1863 — just days after Union victories at 
Vicksburg in the west and Gettysburg in the 
east — "Private Joe" was severely wounded on a 
Jackson, Mississippi, battlefield. He survived the 
war, entered law and politics, and in 1888, at age 
48, he was elected the 19th governor of Illinois. 



From his house on Bloomington's Franklin 
Square, he remained a loyal alumnus and led 
the citizens' committee of 1899, which raised 
enough money to clear a deficit that threatened 
to close the enterprise. Like Adlai Stevenson, he 
later taught in the law school. 

Illinois Wesleyan in Wartime 

Despite the ravages of war, the academic calen- 
dar continued. Three students received degrees 
at the 1862 commencement, including Henry 
W Boyd of Bloomington, who enlisted as a hos- 
pital steward within a week of graduation and 
became a brigade surgeon. Later, he was professor 
of anatomy at Chicago's Rush Medical College. 

When the 1862-63 school year opened, most 
of the students from the 68th regiment had 
returned to a campus continually improving 
under Oliver Munsell's leadership. The museum 
continued to grow with valuable collections of 
specimens in ornithology, geology, botany, 
entomology, mineralogy, and marine shells. And 
after Munsell visited Washington, D.C., a set of 



^^^ft^l 










Bloomington and 
Illinois Wesleyan 
gathering at the 
courthouse square 
to mourn the death 
of President Lincoln. 



Continuity & Changt 



Tin Qvn \V\i; in 



Smithsonian publications arrived for the library. 
More audible than visible was a new 750-pound 
bell to summon students to class. 

Commencement 1 863 graduated four stu- 
dents and one of them became a University leg- 
end. An honorary master of arts degree was 
awarded to Major John Wesley Powell. Powell 
had a good feeling for Bloomington, for he had 
become the Secretary of the Illinois Natural 
History Society in 1861, shortly after its collec- 
tions were located on courthouse square. 

Despite wartime conditions academic initia- 
tives were vigorous. The University first offered 
vocal music in the collegiate department about 
the time it launched the Model School for Boys. 
Consequently, when the 1863-64 academic year 
began, the University had its first woman 
instructor as Sarah J. Kern began directing the 
Model School, which attracted an initial enroll- 
ment of 42 students. With confidence far differ- 
ent from the 1850s, the University built a wood- 
en schoolhouse on the east side of campus just 
for this program. 

Campus Atmosphere 

The atmosphere in the midst of Civil War was 
described in an April 18, 1864, Daily Pantagraph 
account of campus activities: 

"The young men of Illinois Wesleyan 
University will give a public exhibition in 
Phoenix Hall next Thursday evening of a decid- 
edly unique character. It will be a representation 
of the present National House of Representatives, 
in which will be included a discussion upon a 
series of resolutions concerning the French occu- 
pation of Mexico, the President's Emancipation 
and Amnesty Proclamations and our relations 
toward England. This will be an interesting 
entertainment conducted by young gentlemen of 
ability and the friends of the school will be glad 
to witness it." 

The 1864 commencement saw degrees 
awarded to five students, including Joseph H. 
Pancake, who became head of the Model School 
before practicing law in Bloomington until 1891, 



when he moved to Kansas and became a mem- 
ber of that state's legislature. 

As the end of the war neared, faculty met in 
January, 1865, "to consider the matter of raising 
a fund to provide for the free tuition of disabled 
young soldiers and the sons of needy or deceased 
soldiers." On April 3, 1865, the faculty minutes 
contain this terse comment: "Half holiday grant- 
ed. Richmond captured." 

An Assassin's Bullet 

But, as peace emerged from war, a great tragedy 
took place on April 14, 1865 — the assassination 
of Abraham Lincoln. Some 6,000 gathered at 
the courthouse square on the following Sunday 
as speakers expressed Bloomington's sense of 
horror at Lincoln's death. Most students were 
there. 

One of the four students who received 
diplomas in 1865 had a gift for President 
Munsell — a silver-headed cane. And a distin- 
guished Bloomington political figure, David 
Davis, received an honorary degree. Davis 
(1815-86) was a U.S. Supreme Court justice, 
appointed to the nation's highest judicial bench 
by his good friend, Abraham Lincoln. Davis 
served as a trustee from 1852-56. His encourage- 
ment and gifts had been instrumental in selecting 
the Phoenix nursery site for the University. 

By the mid- 1860s enrollment swelled to a 
new high, 198 students — 57 in the collegiate 
and 141 in the preparatory department. There 
is some indication in University records that 
the soldiers-turned-students had some difficulty 
adjusting to civilian life, now freed from military 
discipline. Faculty meeting records find many 
entries along these lines: "punishment for 
willful violation of college rules." 

1866 Commencement 

Illinois Wesleyan's 1866 commencement has 
been described as a "brilliant affair." There were 
a record six graduates, but probably the best 
remembered part of the ceremony was the tree 
planted to symbolize the last four years of war 



38 



Illinois Wcslcyan University 



III! ( [VII W 



and the prospect of future peace. A large ever- 
green tree was planted in front of the University 
hall, an initial living memorial to those who 
were killed in the Civil War. 

John Wesley Powell 

War's end not only brought former soldiers to the 
ranks of students — it brought new faculty. When 
a major from the Second Illinois Artillery joined 
the faculty, the University acquired its most col- 
orful figure of the 19th century. 

John Wesley Powell (1834-1902) was a 



John Wesley Powell 

natural academic. He was born in Mount Morris, 
New York, the son of an itinerant Methodist 
minister. Powell went to schools in Ohio, 
Wisconsin, and Illinois before attending college 
at Illinois College, Wheaton in Illinois, and 
Oberlin, without managing to graduate from any 
of them. He taught school in the 1850s, but his 
great passion was natural history and geology. He 
loved collecting specimens and taking notes. The 
Illinois State Natural History Society made him 
its secretary in 1 86 1 , an office which brought 
him to Bloomington, where the eager collector 
could deposit his best specimens. 

During the war, Powell rose from private to 
major and he lost his right arm at Shiloh in 
April 1862. As soon as possible, he was back as 
chief of artillery for the 17th Army Corps. Never 
forgetting geology even during the war, he was 



out collecting specimens near Vicksburg, a 
famous Mississippi battlefield. After many years 
in college, bis honorary M.A. from Illinois 
Wesleyan was the only degree he had and at 
war's end he moved to Bloomington as professor 
of geology, and curator of the University collec- 
tions and the Illinois Natural History Society 
Museum. 

Powell stayed for only a year, or two, or 
three. Accounts vary. When the new building at 
Illinois State Normal University was completed 
it offered a far better home for the collections of 
the Illinois Natural History Society, which 
moved from the city's square to the Illinois State 
Normal University museum, thus, bringing 
Powell an association with ISNU. But in his 
short time at Illinois Wesleyan, he accomplished 
extraordinary things. 

He gave the University a seal and a motto — 
Scientia et Sapientia. Knowledge is fundamentally 
facts, wisdom is reflective judgment on them, 
and a university education provides both, as his 
motto put it so succinctly. He designed a new 
diploma with his seal. Given his association with 
collections and museums and the great museum 
rooms in the new building of 1871, it is impossi- 
ble to think he was not a continuing influence in 
both program and design. But most of all he 
infused the academic program with a sense of sci- 
entific mission which has never left it. 

During his last two years in Bloomington, 
Powell became the grand embodiment of that 
phrase Munsell had put in the catalogue of 1862: 
science would be "fully illustrated ... in the 
museum and in the field." Those years gave new 
meaning to "field." Powell took Bloomington 
students on the first expedition of its kind in the 
United States. In later years Illinois Governor 
Joseph Filer remembered "my professor of science 
was Major John Wesley Powell, explorer, ethnol- 
ogist, linguist and sociologist, a very great man." 
Those were just the traits needed to lead students 
off into the unknown of the Rocky Mountains 
and the frontier of the American West. 



Continuity & Change 



The Civil War to 1888 



Powell at Harper's 

Ferry, Virgina, May 

1873 with (from left to 

right! Sir Archibald 

Geikie, a renowned 

Scottish geologist, 

Powell, Charles 

Walcott, who 

succeeded Powell 

as director of the 

Geological Survey, 

and an unidentified 

individual. 




A young John Wesley Powell 



Powell with a Pamte Chief 1873. 



■w 



/Mm.,i\ UVsic-v«,i University 



The Civil War to 1888 



Exploring the West 

Powell's first expedition was in 1867. He set out 
across the plains after acquiring assistance from 
the U.S. War Department. Among the adventur- 
ers were Leonidas H. Kerrick, principal of the 
Model School, and three Illinois Wesleyan stu- 
dents: senior Joseph C. Hartzell (later a 
Methodist Bishop of Africa), sophomore Francis 
Marion Bishop, and junior Martin Titterington. 
Kerrick served as mineralogist, Hartzell and 
Bishop were zoologists, and Titterington was a 
herpetologist. 

Meeting at Council Bluffs, Iowa, the group 
deviated from its original plan to explore the Bad 
Lands because of an Indian threat. Instead, the 
party followed the Platte River across Nebraska 
and headed for Denver, where it arrived on July 
1. It was a difficult trip on horseback and in 
mule-drawn wagons, but a profitable journey. 
The scientific team collected many specimens 
along the way. From Denver, the explorers went 
to the canyon of the South Platte, still adding to 
their collections and crossed a range of the 
Rocky Mountains to the base of Pike's Peak. 

As the expedition unfolded, Daily Pantagraph 
readers followed their adventures in dispatches 
from Hartzell. One piece told the tale of climb- 
ing Pike's Peak, difficult under any circum- 
stances, but the unstoppable Powell had lost an 
arm: 

"But climbing nearly to the top oi one of the 
peaks from which the main route could be 
reached, we encountered what had been a great 
slide of rocks, lying then upon the mountainside 
in rough, unstable irregularity. An attempt to 
cross, mules stepping or jumping from rock to 
rock like goats, falls and bruises for both man 
and beast, the snow was reached, but rocks 
continued, the attempt was abandoned and a 
perilous descent began, firm footing at length 
gained in comparative safety, and a new place 
selected for the ascent — all this consumed time 
and muscle." 

The 1 868 expedition west was larger and 
included five students: L.W. Keplinger, a recent 



graduate and topographer; junior James B. Taylor, 
geologist; Edmund D. Poston, a second-year 
preparatory student, geologist; freshman Rhodes 
C. Allen, ornithologist, and Lyle H. Durley, a 
student in the scientific course and ornithologist. 

A trip highlight was the ascent of Long's 
Peak. "There they took barometric observations, 
erected a small monument of rocks in which was 
placed a tin can containing data on the expedi- 
tion," Elmo Scott Watson wrote in the centenni- 
al history. "After raising the American flag, the 
major made a short speech declaring that they 
had been successful in an 'undertaking in the 
material or physical field which had hitherto 
been deemed impossible' and predicted that their 
feat was 'but the augury of yet greater achieve- 
ment in other fields' . . ." 

Powell left an indelible stamp on U.S. high- 
er education as the first professor to introduce 
field work on a grand scale into the undergradu- 
ate-college curriculum. 

Powell's Legacy 

Powell's expeditions to the western frontier pro- 
duced a number of firsts: the climbing of Long's 
Peak, the exploration of the Continental Divide, 
a series of ethnological studies of Western Indian 
tribes, exploration of the Grand Canyon hy 
white men, and maps of the Grand Canyon. In 
1875 the Smithsonian Institution in 
Washington, D.C., published Powell's expedition 
reports about the geology ot the Grand Canyon 
and the Utah Mountains. 

Powell held many interesting posts through- 
out his career: a founder of the National 
Geographic Society (1888), second director of 
the U.S. Geologic Survey ( 1881-94), and first 
director of the Smithsonian's Bureau of 
American Ethnology (1897-1902). He was 
responsible for collecting and recording much oi 
the language and lore oi Native-American tribes. 

Illinois Wesleyan continues to honor Powell 
with a campus monument, and the annual 
research conference, which keeps his spirit alive. 
Powell's connections continued long after he had 



Continuity & Change 



The Civil War ro 



gone to the Smithsonian. Based on his scholarly 
work, Illinois Wesleyan conferred a Ph.D. on 
him in 1877. This was not an honorary degree, 
but it was part of the external-degree program, 
which had begun in 1874- Powell continued to 
augment the University collections and the 
library today displays pieces of Native-American 
pottery, which he gave to Illinois Wesleyan. 

Engaging Personalities 

The years spanning the Civil War to the mid- 
18705 saw many engaging personalities attracted 
to Illinois Wesleyan. They were a diverse group 
of publishing scholars as well as memorable 
teachers. 

For example, there was Bradford S. Potter, 
who was born in upstate New York in 1836. He 
went to Walworth Academy and then taught 
school before he entered Genesse Wesleyan, 
now Syracuse University. After two years as the 
principal of an academy, he moved around 
swiftly through Indiana and New York before he 
went to Baker University in Kansas as professor 
of mathematics. From that post, he was called to 
Illinois Wesleyan as the Isaac Funk Professor of 
Agriculture from 1867 to 1876. He also suc- 
ceeded Powell as curator and was responsible for 
the major museum installation on the third 
floor of the new building constructed in the 
early 1870s. Potter left in 1876, but returned in 
1 884 as professor of mathematics and then pro- 
fessor of natural science until 1892. 

For many years Potter and his colleague 
Harvey C. DeMotte published The Alumni 
Journal, an interesting vehicle for students as 
well as faculty. Potter also was co-author of sure- 
ly the first book published by an Illinois 
Wesleyan student. After some time probably 
teaching, R. B. Welch ultimately graduated 
from Illinois Wesleyan in 1877 and became 
superintendent of schools in Pontiac, Illinois, 
and then president of the State Normal School 
of Kansas. He stayed on in Topeka as a lawyer. 
Yet, in 1871 he was a sophomore, when he and 
Potter published Common Sense Applied to 



Numbers. Printed in Bloomington, it taught a 
system whereby those who learned it could eye- 
ball a column of figures and announce the total. 
Another trick shows how to know — not guess — 
the day of the week for any historical event. 
Only one copy seems to survive, which turned 
up in a Bloomington flea market for $2, a 
reemergent monument to early student-faculty 
collaboration. 

Jabez Jaques (1828-1892) was born in 
England. Like Potter, he too was a Syracuse 
alumnus, head of his class in 1854. He moved 
among schools and churches as a Methodist 
minister for several years until he was appointed 
professor of ancient languages at the University 
of Rochester. Jaques arrived at Illinois Wesleyan 
in 1865 to teach classics and, now for the first 
time in the curriculum, German. Ten years later, 
he left to become president of Albert College in 
Belleville, Canada and returned to Illinois in 
1886 as president of Hedding College. 

Lucien Marcus Underwood (1853-1907), a 
New Yorker with a Ph.D. from Syracuse, was 
the Isaac Funk Professor of Agriculture from 
1880-84. Just like John Wesley Powell, 
Underwood was a scientist who went on to a 
national career. While Underwood was at 
Illinois Wesleyan, he wrote Our Native Ferns 
and Their Allies, which was first published in 
1881. 

Another faculty member from the early 
1870s merits note. There from 1871 to 1873 at 
the bottom of the faculty list was Charles P. 
Merriman, who taught French, Spanish, and 
Italian. In 1849 when he was the newspaper 
editor, he had organized the first efforts for a 
Bloomington college. Now living in reduced cir- 
cumstances, he found part-time employment at 
the venture he had launched. Everyone else was 
professor; he was instructor. 

Academics in the 1860s 

The 1865-66 catalogue reported that the scien- 
tific curriculum had been rearranged to meet 
the wants of students "whose time, means, and 



42 



Illinois Wesleyan Uni 



Tin-: Civil War to 1K88 




The University 
seal on McPherson 
Theatre. The seal and 
motto were designed by 
John Wesley Powell. 



other circumstances do not admit of their pursu- 
ing the regular Collegiate Course." The program 
now took four years and included all the other 
work of the "Regular Course" except the ancient 
languages. 

From the first, Illinois Wesleyan offered mul- 
tiple undergraduate degrees. Even in the 1851- 
52 catalogue the Scientific Department offered 
the degree of Bachelor of Science in English 
Literature. "It embraces," according to the cata- 
logue, "all the studies of the collegiate course 
except the Ancient Languages" and required two 
years after the preparatory department. 

Collegiate Study, however, led to the bache- 
lor of arts degree, "the same as is pursued at the 
oldest and best colleges in the United States," 
the catalogue declared. This program took four 
years after preparatory work and with no hesi- 
tancy at all the catalogue assured students, "This 
course is the only reliable one for making sound, 



practical, and accomplished scholars." 

The 1866 catalogue carried another ot those 
provisions, which put Illinois Wesleyan in a 
league with standard American, and English 
practice. As is still the case at Oxford, the 
degree of master of arts went to any "Bachelor of 
Arts of three years standing, who in the interval 
has sustained a good moral character," according 
to the 1866 Illinois Wesleyan University cata- 
logue. This practice was given tip only in the 
early 1890s with academic reforms enacted at 
that time — and only applied to bachelor of arts 
degrees, never bachelor of science degrees. 

Admission of African-American 
Students 

University trustees approved admission of 
African-American students in 1867. In May, 
1867, there was an exchange of letters in the 
Daily Pantagmph between President Munsell and 



Continuity & Chang 



43 



The Civil War to 1888 




Hannah I. Shur 



an individual dubbed, "Radical," focusing on 
the admission of African- Americans to the 
University. 

The background for this exchange of corre- 
spondence is found in the minutes of the April 
17, 1867, faculty meeting record: "Whereas 'an 
American citizen of African descent' has applied 
for admission to our institution; therefore . . . 
this question be submitted to the Executive 
Board for their decision." The June 18, 1867, 
minutes of the Board of Trustees' meeting said 
that the matter of admitting "Negroes to the 
college" was referred to a committee. Finally, the 
June 21, 1867, board minutes reported that the 
committee's favorable decision on admitting 
African- Americans was adopted. If, after all 
these discussions, the student in question 
enrolled, all record has been lost and this pio- 
neer cannot be identified. Nonetheless the prin- 
ciple had been established and did not change. 

The first African- American graduate of 
Illinois Wesleyan was Gus A. Hill, who received 
a law degree in 1880 and later became an attor- 
ney in Chicago. 

Alfred O. Coffin was another early African- 
American graduate of the University. Coffin, 
who was born of slave parents in Mississippi in 
1861, attended the mid- 1880s, studying biology 
as part of a post-graduate course. Eventually, he 
became a teacher and college professor. 

Clarence A. Johnson of Normal, Illinois, 
was another early African- American student. 



A freshman in the 1 909- 1 academic year, 
Johnson was enrolled in the scientific course 
and served as treasurer of the Munsellian 
Literary Society. Johnson, who died in 1912 
before graduating, was memorialized in a front 
page Argus article on October 29, 1912, which 
emotionally declared: "He commended the 
esteem and respect of all of his fellow students 
and these words from his pen will be treasured 
by many who knew him." The Argus editors 
printed a three-page piece Johnson had written, 
entitled, "The American Negro . " 

First Female Graduate 

When Illinois Wesleyan held its commence- 
ment in 1872, the University marked a mile- 
stone. President Munsell, who bestowed a 
degree on his son, also "was for the first time 
called upon to confer the regular degree of the 
University upon a lady," according to historian 
Elmo Scott Watson. "The appearance of 
Hannah I. Shur upon the platform to receive 
her diploma was greeted with hearty applause by 
the audience, showing a genuine sympathy with 
the 'advance step' taken by the Institution." She 
was the 74th student to receive a diploma. 

Shur (1838-1912), whose maiden name was 
Weatherby, was born in Chesterville, Ohio. She 
married Artemus O. Shur in March, 1863, and 
two years later moved to El Paso, Illinois, where 
she was active in the women's club and other 
organizations. 



II 



Illinois Weslc 



The Civil War to 1888 





Henrietta Cramp 



Mrs. Susannah M.D Fr 



Some trustees of Illinois Wesleyan had sug- 
gested admitting women to the University as 
early as 1851. In 1869 one trustee offered a reso- 
lution "asking for a change in the charter so as 
to admit Females to the University as students," 
triggering a "spicy debate" and the resolution 
was tabled. 

Higher education was already more accessi- 
ble to women with the emergence of new col- 
leges for women: Vassar, Smith, Wellesley, and 
others. During the 1869-70 academic year, the 
board moved toward the admission of women 
and in June, 1870, the trustees and visitors con- 
vened in Bloomington. President Munsell deliv- 
ered a faculty report: 

"Your faculty would further recommend the 
consideration of the possibility of admitting 
ladies as students to the University and herewith 
beg leave to present a resolution adopted at their 
last regular meeting for the year, viz. 

"Resolved, that we recommend to the joint 
Board of Trustees and Visitors of the University 
that the privileges of the University be extended 
to all regardless of sex." 

The faculty recommendation was referred to 
a trustee-visitor committee, which reported to 
the board that they "unanimously and heartily 
concur with the recommendations of the facul- 
ty," triggering another debate over various reso- 
lutions and counter resolutions. Eventually, a 



vote was taken. The recommendation that 
"classes of the University be opened to ladies" 
won on a 17-5 vote. 

The Coeds 

And so women were admitted in 1870. Twenty- 
two women entered the University that year, 
including Kate B. Ross, who was admitted as a 
sophomore, and Delia Henry and Rhoda M. 
Wiley, who were admitted as freshmen, while 19 
women were admitted to the preparatory depart- 
ment. Ross and Martha Benjamin graduated in 
1874. None of the discussions on admission of 
women turned on market expansion, but that 
was the net effect of opening the doors: by 1875 
a third of the freshmen were women. 

The Women's Educational Association was 
formed on June 3, 1874, by "several ladies," 
including Jennie E Willing, professor of English 
language and literature, who was elected chair- 
man of the meeting. Subsequently, the associa- 
tion — which survived until 1892 — adopted a 
constitution that defined its goals: "the endow- 
ment of a Woman's Professorship, and secondly, 
the raising of a fund to provide a home, and 
assist young women who are struggling to edu- 
cate themselves . . .," the 1874 catalogue 
explained. 

In September, 1875, the association leased 
the building, known as Major's College and 



Continuity & Change 



45 



The Civil War to 1888 



opened a ladies' boarding hall. Subsequently, the 
association purchased the Major's College prop- 
erty, located three blocks from the campus. For 
young ladies who wished to pay their boarding 
fees through their own labor, they could enjoy 
"the privilege of one hour domestic work per 
day," which would garner them "[t]en cents per 
hour ... for satisfactory work." In 1884 Charles 
and Henrietta Cramp gave $4,000 to liquidate 
the indebtedness on the property. The hall, 
afterwards, was known as Henrietta Hall in 
honor of Mrs. Cramp. 

Early Female Faculty 

The first woman to hold a professorship was 
Jennie F. Willing. She was professor of English 
literature in the University from 1873-76. Born 
in 1834, Willing earned a master of arts degree 
from Northwestern. Mary Kuhl, instructor in 
German, also became one of the first female 
teachers in 1874. 

Susannah M.D. Fry, who was the chair of 
belles lettres from 1876 to 1890, was for many 
years the only woman on the faculty. 
Additionally, she lived in Henrietta Hall, serv- 
ing as matron. Fry had attended the Female 
Normal School at Oxford, Ohio, graduating in 
1859. She was gifted in drawing, painting, music, 
and literature, which she taught in high schools, 
before she married James D. Fry, a Methodist 
minister, in 1868. 

In 1873 she and her husband traveled and 
studied in Europe. A biographical sketch of Fry 
observed that "during her fourteen years of 
teaching she distinguished herself as a scholar 
and public speaker of great ability, being espe- 
cially strong in literature, history, history of art 
and aesthetics," adding that she "exercised an 
influence second to but few who have been con- 
nected with the University at any time, and to 
her more than anyone else is due the successes of 
the Women's Educational Association." Fry 
received a master of arts degree from Ohio 
Wesleyan University in 1878 and a doctorate 
from Syracuse University in 1881. 



A New Building 

Oliver Munsell excelled at both vision and fund- 
ing. Originally Illinois Wesleyan had planned a 
grand building with two flanking wings. In the 
1850s trustees could barely manage building a 
diminished version of one of the wings. That 
and the school building were now the sum total 
of the facilities. Munsell and his colleagues imag- 
ined a solid future, an expanded university, and 
an appropriate building to house it. 

Planning, architectural and financial, went 
forward. In June, 1868, architect O. S. Kenney 
of Chicago presented draft plans, and so did 
Rudolph Richter of Bloomington. The board 
opted for Richter's plan, which survives in the 
original. 

The 1868 catalogue announced this "second 
University building" which would be a "model of 
taste and beauty." The building was to be five 
stories in brick and stone, measuring an impres- 
sive 70 by 140 feet. In late 1868, the catalogue 
continued, the foundations already had been 
laid, but construction did not go as fast as pre- 
dicted. In early 1868 Munsell had $40,000 in 
pledges, and in June Professor DeMotte was 
given partial leave to act as development officer. 

Yet only on September 9, 1870, could a cor- 
nerstone ceremony be scheduled. At that time 
President Munsell recounted the University's 
early history, reviewing the difficult conditions 
when he had arrived. However, despite difficul- 
ties and roadblocks, especially during the Civil 
War, Munsell was optimistic, seeing a growing 
university in. the years ahead. Many documents 
and memorabilia were placed in the cornerstone 
before it was sealed. Estimates for the structure 
were $65,000, when the board voted to go 
ahead. At contract time it was clear the building 
would run $85,000, and when it was first illus- 
trated on the cover of the 1870-71 catalogue the 
caption trumpeted "Cost $100,000." Dedication 
took place in June, 1871. 

Oliver Munsell was not given over to nam- 
ing buildings with monikers sure to warm old 
memories of distant years. Even in 1881 the 



46 



Wesleyan Uni 



I III ( ivii. Warto 





I III I 111 

1 111 111 1 11111 f 




iti ii a tiny I 




catalogue talked of two campus buildings, the 
"large building" and the "other building." By 
1881 the original building of the 1850s was sim- 
ply the Preparatory Building, while the large 
building seemed to have no name at all. It was 
probably just "the University." By the 1890s it 
was called "the Main Building" and only in the 
20th century would it become Hedding Hall. 

But regardless of the name, the new building 
transformed what the University was and what 
it might be. Illinois Wesleyan now had offices, 
classrooms, laboratories, and even some room to 
grow. Catalogues, yearbooks, and the surviving 
original plans allow a fairly accurate tour. 

There were two laboratories in operation by 
1887, with a new biology lab to be developed the 
following year. Scientific equipment and study 
specimens were points of pride, giving students 
"the opportunities for original work." 



In 1887 the John Wesley Powell Museum 
was finally installed in its special room on the 
top floor. Overall it measured a substantial 70 by 
80 feet. Powell probably had a continuing role in 
stocking it, for "government surveyors" had con- 
tributed plants from Colorado and Utah. The 
Holder collection included 200 stuffed birds, 
there were thousands of shells, insects, skeletons, 
rocks, and fossils. And even in the 1800s Powell 
surely had seen to providing Zuni and Moqui 
pottery and costumes, together with many stone 
implements. For the curious, it must have been 
just the wonderland it was designed to be. 

Amie Chapel, located in Old Main, served 
the campus' religious needs from 1872-1930, 
when Westbrook Auditorium became available. 
Amie Chapel was named for the mother of 
Colonel W.N. Coler of Champaign, Illinois, 
who gave $5,000 to finish the facility. Until the 



Continuity & Change 



47 



The Civil War to 1888 



Amie Chapel in 
Hedding Hall. 




completion of Presser Hall in 1929-30, Amie 
Chapel was the place for lectures, concerts, all 
school meetings, and chapel services. 

Other rooms in the building were devoted to 
literary societies. The basement had laboratory 
and work rooms. Overall Munsell's new building 
gave the University the notion that great things 
lay ahead. 

Literary Societies 

Literary societies sprang up as they did at most 
colleges during the 19th century. Most campuses 
supported multiple societies, sparking rivalries. 
The first appeared at Illinois Wesleyan in 1859. 
The 1862 catalogue called the Belles Lettres 
Society a "spirited association of energetic young 
men," and it must have been for it lasted until 
1893 through an era of fast-changing clubs. 
Belles Lettres meant a lot to Joseph Fifer, a for- 
mer Illinois governor, who graduated after the 
Civil War. 

"When I was in college," Fifer remembered, 
"we had a Shakespeare Club that met once a 



week. We studied the plays from end to end and 
that stored our minds with treasures for life. 
And, we had a Belles Lettres Society that met 
every Friday night when we held debates, 
declamations, and essays. There is where I first 
learned to talk on my feet. The result was that 
when I went into public life I never was afraid of 
an audience." 

A rival appeared with The Munsellian, 
which was founded on May 23, 1863, and 
named after President Munsell. The society was 
given a large room in the new building, con- 
structed in 1871, which had a stage, a piano, and 
at least 50 chairs. There also was a library collec- 
tion. By 1908, however, the Munsellian had 
dwindled to three members, all of whom had 
graduated. But in 1911-12, it saw a rebirth with 
a membership of 11, including Clarence 
Johnson, an early African- American student, 
and V. E. Ilahi Baksh, a law student from 
Bombay, India, who also was active in the 
debate club. The 1911 Wesleyana, commenting 
on Baksh and his wide-ranging activities, said: 



48 



Illinois Wesleyan Vr 



The Civil War Tii 1888 



". . . you haven't been around the campus it you 
don't know 'Vic.'" 

The minutes from the October 1, 1875, 
meeting oi the Munsellian describes the range of 
the group's activities, which included orations, 
instrumental solo performances, readings, vocal 
solos, instrumental duets, and debates. 

Women wanted to join the debate societies. 
A bad idea the faculty thought in 1870, but by 
1871 women were active in both groups. They 
staged a first in February, 1872 with a debate on 
women's suffrage, "the first attempt of the kind 
in the annals of the University," said The Alumni 
Journal. 

It was in the Munsellian hall that a dozen 
students met in 1878 to start a third literary soci- 
ety, The Adelphic, named in honor of President 
William H. H. Adams' ( 1875-88) own Adelphic 
Society from his undergraduate days at 
Northwestern University. In 1894, female stu- 
dents campaigned for election to the board of 
the Adelphic Society, but failed. The 1908 
Wesleyana offers a glimpse into what it was like 
at an Adelphic Society meeting: "For the great 
Adelphic meetings, [t]here are heard debates and 
readings, [s]tories, poems, and orations, [p]apers 
over which the wise men, [wjould have pondered 
with amazement — [t]here great questions are 
brought forward, [a]re expounded and decided . .." 

Still another literary group appeared with the 
Amateurian Society, which was organized in 
May, 1890, by students in the preparatory 
department. One prominent member of the 
Amateurian, according to the 1908 Wesleyana, 
was Alan Barnes, son of President Francis G. 
Barnes (1905-08). 

The Oratorical Association, a university- 
level program, was a group, according to the 
1895 Wesleyana, "composed of the regular active 
members of the Adelphic and Munsellian liter- 
ary societies." It sponsored an annual oratory and 
declamation contest between the association's 
Adelphic and Munsellian members, the winner 
of which was sent as the representative of the 
University to intercollegiate contests. 



Literary Activity 

In 1870 Professors DeMotte and Potter started 
and ran The Alumni journal, a title which makes 
it sound like a magazine for graduates. It was and 
it was not. The advertisements show it had a 
heavy Bloomington circulation and at least 
one alumnus reader wrote that the magazine 
brought happy memories of his old college days. 
There also were announcements of weddings and 
new jobs. But the literary societies had their own 
pages and if professors wrote about the 
importance of the classics, students produced 
essays, poems, jokes, and gossip. It was a college 
magazine. 

Other student publications were not long in 
coming. In 1872 The Ventilator's first issue was its 
last, for surely it defined the boundaries of the 
era by exceeding them. Even today it is hilarious. 
It would be issued "whenever the mental and 
moral atmosphere of Bloomington becomes 
noisome, and demands purification." The writers 
lacked the imagination to make up names. They 
just used real ones in explaining how com- 
mencement honors were handled: relatives of 
faculty and sons of Methodist ministers got 
priority in honors, so did students who did not 
play billiards and drink beer (with the exception 
of one, who did both, whom the faculty wanted 
to include). Candidates for high honors also 
were expected to affirm the "infallibility of the 
Faculty." As for President Munsell's new book 
Psychology, they suggested it should have been 
titled Egoology, "inasmuch as the strong person- 
ality of the learned author is visible on every 
page." They noted that he argued against genius 
being hereditary, a logical conclusion they 
thought given his own family. 

Students of the literary societies took over 
The Alumni journal in 1877, when the publica- 
tion became The Student journal and continued 
in the same format. Not without humor, it was 
much more staid and perhaps, therefore, more 
durable. It went on until 1884. Somewhat simi- 
lar in style and format was the Bee, which ran 
from 1882 to 1887, a fraternity-based project. 



Continuity & Change 



4>» 



Tin i imi \V.\n i«> ' 




A SEMI-MONTHLY PAPER, 



KIi ,11 1 Hi i.NKS IV AND |l s| lijl. 



Subscription Price. 80c a Y< 



The Avenger Pub. Co. 



Things heated up in fall 
1887, when the faculty 
ruled that student papers 
should he balanced, open 

to all, not partial to literary societies, fraternities, 
or independents. Ignoring the rule The Elite 
Journal (1887-1892) continued the style of the 
Student Journal with a literary society focus, 
which prompted Greek interests, as they called 
themselves, to launch The Oracle. Good students 
of Aristotle know he divided the world into 
Greeks and others, known collectively as 
Barbarians. Accordingly in February, 1888, "the 
Barbarians" produced The Avenger, still a third 
paper, printed anonymously on pink paper and 
scattered by town newsboys. For weeks the cam- 
pus wondered who did it, as the papers ques- 
tioned the propriety of professors showing frater- 
nity favoritism amid "the clash and fury of hate 
and malice" surrounding Greek organizations. 

The Avenger's greatest contribution was 
recording the roster of campus activities avail- 
able to the students: three papers, five secret 
societies, three literary societies, two parliamen- 
tary societies, an Oratorical Association, a fire 
department (mostly faculty), an athletic associa- 
tion, a chess club, YMGA, YWGA, three quar- 
tets, a practicing orchestra, a Republican club, a 
Prohibition club, "and a janitor." Not bad for a 
college of only 147 students. 



Lectures in Town 

Debate was by no means 
limited to literary soci- 
eties and students were 
surely drawn to the traveling lecturers and per- 
formers who appeared in College Hall, Durley 
Hall, and other spots near Bloomington's town 
square. Students were surely among the audience 
on the two nights when a Japanese dance troupe 
performed in Bloomington in 1868. And, Illinois 
Wesleyan often organized lectures for the com- 
munity in the 1880s and 1890s. On March 9, 
1882, Bloomington had a chance to see the great 
English writer Oscar Wilde on his American lec- 
ture tour. However, the Daily Pantagraph was not 
kind the next day. Perhaps he didn't fit in. Wilde 
wore a plum-colored plush suit with knee 
breeches, he had long uncouth hair, and he 
spoke in a monotone without regard to punctua- 
tion. The paper concluded that his talk on Art 
Decoration offered "nothing of the slightest 
importance to the American people." But at 
least his Bloomington crowd was bigger than he 
drew in Peoria the previous night. 

Sports 

Intercollegiate contests were not only in oratory 
as the post-Civil War years saw the first appear- 
ance of college sports. 



>0 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



Till: Civil. War ro 1888 




Football team 
from 1907. 



Baseball started as early as 1869 and hy 1874 
a team was successful enough to win the state 
amateur championship, heating the Pontiac 
Athletics 13-8. By 1878 baseball was a regular 
organized sport, strong enough to take on and 
defeat the University of Illinois in 1886, 20-17. 

Football appeared as a student sport in 1874, 
but there was no organized team until 1887, 
when the University colors were navy blue and 
light gray. 

Charles Craig and the Birth of Football 

A football team was organized by Charles C. 
Craig, who had learned the finer points of 
collegiate football while playing for Columbia 
in the mid- 1880s. After transferring to the law 
school from Columbia in 1887, students discov- 
ered Craig had played football in the East. One 
day he returned a stray football to some students, 
using a long drop kick (which was apparently 
new to them), prompting a request for him to 
put together a football team, according to a 1940 
letter Craig wrote to the Daily Pantagraph Sports 
Editor Fred Young, class of 1915. 



"1 informed the students," Craig wrote, "that 
the best way to learn the game would be to get 
up two elevens and mark off the bounds and 
erect goal posts, and start playing and I would 
help them all I could." 

Craig recalled that Illinois Wesleyan played 
its first football game — "under inter-collegiate 
association football rules, and I believe it was the 
first game played between colleges in Illinois" — 
in April, 1887. Illinois Wesleyan played two 
games in the fall of 1887, with what is now 
known as Illinois State University, winning 
both games. However, "Normal" won the 1888 
contest. 

"We tried to get games with the University 
of Illinois," Craig recalled, "and other nearby 
colleges, but, . . . they were apparently not play- 
ing the game . . .," adding that, "In those days, 
we played a faster game, the side having the ball 
did not go into a huddle before each play." 

A varsity football team was organized in 
1890. During that season, Illinois Wesleyan 
defeated the University of Illinois, 16-0. Football 
was a rough game, even in the "Gay Nineties." 



Continuity & Change 



The Civil War to 1888 



In an 1891 contest between Illinois Wesleyan 
and Eureka College it was reported that an 
Illinois Wesleyan player "lost some blood" and 
two Eureka players sustained broken fingers. 

Student Housing 

The University's second catalogue came out in 
1858. The University had but 60 students. The 
catalogue informed those students about "the 
College Boarding House," offering food for $2.25 
a week and an unfurnished room for an addition- 
al quarter. No record survives of this College 
Boarding House. And further, the same cata- 
logue goes on to report yet another "new build- 
ing has been erected on the College Campus" — 
a spot for "self-boarding," where a student could 
reduce living expenses to $1 a week. This facility 
also remains unidentified. 



The special College Boarding House 
disappeared with the 1860-61 catalogue in 
which students were told they could board with 
"respectable private families" in the city for 
$2.50 to $3 a week. Self-boarding was still an 
option in the new building, again potentially 
running as little as $1 a week. 

Fraternities and Sororities 
as Boarding Houses 

Phi Gamma Delta became Illinois Wesleyan's 
first fraternity in 1866. Sororities followed with 
Kappa Kappa Gamma seven years later. 

At first, fraternities and sororities seem quite 
logical on a campus without dormitories. Good 
theory, perhaps true on some campuses, but the 
first house came 33 years after Phi Gamma Delta 
was organized. Before that they were clubs. Tau 




Kappa Kappa Gamma 



52 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



Till: Civil War 




John Sterling 



Kappa Epsilon, founded at Illinois Wesleyan in 
1899, was the first to have its own house. 

In time fraternities became hoarding houses, 
providing food, shelter, and hospitable cheer 
through four years of college life, but initially 
they seemed a combination of literary club and 
secret society. Chi Phi began at Princeton in 
1824, but was abolished in 1830, when there 
was a reaction to secret societies. Kappa Alpha 
started at Union College in Schenectady, New 
York, in 1825. When Sigma Phi and Delta Phi 
appeared at Union in 1827, the pattern of mul- 
tiple societies, and rivalries, was set. When 
Hamilton College started a Sigma Phi chapter 
in 1831, it established for these social groups the 
idea of a national brotherhood with branches 
on many campuses. 

The first fraternity appeared at Illinois 
Wesleyan on December 4, 1866, when six men 
received a charter for the Alpha Deuteron chap- 
ter of Phi Gamma Delta. There is some tradi- 
tion that the fraternity was a secret group for 
two years before its existence was generally 
known. 

Sororities arrived in 1873, just two years 
after the first women enrolled. Millie Clark 
heard about Kappa Kappa Gamma through a 
cousin who attended Monmouth. Clark was 
actually a pledge at the Monmouth chapter, but 
opted to enroll at Illinois Wesleyan as a sopho- 
more in 1872. Once here, she and two other 
women petitioned for an Illinois Wesleyan 



chapter, which was granted November 24, 1873. 

By 1879 the fraternity movement was wide- 
spread enough that William Raimond Baird 
could edit the Manual of American College 
Fraternities, with notes of chapters and histories. 
Illinois Wesleyan was among the schools tabu- 
lated. After Phi Gamma Delta and Kappa 
Kappa Gamma there followed another sorority, 
Kappa Alpha Theta, in 1875. Men were quick 
to respond with Delta Tau Delta in 1876 and 
then two more in 1878: Phi Delta Theta and 
Phi Delta Phi. 

In 1880 all secret societies were excluded 
from the University building and one group at 
least was renting a room in Durley Hall on the 
town square. But, over time, things changed for 
the fraternities were meeting in recitation rooms 
again in 1883. 

A pioneering 14-page newspaper, The 
Oracle, appeared in 1887-88, chronicling cam- 
pus Greek life, the law school, and sports. 
Subsequently, The Athenian appeared, a fort- 
nightly magazine "issued in the Literary interests 
of the Illinois Wesleyan University and its 
Greek-Letter Fraternities." This magazine was 
launched on January 17, 1890, with a two-page 
essay, "The Idea of the Fraternity." Much of The 
Athenian's coverage, according to Through the 
Eyes of the Argus : 1 00 Years of Journalism at 
Illinois Wesleyan University, argued against a rival 
publication, The Elite Journal, which it charged 
was "an anti-fraternity organization . . . that 



Continuity & Change 



The Civil War to 1888 



College of Law 

Class of 1914 

with Scott Lucas, 

future Senator from 

Illinois (top row, shaded). 




employs itself in creating a division in class and 
college politics and interests, much to the detri- 
ment of these rather than to the fraternities 

themselves." 

Alumni Society Formed 

One of the most endearing developments of 
Illinois Wesleyan's first 15 years was creation of 
an alumni association in the early 1860s. The 
purpose of the organization, according to an 
early constitution, was: "To perpetuate the pleas- 
ant memories of college days to strengthen the 
bonds of fraternal feelings and to advance the 
interest of our Alma Mater." At this time, the 



University had 1 1 living alumni. However, pride 
in the University was such that Harvey C. 
DeMotte, class of 1861, was moved to start an 
alumni association just two years after his own 
graduation. 

DeMotte, professor of mathematics, organ- 
ized the gathering on the evening of July 1, 
1863. He was quite naturally the group's secre- 
tary, while his classmate of 1861, Peter Warner, 
was named president. W.F. Short, class of 1854, 
then "the oldest living graduate" delivered an 
address. When the commencement of 1863 was 
finished, the historic roster of B.A.s stood at 12. 






54 



Illinois Wcsleyan Vni 



The Civil War to : 




Munsell Resigns 

With little anticipation or expectation, Oliver 
Munsell resigned as president in the spring of 
1873 and near suddenly the man who had taken 
a project and made it a college was gone. If 
Charles Merriman had the initial idea for a col- 
lege, and John Barger made it an ongoing organi- 
zation, it was Oliver Munsell who in 16 faithful 
years had made it a well-housed educational and 
fiscal success. 

Fallows and the University 

Samuel Fallows succeeded Oliver Munsell as 
president of Illinois Wesleyan in 1873. Two years 



later he was gone. Yet, in that short time he had 
made Munsell's successful college into an operat- 
ing university. And he did it despite the Panic of 
1873, one of the periodic depressions that swept 
the United States. 

The panic deeply affected the University. It 
"depreciated values, prostrated business and indi- 
rectly added greatly to the indebtedness of the 
institution for its main building," what would 
become Hedding Hall, according to An Historical 
Sketch and Alumni Record, 1 853- J 896. 

Fallows, who was bom in England, came to 
the United States with his parents as a youngster. 
After graduating from the University of 



Continuity & Change 



Si 



fin ( vi W.\i; i<> 



Wisconsin, he was vice president of Galesville 
University in Wisconsin, where he also taught 
for two years. Fallows entered the Methodist 
ministry, and during the Civil War was chaplain 
of a Wisconsin infantry unit. In 1871 
Wisconsin's governor appointed him state super- 
intendent of public instruction, a post to which 
he was then elected twice. 

He resigned from Illinois Wesleyan to 
become Bishop of the Reformed Episcopal 
Church and Rector of St. Paul's Church in 
Chicago. 




Samuel Fallows 

College of Law 

The College of Law was organized by Judge R.M. 
Benjamin and Owen T. Reeves. The first class 
graduated in June, 1875, consisting of seven 
members. By the mid- 1890s, nearly 300 students 
had graduated from the law department. 
Benjamin served as law dean from the school's 
inception until June, 1891. He was succeeded by 
Reeves, who kept the office until his death in 
1912. Charles Laban Capen followed Reeves as 
dean, serving until 1924- 

A history of the University, published in the 
mid- 1890s, observed: "In this department, the 
method of teaching law mainly by daily recita- 
tions from approved text-books, accompanied by 
familiar expositions and pertinent references to 



reported cases and the statutes of the State, was 
first introduced. This method of instruction 
proved highly satisfactory in its results and 
attracted marked attention, to such an extent 
that now in most if not all the law schools of the 
country the method has come into partial use." 

It is interesting to note that efforts at co-edi- 
fication also reached the law school in the 
1870s. Marietta Brown Reed Shay, class of 1879, 
was the first female graduate of the law school 
and was the sixth women admitted to practice in 
Illinois. She authored one of the first U.S. law 
books written by a woman, A Student's Guide to 
Common Law Pleading: Consisting of Questions on 
Stephen, Gould, andChitty, published in 1881. 
Shay, who was enrolled in 1877-79 and died in 
1939, won a $50 first prize for the best final exam. 

Law-school enrollment had dropped to 16 in 
1884, but surged to 133 by 1923. However, it 
usually averaged about 60 students. The law cur- 
riculum, lengthened from two to three years in 
1897, combined professional, university-affiliated 
law teaching with the apprenticeship method. 
The faculty included local judges and practicing 
attorneys. 

Classes typically met in the basement of the 
Main Building, constructed in the 1870s, except 
for a time when the school rented classrooms on 
the east side of Bloomington's Courthouse 
Square to accommodate attorneys who didn't 
feel they had the time to go to campus to teach 
their classes. 

By the early 1890s, Illinois Wesleyan 's law 
school had built a solid reputation. The June, 
1893, edition of the [Iffinoi's] Wesleyan Echo 
observed: "The reputation of this college is as 
broad as the whole west. From all parts of the 
land students come to enjoy the privileges here 
afforded. The judges of the supreme court of 
Illinois have recommended it and have backed 
up their words by sending their own sons to 
Bloomington." 

The law school operated from April, 1874, 
until June, 1927, when it was forced to close due 
to its inability to comply with regulations set by 



56 



Wcslc^mi University 



I'm ( [vii War to 1888 




0^1. 




J. Byron McCormick 



Sigmund Livingston 



the North Central Association of Colleges and 
Secondary Schools. Much of the law school's 
history was lost with other University records in 
a 1943 fire. 

The death of the law school contrasted 
sharply with its prior success. During its 5 3 -year 
existence, the law school graduated nearly 1,000 
lawyers, including: Idaho Governor H. Clarence 
Baldridge; Wyoming Governor Lester Hunt; and 
University of Arizona President J. Byron 
McCormick. Unusual for the time, the law 
school also graduated women, including 
Antoinette Funk, class of 1898, who practiced 
law in Chicago and in the public land division 
of the U.S. Department of the Interior. 

Another notable law school graduate was 
Sigmund Livingston, class of 1894, who in 1913 
founded the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai 
B'rith — an organization dedicated to the social, 
educational, and cultural betterment of the 
Jewish people. He also authored the book, Must 
Men Hate? (1944). 

U.S. Senate Majority Leader Scott 
Lucas 

Perhaps the most famous law-school graduate 
was Scott Lucas (D-Ill.), class of 1914, who 
served in the U.S. House of Representatives 
from 1935-39 and the U.S. Senate from 1939- 
5 1 . Lucas rose through the Senate ranks and was 
Majority Leader in 1949-51. He helped to organ- 
ize the American Legion, was a staunch New 



Dealer, and was a stern critic of U.S. Senator 
Joseph McCarthy's (R-Wis.) tactics in his anti- 
communism crusade. Lucas was a civil-rights 
advocate, supporting legislation for the Fair 
Employment Practices Commission, abolition of 
the poll tax, and anti-lynching laws. 

When Lucas first ran for the U.S. Senate in 
1938, Hugh Darling, president of the class of 
1925, wrote alumni: "[Illinois] Wesleyan, the stu- 
dents and alumni, will receive added recognition 
by sending Alumnus Lucas to the U.S. Senate 
from down state Illinois. He will not break faith 
with the friends of good government." 

The School of Music 

Another major addition of the 1870s was the 
School of Music. Music instruction had started 
during the Civil War, when H. C. DeMotte was 
made vocal instmctor in addition to his regular 
duties as professor of mathematics. His task was 
to teach basic music to a chorus that met twice 
weekly. 

Few subjects are more complex than the 
early history of the School of Music, for it goes 
back and forth between University connections 
and private groups. Even the location varied 
over the years and until 1929 practically the last 
place music would be taught at Illinois Wesleyan 
was on the main campus, although DeMotte 
started out in one of the recitation rooms in Old 
North. He used a violin to lead the chorus, the 
University having no piano, organ, or orchestra. 



Continuity & Change 



57 



The Civil War to : 



F. A. Parker joined the faculty of the 
Northwestern Academy of Music in 1871 and in 
the following year he had an Illinois Wesleyan 
appointment as well. The Northwestern 
Academy was at 318 North Main Street and 
offered instrumental work as well as voice. In 
1877 the Northwestern Academy fundamentally 
was acquired as the new School of Music. Parker 
became its first dean, while two women and 
another man taught piano and voice to an 
enrollment of about 100 students. Coeducation 
had real implications for music, for it was 
assumed it was a subject women would want to 
study. The college awarded its first diploma in 
1879. 

Change was afoot in the late 19th century. 
The Wesley ana of 1895 caught the vibrations: 
Parker was out as dean and J. F. Fargo, who had 
been at the Northwestern Academy since the 
1860s, took his place. Laura B. Humphreys 
became head of voice, when enrollment dropped 
to 90, while "the standard gradually increased." 
Humphreys, according to a history of the School 
of Music written in 1932, had returned from a 
course in Europe to take charge of the voice 
department "and to her is the credit for having 
had much influence in developing the great 
voice of Marie Litta, afterwards famous as one of 
the leading opera singers of America." 

Non-Resident and Graduate Department 

The other major creation of 1874 was the non- 
resident and graduate department, all largely the 
work of President Fallows and Professor Jabez R. 
Jaques. 

The non-resident program was designed for 
academics and clergy who could not study in 
residence on campus. The 1874 catalogue 
described the program this way: "The Illinois 
Wesleyan University in being the first to adopt 
the non-resident plan of the world-renowned 
London University in the United States, has met 
an urgent want of the American people, hitherto 
unrecognized in our collegiate system of 
instruction." 



In October, 1874, the Reverend G. G. 
Roberts of Mohawk Valley, Ohio, was the first to 
enroll in the program. The department moved 
along, but only with five or six students a year. 
Professor C. M. Moss is credited with transform- 
ing the program. He was a Syracuse University 
alumnus, who had a Ph.D. from there as well — a 
degree that was taken while he was teaching at 
Illinois Wesleyan. Moss built just such a program 
in Bloomington. Enrollments grew directly with 
Moss' advertising efforts. 

Alumni rosters show a great many Canadian 
alumni of this graduate program, largely 
explained through Moss' Canadian offices. The 
entrepreneurial Moss even recruited an English 
agent, Joseph Fennemore. Relatively few English 
students showed interest, but in 1895 the count 
was 60 Canadians doing degree work. 

Moss left in 1891 to be followed by Professor 
Robert O. Graham, professor of chemistry and 
geology, who built the program still further. 
Graham, an 1877 Amherst graduate, was elected 
professor of science at Monson Academy, a New 
England prep school, before he completed his 
undergraduate work. Eschewing a medical career, 
he became professor of chemistry at 
Pennsylvania's Westminster College, where he 
occupied the chair for eight years. He received a 
Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University in 1888, 
arriving that fall, and remaining until 1911. A 
multitalented individual, Graham also found 
time along the way to serve as a consultant to 
Funk Seeds and the Chicago and Alton Railroad. 
By 1895 more than 400 men and women were 
taking systematic courses of study at home, 
knowing that "rigid examinations will test the 
thoroughness of their work," according to 
Watson's centennial history. 

Far smaller, but still active in its own way, 
was the resident graduate program, which offered 
the MA. and Ph.D. degrees. 

The 1875 catalogue lists the offerings of the 
resident graduate program. The degree of A.B. 
was given and could be obtained "by pursuing a 
course of study for one year after graduation, in 



58 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



The Civil War to 1888 



any one of the following subjects: Philosophy, 
philology, history, political science, mathemat- 
ics, physics, chemistry, natural history, and peda- 
gogics — and passing a thorough examination 
therein. Candidates for this degree must present 
a satisfactory thesis." The University also gave 
"the degree of Master of Arts, in cursu, to, "all 
Bachelors of Arts of three years' standing, who, 
in the meantime, have sustained a good moral 
character, and give satisfactory evidence that 
they have successfully prosecuted advanced 
studies, whether professional, scientific, or liter- 
ary." Illinois Wesleyan awarded Ph.D's to those 
"who shall pursue as residents for at least two 
years, and as non-resident students for at least 
three years after graduation, any one of the sub- 
jects specified for the degree of A.M., shall pass 
a satisfactory thesis on some subject in the 
department chosen by the candidates. The the- 
sis must embody the result of original research, 
and shall consist of not less than three thousand 



Fallows Leaves 

Like Munsell, Fallows resignation was complete- 
ly unexpected when it came in 1875. Fallows 
departed to become Rector of St. Paul's Church 
in Chicago. He was soon the Rt. Rev. Samuel 
Fallows as a bishop of the Reformed Episcopal 
Church, but the general public probably knew 
him best in his later years as a writer. There 
were the books on the Bible and theology one 
might expect of a bishop, but there were also 
books on science and travel, and he became 
something of a specialist on heroes and disasters, 
as he wrote about patriots, the assassination of 
President William McKinley, and the 1906 San 
Francisco earthquake. 

Finding a successor to Fallows was not easy, 
but the board finally persuaded William Henry 
Harrison Adams to accept their offer. If Munsell 
built a college and Fallows a university, it was 
Adams we may thank for saving the whole from 
the brink of disaster one more time, and putting 
all on a firm financial setting. 



President William Henry 
Harrison Adams 

Born in Effingham County, Illinois, in 1840, 
William Henry Harrison Adams joined the 
1 1 1 th Regiment at the outset of the Civil War. 
Like Powell he was a major by war's end. After 
the conflict he finished Northwestern in 1870 
and went directly into the Methodist Episcopal 
ministry at churches near Bloomington. From 
the Methodist church in Clinton, the young 
major was elected president of Illinois Wesleyan 
in 1875. 




W. H.H.Adams 

Adams inherited the strengths and weak- 
nesses of the previous decades. Universities are 
built on funds. Pledges portend future strength, 
but current expenses require ready cash, and 
many of Munsell's initiatives were financed with 
loans. Cash was always marginal and even as the 
great new building of the early 1870s was 
planned, faculty members were asking quietly to 
be paid their regular salaries. 

The University surely had an ominous les- 
son in finance when Illinois Wesleyan became 
heir to a failed college. Finance at Chaddock 
College in Quincy, Illinois, faltered and though 
the buildings might continue as a school, colle- 
giate efforts were given up in 1878, their loyalty- 
transferred, at least officially, to Illinois 
Wesleyan. Henceforth, even into the 1920s, 



Continuity & Change 



59 



[Ill ( 'Ml W.MI h 



Faculty and 

students in 

1893. The faculty 

are seated In the 

front row with 

President Wilder 

(fourth from the 

right) and Owen 

T. Reeves, 

President of the 

Board of 

Trustees, and 

Dean of the Law 

School, (fifth 

from the right). 




Chaddock alumni were listed in Illinois 
Wesleyan rosters, even though they may never 
have been in Bloomington. 

The Chaddock case was all but a portent. It 
was complex then, near inscrutable now in a 
short history, but in the late 1880s a series of 
pledges, notes, financial panics, estate complica- 
tions, deadlines, and balances due led the Daily 
Pantagraph to announce "A College for Sale." 
Adams had labored mightily on finance and lit- 



tle else for his first five years, but adequate totals 
seemed elusive. Real resources did not match 
balances due. The end of the University seemed 
at hand for the third time, when those who had 
loaned the money against the collateral of the 
buildings now would foreclose and sell the build- 
ings "to the highest bidder for cash in hand" on 
January 1,1881. 

Supporters rallied. Others took over Adams' 
duties on campus and he became a full-time 



60 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



The Civil Wau ro 1888 



o 9 ^ c 




fund-raiser. The trustees arranged to have the 
sale postponed and Adams' strenuous financial 
efforts, which then entered a sixth year, met 
with success in March, when adequate cash in 
hand finally ended the uncertainties that had 
plagued Illinois Wesleyan from the 1850s. 
Having gone so far, there was no stopping 
Adams. He continued to work on finance, and 
hy 1887 he was exhausted, but the university 



now had a real endowment worth more than 
$100,000. But, Adams' health was wreaked. 

Rather than accept a resignation in 1887, 
the trustees gave Adams a leave of absence. In 
1888 he resigned due to continuing health prob- 
lems and survived only until March, 1890. He is 
surely one of the heroes in the university's histo- 
ry, allowing every development that came later 
to operate on a new plane of fiscal solidity. 



Continuity & Change 



61 



IV. Wilder and 



)r 



,1 



illiam Wilder and Edgar Smith, the next presidents of Illinois 
Wesleyan, continued the tradition of building a university 
organized around the liberal arts. However, the presidency of Francis 
G. Barnes, the chief executive who followed Smith, marked a brief 
flirtation with the polytechnic mode then gaining favor on other campuses. 




Behr Observatory 
with Old North in 
the background. 



President William Henry Wilder 

William Henry Wilder (1849-1920), class of 
1873, followed his friend William Henry 
Harrison Adams as campus chief executive, 
becoming the first alumnus president of Illinois 
Wesleyan. In his nine years in office Wilder 
advanced the cause of serious science and "seri- 
ous" fun, while Illinois Wesleyan reached new 
maturity as an American college. 

Born near Greenfield, Illinois, in 1849, 
Wilder worked on a farm as a youngster. He 
graduated from Illinois Wesleyan in 1873 and 
moved among nearby towns as a Methodist min- 
ister, a role that saw him elected to the 
University's Board of Trustees. 

Wilder's presidency was marked by extraordi- 
nary vigor: the curriculum was completely 
revised, electives were introduced, the faculty 
was expanded, foreign students arrived, a signifi- 
cant astronomical observatory was opened, an 
athletic field and gymnasium were set up, the 
endowment reached new levels, a women's dor- 
mitory was designed (though not funded and 
built), and the first yearbook appeared, as did a 
companion history of the University in 1895. 
The library grew significantly, a university press 
appeared, and the first endowed scholarships 
were established also during Wilder's tenure. 

Wilder was a prodigious fund-raiser, who rose 
to a challenge. Shortly before his death Hiram 
Buck gave the University a farm valued at 
$15,000, with the stipulation that double that 
amount be raised as a match by January 1, 1893. 



Wilder and his staff not only secured the neces- 
sary $30,000 in subscriptions, but found an addi 
tional $7,500 they could put toward expenses. 
A university going somewhere found resources. 
By July 1, 1895, the endowment was valued at 
about $188,000. 




William Wilder 

Wilder also took important steps to improve 
campus facilities. About $15,000 was spent 
upgrading buildings and grounds, $2,000 was 
paid for an athletic park, and $1,900 for two city 
lots, which were earmarked as sites for a new 
gymnasium and a janitor's house. Henrietta Hall 
was purchased by the trustees from the Woman's 
Educational Association and remodeled for use 
as a women's residence hall. To supplement the 
library, the Wilder Reading Room Association 
also was organized. 



Continuity & Change 



63 



\\ it 1'ir v.i' Hi ,i i'.i. 



President Edgar M. Smith 

The June 11, 1897, edition of the Daily 
Pantograph reported that President Wilder was 
about to tender his resignation to the Board of 
Trustees and return to pastoral work. His resig- 
nation was effective on August 31, 1897, and 
Professor Robert O. Graham was appointed 
acting president. 




Edgar Smith 

Edgar Moncena Smith (1845-1924) became 
the next president of Illinois Wesleyan in 1898, 
a time when America's victory in the Spanish- 
American War made the United States a nation 
with global interests. In May, 1898, the Argus 
reported that "war fever" had broken out in the 
literary college and that "a number of young 
men have formed themselves into a military 
company. About 70 have said they would attend 
drill and the company is one of which the 
school may be proud." Later, the newspaper told 
of some students enlisting in a regiment. 

When Smith was inaugurated during com- 
mencement week, 1898, Professor Robert 
Graham welcomed him on behalf of the faculty 
and students, while Joseph C. Hartzell, now 
Methodist Bishop of Africa and a veteran of one 
of John Wesley Powell's expeditions west, spoke 
on behalf of the alumni. 

Smith was a New Englander. Born in 
Livermore, Maine, he graduated from Wesleyan 



University in 1871, then moved back and forth 
between Methodist churches in Rhode Island 
and teaching at Wesleyan. Later assignments 
took him to New York and Maine, before he was 
chosen president Montpelier Seminary in 
Vermont in 1895. From that post, three years 
later, he was elected president of Illinois 
Wesleyan. 

Despite taking the helm of an institution 
with property valued at almost $400,000, Smith 
found the University $36,000 in debt. The diffi- 
cult times were caused, in part, by the growing 
quality of local high schools, which diminished 
enrollment in the preparatory program. Illinois 
Wesleyan needed more money and a campaign 
was designed in 1903. Smith resigned the 
presidency in 1904- 

First Scholarships 

Efforts to secure private financial support of 
Illinois Wesleyan date to the University's 19th- 
century birth. The 1877 Illinois Wesleyan 
University Catalogue, for example, has a section 
headlined, "Benefactions Solicited," which men- 
tions "the need of a library fund; a fund for the 
assistance of worthy young men and women who 
are struggling with poverty to educate them- 
selves for future usefulness." And, this was at a 
time when tuition varied from $12 to $14 
depending on attendance during the fall, winter, 
or spring terms. 

Only in 1895 did scholarships finally appear 
when the catalogue announced the first two. 
Mrs. Martha E. Cameron gave $1,000 in memo- 
ry of her daughter and the Anderson family set 
up the William W Anderson Scholarship in a 
like amount. Interest from each fund could then 
cover the tuition at $39 a year. 

A Distinguished Faculty 

The Wilder presidency also saw many scholars 
join the faculty who would leave their mark on 
the University. 

Melvin P. Lackland was professor of mathe- 
matics and astronomy in the early 1890s. He had 



64 



is Wesleyan University 



Wilder and Bey< 



entered the preparatory school in 1872 and grad- 
uated from the college of letters in 1878, serving 
as president of his class. He completed religious 
studies at Garrett Biblical Institute in 1881. He 
did special work in mathematics at John 
Hopkins University in 1888, subsequently teach- 
ing mathematics at Chaddock College in 
Quincy, Illinois, where he also served as presi- 
dent. Chaddock was acquired by Illinois 
Wesleyan in 1878. 

Wilbert Ferguson, an 1879 graduate of Ohio 
Wesleyan University, arrived in 1894 as acting 
professor of Greek. He was elected professor the 
next year and went on to become one of the 
University's most beloved faculty members. 
Ferguson (1857-1944), who was born in Ohio, 
worked at times as a schoolteacher and a news- 
paperman. He was elected assistant professor of 
ancient languages at Adrian College in 
Michigan in 1882, assuming the post of chair of 
Greek the next year, where he remained until 
1894- During that time, however, he spent two 
years studying in Germany. 

Robert Benson Steele, who was born on a 
Wisconsin farm, joined the faculty as professor of 
Latin in 1891. Steele, an 1883 University of 
Wisconsin graduate, taught school for two years 
before entering John Hopkins University for 
graduate work. In 1886 he was elected professor 
of Latin at Ohio's Antioch College, but reen- 
tered Hopkins in 1888, receiving a master's 
degree in 1889 and a Ph.D. in 1890, when he 
was elected professor of Latin at St. Olaf College 
in Northfield, Minnesota. 

Steele had a reputation as a wide-ranging 
scholar, a precursor to the multitalented liberal- 
arts philosophy of the 1990s and beyond. He "is 
not only a master of his own department," a 
biography pointed out, "but is perfectly at home 
in history, English literature, Greek and philoso- 
phy. For several years he has had charge of the 
English classics in the preparatory school and 
directed the study and composition required." 
He published widely on Latin authors. 



Martha Luella Denman was named Charles 
Cramp Professor oi Belles Lettres in 1894. A 
McLean County native and an orphan, Denman 
traveled widely as an undergraduate studying at 
the State Normal School in Normal, Illinois and 
Smith College before she graduated fr< >m the 
University of Michigan in 1893. 

Morton J. Elrod was a worthy successor to 
John Wesley Powell. Elrod, who was born in 
Pennsylvania in 1863, but spent his childhood 
in Iowa, graduated from Simpson College in 
1887 and worked as a schoolteacher. President 
Wilder hired Elrod in 1888 as an assistant 
teacher in the science department. He was 
appointed an adjunct professor of natural science 
the next year and was elected professor of biolo- 
gy and physics in 1891. He also was curator of 
the museum and like Powell he led student 
explorations to the Rocky Mountains in 1894 
and to Yellowstone Park in 1895. Professor 
Denman of English also went on the 
Yellowstone trip. Elrod was a prodigious writer, 
from studies of the butterflies and shells of 
Montana to guidebooks to Glacier National 
Park. 

The First International Students 

Life at Illinois Wesleyan changed in August, 
1889, when the first international students 
arrived. Tokyo residents Y. Osawa and K. 
Tanaka, ages 25 and 24, respectively, came to 
Illinois Wesleyan to study law. The Daily 
Pantagraph on August 23, 1889, described the 
two as "exceptionally smart," adding: "They 
studied five years in a law college at Tokyo and 
were then admitted to the bar and practiced law 
two years. A year and a half ago they came to 
San Francisco and have been studying the 
English language." They graduated in 1890. On 
the eve of Osawa's departure from Bloomington, 
he wrote a letter to the editor, which the Daily 
Pantagraph printed on September 23, 1890. 
Osawa expressed regret at leaving Bloomington 
and appreciation for many kindnesses. "For my 



Continuity & Change 



65 



Wilder and Beyond 



alma mater," he wrote, "the [Illinois] Wesleyan 
Law School, I shall always cherish with the most 
sacred affection and shall regard the year passed 
within its walls one of the happiest of my life." 

By 1909 Keizo Mitamura, a student from 
Tukuiken, Japan, attended Illinois Wesleyan 
and in 1915 two more Japanese students were 
on campus: Michio A. Nakamura and Keihoku 
Chugakuko. 

Henrietta Hall 

Henrietta Hall had been renovated as a resi- 
dence for women in 1884. Rather than apolo- 
gize for the distance from Henrietta Hall to the 
main building, catalogues pointed out that the 
three-block walk was a way of guaranteeing 
healthful exercise. Fees for residents ran from 
$2.50 a week, with an hour's work per day, to 
$3.50 per week, with no work expected. As part 
of necessary equipment, women residents were 
told to bring an umbrella and a small and large 
spoon each marked with their names. Men 
could dine there for $3 a week, but residence 
was limited to women. 



Deferred maintenance was a problem in 
the 1890s. Needed repairs demanded a budget 
the dwindling number of resident women could 
not support and the women's association finally 
gave up in 1892, prompting the University to 
buy the building. However, renovations were 
scuttled and the building was torn down. But 
the University history of 1895, again with a 
brave and bold stroke, illustrated a beautiful 
projected hall for women. Four stories of ele- 
gant architecture, designed by Reeves and 
Baillie of Peoria. It was to be built for $15,000 
and opened for the fall of 1896. Nothing hap- 
pened, alas. 

Living Options for Students 

In the mid- 1890s students had various living 
options beyond boarding houses and other 
facilities. The first yearbook in 1895 described 
three clubs: The Ross (established 1889), 
Bundy (1894), and Henrietta. 

The Ross Club, 911 Prairie, was started by 
J.P Edgar, class of 1890, in 1889 during his sen- 
ior year. By 1895, judging from a yearbook 




66 



JI/imoi.s Wesleyan Vni 



WllHI:H AM l J .| M i'.H 



photo, 12 men and 1 1 women ate and lived 
there. It was called the Ross Club because of 
Mrs. Ross and her daughters, who cooked and 
served food to the students. Students at one 
table often spoke French, students at another 
table conversed in German. 

The Library 

The library is central in any academic era and 
Wilder had the main collection, which had 
grown to 7,000 volumes, moved from the main 
building to the third floor of the preparatory 
building in 1891. An indoor picket fence pro- 
vided colorful separation from the readers and 
the open stacks. In addition the University 
developed the Wilder Reading Room for news- 
papers and magazines, but the library collec- 
tions paled in comparison to the attention 
given the museum. Indeed, museum expansion 
had been the reason for moving the library. 

The University Museums 

The museums with its two large rooms on the 
second floor of the college building was clearly 



the glory of the University. The library got 
three pages in the 1895 University history, 
while the museum received seven pages. George 
W Lichtenthaler died in San Francisco in 1893, 
leaving Illinois Wesleyan his collection of 
10,000 species of shells, 1,000 species of marine 
algae, and 500 species of ferns, fittingly all dis- 
played in the Lichtenthaler Museum. Another 
room was the Cunningham Museum, where stu- 
dents and townspeople alike could see Zuni and 
Moqui utensils, pottery, articles of dress, and 
other items from John Wesley Powell, a collec- 
tion of about 1,000 insects from Dr. Benjamin 
Walsh, and a miscellaneous collection of birds, 
reptiles, and mammals from Idaho. 

George Vasey, a botanist at the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, donated a large col- 
lection of plant specimens. The herbarium in 
the museum, thus, had most of the plants of 
Illinois and a great number from Colorado and 
Utah. Another donor had given 200 specimens 
of birds, plus some preserved mammals and rep- 
tiles, while President William Adams had given 
a collection of fossils from the Cincinnati area. 










Continuity & Chunijv 



67 



\\'i! in; wi> Beyond 



The Observatory 

C. A. Behr of Chicago presented the University 
with an 18.5-inch diameter telescope in 1895. 
The instrument was made in England and the 
observatory rose with its distinctive cone-shaped 
roof to become the third building on the main 
campus block. The observatory, named for Behr, 
also included a visual and photographic spectro- 
scope, a duplicate of one used in an observatory 
in Potsdam, Germany. Once complete, this 
installation was capable of serious research and 
accounts at the time ranked the new telescope as 
the eighth largest in the United States. 

Undergraduate Curriculum 

The 1890s brought considerable revision to the 
undergraduate curriculum, as electives arrived at 
Illinois Wesleyan. 

Through these reforms there were now four 
undergraduate degrees. All required 47 term- 
length courses, with most of the work specified 
just as in the old curriculum. Students, however, 
were given the option of filling out the required 
number of courses with anything they might 
choose to elect themselves. 

There was no major involved in any of these 
degree programs. Majors came only in 1932. By 
choosing one of the four degrees students select- 
ed an area of vague specialization, but one far 
from what we would call a major today. 

Whether there were majors or not, science 
remained a curricular focus. In addition to the 
observatory and museum collections, there was 
the new Shellabarger Laboratory for advanced 
work in chemistry. In addition, the Henry S. 
Swayne Private Laboratory, a new facility first 
described in the 1894 University catalogue, was 
called a "thoroughly equipped and highly expen- 
sive laboratory" suited for special and research 
work, offering students "unexcelled advantages." 

The Fine Arts 

President Wilder was ready to build programs in 
the fine arts basically through corporate 
takeover. The 1890 annual meeting of the Board 



of Trustees added an art school and a music 
school to the University brand. Both already 
were flourishing independently in Bloomington. 

Music at Illinois Wesleyan 

Bloomington was a musical town. There were 
many concerts and music stores, and commercial 
music teachers flourished together along 
Bloomington's Main Street. 

The School of Music had grown continually 
since 1877, despite unstable leadership. C. 
Morris Campbell became dean in 1877, the 
fourth in six years to begin the task. Yet, there 
were 150 students from Colorado, Kentucky, 
Missouri, and Florida as well as Illinois, studying 
piano, violin, organ, clarinet, voice, harmony, 
and music theory. John R. Gray became the sixth 
dean in 1889 and he and Wilder moved boldly. 
The success of the University programs did not 
preclude other independent music schools, even 
in a town of 10,000. The Bloomington 
Conservatory of Music was doing well and it was 
now merged with the Illinois Wesleyan school. 
The next catalogue touted the new College of 
Music as "one of the largest and best equipped 
musical schools in the West." 

Like a merged corporation, the new school 
had two co-directors. John R. Gray had run the 
University programs, while Oliver Ross Skinner 
had been head of the conservatory. Born in Lake 
Zurich, Illinois, in 1864, Skinner had studied 
piano, organ, and theory in Berlin before coming 
to Bloomington in 1887 to run the conservatory. 
However, Mrs. Gray was waiting in the wings. 

The new music faculty consisted of eight, 
who taught piano, organ, violin, and vocal music 
to students of many ages, most of them not oth- 
erwise students at the University. The new 
Hoblit Building was erected on North Main 
Street in Bloomington in 1897 and the 
University's College of Music occupied the entire 
second floor and part of the third floor. In terms 
of the number of students enrolled, it was the 
University's largest enterprise. In 1888 before the 
merger, the University had counted 110 music 



<„s 



Illinois Wesleyan Ui 



WllliHi AND RhVDNI) 



students in all categories. After the merger the 
number was never under 500 through the 1890s. 

John Gray died of measles in 1893, where- 
upon the College of Music had a new co-direc- 
tor, Mrs. John R. Gray. She, too, was a musician, 
who had studied in Leipzig before coming to 
Bloomington with her husband. She comes 
through as a formidable figure, determined to be 
Mrs. John R. Gray, even after her husband's 
death. She even signed diplomas "Mrs. John R. 
Gray." She and Skinner led the school together 
until 1907 and she remained another year. 




The Wilson School of Art 

Oscar L. Wilson had a school of art in 
Bloomington. He was transformed into a profes- 
sor at the Wilson School of Arts, when it affiliat- 
ed with Illinois Wesleyan. Wilson led a faculty of 
14, offering instruction in 16 subjects to 162 stu- 
dents. 

The art faculty specialized in subjects ranging 
from crayon drawing, painting of landscapes and 
still lifes in oil, and water-colors, to china paint- 
ing, flower painting in oils, architectural drawing, 
and photography. The close relationship between 
students and instructors was emphasized with this 
statement in the 1891 catalogue: "Students are 
taught individually and allowed to advance as 
rapidly as their ability permits — but no more so." 

The 1895 yearbook described the Wilson 
College as having "won a foremost position 
among the art schools of the West." The 1897 
Illinois Wesleyan catalogue describes the college, 
noting there was a short course, which in 1 8 
months qualified "amateurs to teach." The two- 
year course brought a certificate, the three-year 
course a diploma, a five-year course resulted in 
an artist's diploma, and a six-year course yielded 
a teacher's diploma. 

Like the School of Music, the art program 
was in town at 516 North Main Street. The art 
program never kept up with music in strength. If 
there were 162 students in art in 1891, even with 
the interesting offerings enrollment fell gradually 
to 50 by September, 1897. 



College of Oratory 

The decade of the 1890s was an era of oratory. 
Political legend William Jennings Bryan, for 
example, captivated a public wherever he spoke 
and shops were filled with books on oratory. 
Catching this enthusiasm in 1893 Illinois 
Wesleyan opened a College of Oratory, attracting 
an astounding 1 34 students in its inaugural year. 
Delmar Darrah, who had received a Ph.B. degree 
from in 1890, was the college's guiding spirit. 

Born in Tolono, Illinois in 1868, Darrah was 
described as having "a splendid voice, is most 
polished and graceful in delivery, clear and 
forcible in thought, and is a ready and apt 
teacher in his profession." He moved to 
Bloomington at age 15 and was an alumnus of 
the preparatory department and college before he 
returned to his alma mater to teach. 

The College of Oratory taught speaking, 
voice culture, gesture, action, physical culture, 
Shakespeare, and acting. "The aim of the 
school," the 1895-96 catalogue said, is, "to devel- 
op the individuality of the pupil and to create 
expressive readers and efficient teachers." 

By the end of the decade, the University's 
catalogue spoke of a School of Oratory then 
enjoying "a season of unparalleled prosperity." 
Darrah remains an annual presence in 
Bloomington for he devised and wrote the 
Passion Play, still performed annually as a com- 
munity venture. The first commencement of the 
School of Oratory was in 1895. 



& Changi 



69 



Will )l i; AN! i Rl Vi INI i 



The Wilson 
School of Art. 




Summer School Inaugurated 

The University offered a summer school for the 
first time in the mid- 1890s as an experiment. 
Classes for the summer of 1896 were planned in 
preparatory Latin, Greek, history, mathematics, 
German, rhetoric, English grammar, civil gov- 
ernment, physics, botany, zoology, and physiolo- 
gy. Collegiate classes were anticipated in Latin, 
Greek, German, mathematics, biology, and 
physics, "provided three or more persons desire 
to take the same study." 

The organizers were surprised by how many 
students signed up for summer work, a sad com- 
mentary because it was designed for students 
whose "irregularity in attendance or deficient 
preparation" may have thrown them behind 
their class, as well as to give college students the 
opportunity to do extra work. 

End of the Non-Resident Program 

The move to end the non-resident department 
seems, in part, driven by concerns about similar 
programs nationally and their ability to ade- 
quately monitor students' progress. When the 
non-resident program began, most Americans 



who aspired to a scholarly career went to 
Germany for a Ph.D., which fast became the 
degree for a professor to have. Princeton in the 
1860s was giving the Ph.D. as an honorary 
degree for professors and only in the late 1870s 
did Princeton set up a program for earned doc- 
torates, just as Illinois Wesleyan had awarded the 
first earned doctorates in its own program. 

By 1905 there were many American graduate 
schools offering regular, resident graduate work, 
and the market for advanced degrees through 
distance learning was drying up. After many 
years of interesting success, the non-resident 
department of the University was abolished 
under Edgar Smith's administration. In June, 

1905, the Board of Trustees voted that enroll- 
ment in these programs should cease in July, 

1906, but that those already working would be 
allowed to finish their degrees. The last non-resi- 
dent degrees were awarded in 1910. But just 
because the non-resident program closed does 
not mean regular graduate work ended. Not all 
Illinois Wesleyan Ph.D.s were non-resident. In 
1909, after the non-resident program was abol- 
ished, the catalogue roster of students was head- 



70 



Wesleyan University 



Wn I'll' \ni> Blili if-Ji > 



ed by Rabbi George Fox as a resident graduate 
student for the Ph.D., and in 1910 Amos Arthur 
Griffes received a Ph.D. in sociology. After that 
graduate students remained in residence, but few 
degrees were given until the World War I era, 
when a number of master's degrees were awarded. 
But the days of Illinois Wesleyan as a graduate- 
school power were over. 

Days of Glory 

Illinois Wesleyan thrived in the 1890s, probably 
beyond the imagination of any of its founders. 
There were two steady elements between 1885 
and 1900. The enrollment of the college always 
was between 90 and 130 students, and there were 
usually around 450 students on the books, not in 
Bloomington, as part of the non-resident degree 
program. Yet, the preparatory program enroll- 
ment jumped from 120 to 220, the law school 
grew from 29 students in 1885 to 77 students in 
1895, and where there had been 854 students on 
the books in 1885 there were 1,566 in 1895. 

Campus Life in the Early 20th Century 

In the early 1900s, there were only 120 college 
students, but they were the lively center of 
a real college life. Law students sometimes took 
part in student organizations too, and the 
preparatory students had their own activities. 
The literary societies continued with their 
rivalries adding competitive spice to intellectual 
investigation. Publications added more 
competition, as did debate. 

There also were service groups. The Young 
Women's and Young Men's Christian 
Association (YW and YMCA) were popular 
organizations in the early 1900s. The YWCA at 
Illinois Wesleyan was organized in April, 1884, 
and the group's object was to "work for young 
women by young women." The YMCA at 
Illinois Wesleyan preceded the YWCA by three 
years. The Oxford Club, founded in the spring of 
1906, was organized in order to bring divinity 
students into closer fellowship with one another 
and to enrich campus religious life. 



Uprising of the Mules 

The "Gay Nineties" at Illinois Wesleyan was an 
era remembered for some elaborate pranks and 
high jinks clearly illustrating that students 
weren't always attending class or studying. 

One such incident was the Uprising of the 
Mules, recorded in detail much later by Ralph M. 
Green of the class of 1904. The uprising, accord- 
ing to Green's tale, took place in the late 1890s 
and was sparked initially by a celebration mark- 
ing an important football victory — a nighttime 
campus romp marked by a "big bonfire, college 
yells, songs, and speeches." 

After the crowd dispersed, a small group of 
male students lingered, trying to think up an 
"exciting stunt." One lad recalled that a man 
who lived nearby had a team of mules. As the 
prank unfolded, the idea was to sneak the mules 
from the barn to the chapel, located on the sec- 
ond floor of Old Main. The mules were secured 
and in the early morning hours were taken to the 
steep steps leading to the chapel. 

"Now the uprising began," according to 
Green. The mules were stubborn creatures and 
the "boys had a tough time pulling and boosting, 
but finally succeeded in getting the mules to the 
top of the stairs and into Amie Chapel." 

Now the plot thickened. The lads decided 
to paint the mules with black and white 
stripes, making them appear Zebra-like. "Paint 
was found," Green wrote, "and the job 
accomplished." 

The culprits left the mules-cum-Zebras tied 
to the seats for a janitor to discover the next 
morning. Word spread quickly around campus 
about the episode and most students, according 
to Green, "came to see Operation Downgrade, 
backing the Zebras down the steps, as they 
refused to go down head first. Then came the fun 
of cleaning up the Chapel, unpainting the mules, 
and collecting a fund in settlement with the 
mules' owner. 

"There were plenty of volunteers . . . for 
these jobs," Green recalled, "and after a lecture 
from the [Illinois] Wesleyan President to the 



Continuity & Change 



Wii.hii; \ni> Bhvoxn 



whole student body, all went back to normal life 
on and off campus." 

The Birth of the Argus 

Collegiate journalism took a major step at 
Illinois Wesleyan in 1894 with the birth of the 
Argus on September 17, 1894, a newspaper still 
publishing weekly 106 years later. Poetry and 
oration adorned the newspaper's inaugural front 
page — not hard news. 

There was no way to know initially whether 
the Argus was just another in the changing 
panoply of student publications. For five years, 
beginning in 1887, there was an anti-fraternity 
paper, The Elite Journal. It provoked a pro-frater- 
nity press, The Athenian, of 1890, which became 
the [Illinois] Wesleyan Echo. 

These rivalries apparently led the faculty to 
support establishing a newspaper representing 
the entire University and student body. 
Consequently, seven students from the incoming 
junior and senior classes were invited to publish 
such a paper. The enterprise, according to the 
1895 Wesleyana, met the hearty endorsement 
and support of the Board of Trustees and Visitors. 



The Argus was printed by Illinois Wesleyan's 
own press from 1894-1903, under the direction 
of Wilbert T Ferguson, professor of German and 
Greek. The early Argus staff consisted of five 
junior and senior editors — an editor-in-chief, a 
literary editor, two local editors, who covered 
campus news, and an exchange editor to gather 
news from other colleges. A business manager 
and subscription agent rounded out the staff. 
Until 1912, college credit was given for sufficient 
work on the Argus. 

A Yearbook 

As the years unfolded, Illinois Wesleyan began 
to look more and more like the standard 
American college. Other colleges had yearbooks 
and in 1886, J. H. Shaw, editor of The Bee, pro- 
duced Illinois Wesleyan's first yearbook, the 
Wesleyana. When another appeared in 1895, 
the first was forgotten or ignored, and the new 
one called itself Volume I. Only after another 
decade would "Volume II" appear in 1905. 
Production has been consistent ever since, 
though editors mid-year have not always bristled 
with confidence. 



Tau Kappa Epsilon 

Fraternity House 

circa 1902. 




V 



Wesleyan University 



A New Fraternity 

On January 10, 1899, five students organized a 
society under the name, "Knights of Classic 
Lore." Their avowed purpose was "to aid college 
men in mental, moral, and social development" 
and from this nucleus the Tau Kappa Epsilon 
fraternity began to grow. There were then two 
other fraternities — Phi Gamma Delta and Sigma 
Chi, plus two fraternities with inactive chapters: 
Phi Delta Theta, which existed at Illinois 
Wesleyan from 1878-97, and Delta Tau Delta, 
which operated from 1877-80. 

The five students who founded the Tau 
Kappa Epsilon fraternity in 1899 were Joseph L. 
Settles (1871-1943), a 1902 graduate who 
became a Methodist minister; Owen I. Truitt 
(1868-1929), a 1902 graduate of the academy 
who became a clergyman in Burma and the 
United States; C Roy Atkinson (1877-1930), 
an alumnus of the class of 1900 who had a keen 
interest in music; Clarence A. Mayer (1879- 
1960), a 1902 graduate who taught music here 
after studying in Germany and went on to found 
the Springfield College of Music and Allied 
Arts; and James C. McNutt (1878-1962), a 1901 
graduate who was a medical doctor. They are 
among Illinois Wesleyan's best known alumni for 
their names are memorized by each year's pledge 
class. From these origins, TKE has grown to 300 
active chapters and colonies with more than 
9,000 undergraduate members and 155,000 
alumni. 

On the women's side two sororities also 
appeared. The Eta chapter of Sigma Kappa start- 
ed at Illinois Wesleyan in 1906, the organization 
having begun at Colby College in 1874. The 
Omicron chapter of Kappa Delta was established 
at Illinois Wesleyan in 1908, only 1 1 years after 
the sorority started at Longwood College in 
Farmville, Virginia. By 1910 there were five 
sororities at Illinois Wesleyan, enough to start a 
Panhellenic Council to coordinate sorority 
activities and rules. 



Athletics Take Shape 

Both academics and fun moved forward with 
President Wilder's enthusiasm: teams got a prop- 
er field and there was a new gym for men and 
women, perhaps more for women, at first. 

Spirits and facilities were high when Edgar 
M. Smith became president in 1898. He was, he 
said, "heartily in favor of manly sports of all 
kinds and would encourage their propagation to 
a reasonable and well-defined limit." However, 
Smith also offered a warning that "an excess of 
athletics to a degree where it worked injury to 
the studies would not be tolerated." It fell to his 
era to build regulations as well as fields. 

Teams often supported themselves. On June 
23, 1898, the Daily Pantagraph reported that 
before school had closed for the summer Smith 
had gone "among the scholars with the leaders 
of athletics and succeeded in raising $200 by 
subscription. Early in the season last year, the 
boys raised $125 but it was not used, leaving a 
balance in the treasury on the next term, with 
the exception of money expended for football 
suits. With nearly $300 to start on and lots of 
interest, [Illinois] Wesleyan is bound to come to 
the front in the athletic world." 

In the fall of 1898, C. D. Enoch was hired to 
coach football. Enoch, a former University of 
Illinois player, led Illinois Wesleyan to a 12-6 
victory over his alma mater. The October 14, 
1898, edition of the Daily Pantagraph said: "The 
University of Illinois boys were unmercifully 
dragged in the dust by the lighter but much 
more scientific players of [Illinois] Wesleyan . . ." 
Incidentally, this newspaper report is credited as 
the first mention of green and white as Illinois 
Wesleyan's colors. In 1887 the University's col- 
ors were navy blue and light gray and in 1 892 
the colors adopted for a baseball tournament in 
Urbana, Illinois, were purple and steel. No one 
would hear of Titans until the late 1920s, but 
the "Green and White" had fun developing an 
enthusiastic following. 



Continuity & Change 



73 



Wit Ml: V.I' 111 V ".!' 



Wilder Field 

The same year basketball debuted, $2,000 was 
earmarked to purchase what became known as 
Wilder Field. Students raised $500 toward 
purchase of the "athletic park," located on the 
present site of the [Illinois] Wesleyan Stadium. 
"These grounds," the 1894 catalogue pointed 
out, "have been fenced, thoroughly tiled, and 
put in first-class condition for all legitimate 
college sports which have the encouragement of 
the faculty." By 1907 Wilder Field had stands 
able to seat about 400. 

Football was the fall sport and later year- 
books gave each player and game full coverage. 
Around 1900 President Smith may have found 
money for the "football suits," but the team was 
still somewhat intermittent. The College 
Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin (CCIW) 
was formed in 1903 with Illinois Wesleyan and a 
dozen other campuses as members. The next 
year, football took the field again after a two- 
year hiatus. 

Baseball 

Baseball was the senior sport, but that had little 
to do with winning seasons. The University lost 



the 1890 championship game to the University of 
Illinois, 5-4. Three years later accounts were dif- 
ferent. The June, 1893, edition of the [Illinois] 
Wesleyan Echo made this assessment of the base- 
ball team: "The lethargy that has characterized 
[Illinois] Wesleyan athletics for some time past 
has been cast off in the enthusiasm and success 
that is attending this spring's baseball team. The 
purchase of an excellent park for their games 
inspired the [Illinois] Wesleyan boys to do their 
best." 

Track 

In the 1895 yearbook only football and baseball 
teams appear, but by 1905 track got equal billing 
with an 18-member team. By 1908 there was an 
indoor meet with four other schools, and a series 
of five outdoor spring events. 

Ringers 

Sports had their ups-and-downs in the 1890s and 
were more exciting for it. Lack of rules allowed 
all shenanigans. Two football games in 1896-97, 
for example, were played with "ringers" — non- 
students. A history of athletics, written by long- 
time coach and professor Fred Muhl, reported: 




ace at Wilder I eld 



74 



Wilder and Beyond 




Baseball team 



"Dwight Funk again captained the football team. 
Two games were played and the faculty stepped 
in and threatened to expel the captain and man- 
ager if any more ringers or non-students played. 
The team was disbanded." Funk never claimed 
to be an Illinois Wesleyan student. He was a 
local Yale alumnus who simply liked to play the 
game. 

And, in 1897-98, the Bloomington City 
Council tried to outlaw football. "Dr. Graham 
of our faculty," Muhl wrote, "who also was city 
alderman, had a successful fight in the local city 
council against an attempt to abolish football in 
the town of Bloomington." 



Funk was an amateur. Old Hoss Radbourn 
wasn't. As a major-league player on his way to 
the Baseball Hall of Fame, Radbourn (1854- 
1897) invented the curve ball. He won 60 games 
one year and when his arm gave out he came 
back to Bloomington and ran a saloon and bil- 
liard parlor, except for those great afternoons 
when he went out to pitch for the Illinois 
Wesleyan team. 

The issue of "ringers" evidently still was alive 
after the turn of the 20th century. The 1908 cat- 
alogue explicitly prohibits "ringers" from playing, 
declaring: "The following eligibility rules have 
been approved and will be in operation in the 



Continuity & Change 



75 



Wilder and Beyond 



future. No student shall be eligible to take part 
in any contest, who is not a bona fide student, 
carrying his work at a grade not lower than 70." 
Baseball must have had a particular problem, for 
baseball players had to have been enrolled in the 
previous term, as well — current status wasn't 
enough. 

Law students played on the teams too, and 
in 1908 the captains of baseball and track were 
in the law school. 

A Gymnasium 

Suggestions that the University needed a gym- 
nasium appeared in student publications in 
1888, and in 1894 President William Wilder 
produced one, though its details have faded into 
mystery. Far from the great athletic complex of 
today, the Shirk Center, the University built a 
40-foot by 40-foot brick building at 405 E. 
Phoenix. This was the first gymnasium, under 
the direction of Delmar D. Darrah, professor of 
elocution and director of physical culture. 

Basketball Takes Center Court 

Basketball first appeared in 1894 with a 
women's game. Elocution Professor Delmar 
Darrah, class of 1890, who doubled as director of 
physical culture, brought basketball to campus. 
The story of Darrah 's basketball team was 
recounted by Fred L. Muhl, long-time athletic 
director and mathematics professor, in a piece 
chronicling University sports from 1870 
to 1930. "A gymnasium was provided for the use 
of the [Illinois] Wesleyan students during the 
year 1894," Muhl wrote. "Here basketball was 
introduced by D. D. Darrah who was the faculty 
director of physical education. The college girls 
played many games. The girls' home games were 
played in the ING [Illinois National Guard] 
armory at Center and North . . . The girls 
continued to play inter-city basketball, but lost 
most of the games that season . . ." Evidently, a 
few years later, women's basketball was halted, 
according to Muhl, "as the mothers of the girls 
stepped in and said 'enough is enough.'" 



No sport has been introduced for the "first" 
time more than women's basketball at Illinois 
Wesleyan. The 1908 yearbook would write: 
"This is the first year that the girls have had any 
part in the athletics of Illinois Wesleyan." 
Twelve women rented the YWCA gym for two 
hours a week, found a coach, played the Y team 
four times, won 1, lost 2, and tied 1. But the big 
victory: for the first time a women's team got a 
picture in the yearbook. 

Perhaps the men were jealous, for in the 
very next season the women disappear from the 
yearbook and the first men's team is there in 
1910-11 with a 2-3 season, completely unsure 
whether the game will continue as an intercolle- 
giate venture. Both women's and men's teams 
concurred: they were handicapped by the lack of 
a gymnasium. The 1894 building had been 
phased out and nothing replaced it. 

The Preparatory Department 

The preparatory department, an important part 
of Illinois Wesleyan since its founding, had 
been under the general direction of the faculty 
except for a brief two-year period. However, in 
1883, it was organized into a distinct school 
and the Reverend Hyre D. Clark was chosen 
as principal. 

The preparatory department continued until 
1919. At first it taught high-school age students 
at a time — in the 1860s and 1870s — when there 
were still few good regional high schools. 
Consequently, enrollment in the preparatory 
department climbed steadily from 71 in 1863-64 
to 280 in 1877-78, but rosters fell as the number 
of community high schools began to multiply 
after 1900. 

By the mid- 1890s its curricula comprised 
four year's work and several courses leading to 
corresponding courses in the College of Letters 
and Science. An 1895 profile of the preparatory 
program observed "that it now ranks among the 
foremost preparatory schools of the country." 



76 



/Ilium's Wcslcymi Univi 



50th Anniversary 

As the 20th century dawned, Illinois Wesleyan 
turned 50 years old. This milestone prompted 
reflection on the accomplishments of a half 
century. 

The University had awarded degrees to 1,121 
graduates during those first 50 years and had 
.somewhere between 25,000 and }Q,000 students. 
The 26 resident graduates in the 1900 graduat- 
ing class in the College of Letters set a record. 
This era saw the College of Letters offering 118 
courses of which more than half were elective. 
The endowment was valued at nearly $200,000 
and more than another $100,000 would he ear- 
marked for the University from legacies. 

President Edgar M. Smith ( 1898-1905) made 
this assessment of the University in a letter he 
wrote to the Daily Pantagraph on May 2, 1901: 
"It has been the chief factor in the higher educa- 
tion of the young people of the city and county 
and adjoining counties ... It has added much to 
the material prosperity of Bloomington and con- 
tributed largely toward the production of that 
intellectual, social and moral atmosphere, for 
which the city is justly distinguished. In this 
respect, the more thoroughly the influence of 
the University is studied the more highly it will 
be estimated." 

Smith drew this conclusion about the 
University: "Its degrees are recognized and its 
work taken for full value by the best colleges and 
universities of the country." 

President Francis G. Barnes 

Francis George Barnes (1866-1910), an 
Englishman, became president of Illinois 
Wesleyan in 1905, serving until 1908. He came 
to America with his parents at age 4 and by age 
1 9 he was doing missionary work on the way to 
becoming a Methodist minister in North 
Dakota. He was a minister before he was a col- 
lege student, and thus he finished Hamline 
University at age 31 where senior status did not 
preclude his being captain of the football team. 
Immediately on graduation he became principal 




of Epworth Seminary in Iowa. He received a 
Doctor of Divinity degree from Upper Iowa 
University in 1900. 

Barnes became president of Grand Prairie 
Seminary in Onarga, Illinois, in 1901. A leave- 
of-absence allowed graduate work at Harvard, 
and at age 39, while still at Harvard, he was 
chosen president of Illinois Wesleyan. 

Barnes' presidency began on July 1, 1905. 
Two days later he told the Daily Pantagraph : 
"This is an age of publicity. I am going to adopt 
some ot the methods of the commercial traveler 
in presenting the claims of [Illinois] Wesleyan to 
the young people of this and other states who 
ought to be students here." 

"The one important need of the University 
at present," Barnes added, "is students and larger 
attendance. I believe that the chief way and the 
best way to get students is to let the young peo- 
ple who are preparing to enter college know 
what . . . [Illinois] Wesleyan has to offer, and 
they will do the rest ... I will go up and down 
this state telling the communities that Illinois 
Wesleyan University is in running order at 
Bloomington and that we await students and 
will give them the best there is in educational 
training." 

That is just what he did. Over the next five 
months, Barnes visited more than 160 towns, 
giving an average of five speeches a week. The 



Continuity & Change 



77 



W'ii i-li; \Nn Ri-iuni > 



Domestic Science 
class in Old Main. 




enrollment of 1,068 students in 1904-05 had 
been its lowest in nine years. However, by 1905- 
06, enrollment had climbed to 1,350 students. 

Barnes also championed a revamped curricu- 
lum designed to be more attractive to prospec- 
tive students. While his goal was not to diminish 
Greek, Latin, and other classical studies, he was 
convinced that the college of the future had to 
respect the era's demand for practical education. 

The Annual Banquet had become a feature 
on the yearly Illinois Wesleyan calendar. The 
fifth such banquet was held on February 20, 
1906. The event was an opportunity for faculty 
and alumni to dine and cheer together. The 
1908 yearbook reported that 250 gathered at the 
new Illinois House to enjoy "the dainty menu 
and witty toasts." The tasty menu featured baked 
halibut, fillet of beef, snow flake potatoes, chick- 
en salad, Neapolitan ice cream, casino cake, and 
cate noir. 

Despite this gaiety, within a year of taking 
office, Barnes' health began to fail, a situation 
some have credited to the "strenuous program" 
he had undertaken. He took a six weeks' vaca- 
tion in the "wilds" of New Mexico, returning to 
campus in December, 1906. As a result of rapid- 
ly declining health, he eventually settled in 



Pasadena, California, where he died after a brief 
illness on October 14, 1910. 

Commerce Program Launched 

Wilder and Smith had organized the University 
around a liberal-arts model, but Barnes flirted 
with the polytechnic approach to attract more 
students. New courses would attract more stu- 
dents even if they did not fit the liberal-arts pat- 
tern. Commerce came first, followed by domes- 
tic science. 

A new program in commerce began in June, 
1906, with the goal of preparing women, as well 
as men, for "the higher walks of business life." 
The Department of Commerce, as it was first 
called, had' two programs: a one-year course in 
stenography and a one-year course in business. 
One of its stranger assets was an "extended and 
rare collection of cereals and manufactures" 
gathered for illustrative purposes. 

The stenography course covered shorthand, 
with special attention to the "science and art of 
phrase making." All stenographers also took typ- 
ing — two hours a day. Business-course students 
studied bookkeeping, penmanship, commercial 
law, arithmetic, and geography. They learned 
how to write advertisements and the basics of 



78 



Illinois Wcslcvun Dni, 



English without which "no good paying position" 
would be conceivable. In 1909-10, business stu- 
dents became part of the School of Commerce. 

Domestic Science Program 

The Domestic Science program was launched in 
1906. First in the hands of Hettie M. Anthony 
and then Clara G. Pett, the program was a two- 
year course on housekeeping, which could lead to 
a bachelor of domestic science degree, it two 
additional years of college work were added. The 
1910 catalogue detailed a program, combining 
many fields to train women to run homes. The 
scientific pursuits of chemistry, physiology, bacte- 
riology, economics, hygiene, and art were trans- 
lated into cookery, dietetics, home nursing, and 
household management. 

Enrollment had grown from 38 women in the 
first year to 49 three years later. The 1 909 year- 
book had 15 graduates in caps and gowns and the 
freshman class dressed in a costume, which 
appears to be a cross between a maid and a nurse. 

However, changes were coming. Ina Pitner 
took over the program in 1 909 to be followed by 
Mabel Campbell in 1910. Pitner added domestic 
art as a field, fundamental sewing and the use of 
fabrics for decoration. Campbell abolished the 
two-year program completely and substituted a 
four- year bachelor of science degree instead. 
Whether a school or a college, both terms were 
used, there were three degree candidates for 
bachelors of science in household economics at 
the 1910 commencement. The home-economics 
major was dropped at Illinois Wesleyan in 1971. 

Women's University Guild 

Since its earliest decades, the University has 
found strength in assistance from the community. 
The Women's University Guild, an example of 
community support, first appeared in the records 
of 1906. 

In the first decade of the 20th century, the 
guild backed the move toward domestic science, 
and it funded and ran the first year of the pro- 
gram. Having demonstrated it could be done, the 



guild essentially gave the whole thing to the 
University as a gift, according to the 1908 yearbook. 

Having created the domestic science pro- 
gram, the women of the community then turned 
to the library, which needed help. They had it 
repapered and repainted, and had its furniture 
and bookcases refinished. 

The Women's University Guild also support- 
ed a new "cottage dormitory system." The 1908 
yearbook reported that it was ready to rent and 
furnish two cottages near the University, which 
the head of domestic science would then super- 
vise as dormitories for women. 

The February 7, 1911, Daily Pantagraph 
reported that until 1910 the guild operated two 
houses on Chestnut Street. Subsequently, the 
former residence of a doctor, located on East 
Washington Street, was leased. The house con- 
tained room for a dozen girls, while about 25 oth- 
ers roomed in the neighborhood and took their 
meals at the dormitory. The girls paid $3.50 a 
week for board and the rooms rented for $10-$ 12 
a month. 

The Woman's University Guild grew to 516 
members in its first year with Mrs. Chalmers C. 
Marquis as president. Membership included lead- 
ing women from Bloomington and Normal, as 
well as the wives of faculty members and trustees. 
A major guild undertaking was the Carnival, a 
fund-raising event that was a notable resource for 
renovating buildings and beautifying the campus. 
The Carnival, an elaborate community fair, was 
first held in April, 1906, in the Coliseum, which 
was decorated in green and white anil filled with 
booths offering refreshments, art, books, and col- 
lege goods of all sorts. Plays and shows were 
given by University and high-school students, 
and there was a Merchant's Parade on two nights. 
The parade included 150 young ladies in cos- 
tumes appropriate to the businesses they repre- 
sented. The Carnival promoted town-and-gown 
unity and provided $4,000 tor use in beautifying 
the campus and buildings in preparation for 
Raines' inauguration during commencement 
week, 1906. 



Continuity & Change 



79 



Wilder and Rkionm 




Winifred Kates 

The real excitement of the Carnival came 
unexpectedly on Saturday morning, April 2 1 , 
1906, when a letter arrived from industrialist and 
steel maker Andrew Carnegie, a philanthropist. 
Barnes had hoped to build a new science build- 
ing and on that Saturday morning came a letter 
from Carnegie, pledging $30,000 toward the 
project. "With this gift and the leadership of our 
new President," the 1906 Wesleyana commented, 
"a new era is dawning for the [Illinois] 
Wesleyan." 

Masquers 

Winifred Kates, who taught elocution and dra- 
matic arts, was surely the direct stimulus for 
Masquers, the drama organization that began in 
1914. The group's first play, Contrary Mary, was 
staged on December 17, 1914- The students had 
the option of presenting their plays in the 
Chatterton Theatre in downtown Bloomington, 
which opened in 1912. The 1922 yearbook says 
Kates, whose married name was James, directed 
the Masquers' plays for the first four seasons. In 
January, 1918, the Masquers presented, Our 
Children, for the benefit of French and Belgian 
relief funds during World War I. However, the 
group disbanded in 1918 due to the war, but in 
1920-21 it was back with strength. 



Changes in the Library 

The early years of the 20th century saw many 
changes in the University's library. By 1904-05 
the library was situated in Old North and housed 
a collection of about 10,000 volumes. Electric 
lights were installed in the summer of 1912, 
enabling students to use the room after dark. 

In 1913 Kathleen Hargrave was appointed 
full-time librarian and in 1914-15 she organized 
the library's holdings, classifying books according 
to the Dewey Decimal System. 

An interesting tradition emerged in 1915- 
1 6 — a custom that lasted for nearly two 
decades — when students in the English-literature 
department began levying a 50-cent assessment 
on their peers and presented 100 books to the 
library as a Thanksgiving offering. 

During the World War I era, funds flowed to 
the library from several sources — for example, 
$ 1 ,000 from University of Illinois President 
Edmund Janes James whose father had been an 
Illinois Wesleyan trustee — and interest from 
these various accounts was used to build the 
library's holdings, which reached 12,000 volumes 
by 1918. 

Household Economics and Art 

By 1910 Illinois Wesleyan had two more con- 
stituent schools. Household Economics had a 
four-year course, offering the degree of bachelor 
of science in household economics. The program 
taught cooking and sewing. The 1912 yearbook 
commented that the students learned "the high- 
est calling of women — the making of a happy 
home." 

Over the decades many programs have come 
and gone and one was refounded as a new ven- 
ture — the School of Art. The University made 
another go at art in 1907 with the University 
Guild as the prime motivator. Guild members 
who were interested in art suggested the courses 
and the guild installed the instructor, Abigail 
Rees. When the Wilson School of Art flourished 
in the 1890s, it had about 10 people teaching a 
wide variety of subjects, but in 1908 virtually the 



80 




Freshmt 
in 1916. 



same offerings were in the catalogue, all taught 
by Rees. She covered freehand drawing, architec- 
tural history, water color, oil painting, and china 
painting. Each year about a half-dozen students 
majored in oil painting. The 1908 yearbook tab- 
ulated 15 students enrolled in art — all but one 
were women. 

Women's Residence Halls 

In 1911 there were two halls for women — East 
Hall and West Hall. Men's housing was provided 
in several fraternity chapter houses: Phi Gamma 
Delta, Sigma Chi, Tau Kappa Epsilon, and Phi 
Alpha Delta. Other housing options, circa 1917, 
included boarding with "private families" for $4- 
$6 per week, or boarding in "clubs, thus reducing 
the expense of table board from $3.50 - $4.50 a 
week. Rooms heated and lighted cost from $1 to 
$1.50 per week," according to the 1917 catalogue. 

The Women's University Guild in 1910 was 
leasing two "modem homes" a few blocks away 
from campus for the women of the University. The 
matrons there gave families the feeling that their 



daughters were "in safekeeping" rather than just 
"rooming and boarding at will around the city." 

The 1912 catalogue was full of enthusiasm 
about a new combination hall for women and 
the president's residence. It was the seven-year- 
old house built by A. E. DeMange, three stories, 
brick with stone trim, so wonderfully furnished 
with wood finishes that "it is the admiration of 
Bloomington." It should have been, for Antoine 
DeMange had built it in 1906 for $80,000. It had 
a tile roof, once had an elevator and ballroom on 
the top floor, and was located one block from 
campus. President and Mrs. Kemp had a suite of 
rooms there and oversaw the facility. 

The University could not afford to buy the 
house, so Kemp purchased it himself in 1910. Not 
until 1917 did the University buy the building, 
which would henceforth he known as Kemp Hall. 
The 1919 yearbook reports that 42 women lived 
there and 72 women dined there. In about 1923 
the University purchased another Main Street 
house — dubbed Kemp Lodge — for about $40,000 
to accommodate still more female students. 



Continuity & Change 



SI 



Vo Jl^einnp and tike v^o-ilegiate University 



*S1 ven a decade after he had left office, the Daily Pantagraph 

hA characterized Theodore Kemp (1868-1937) as "the greatest 

1 . president Illinois Wesleyan had yet had." 
i .•"if 



Kemp finished DePauw in 1893, but only after 
Garrett Biblical Institute, and, thus, entered the 
Methodist ministry immediately. He served 
churches in southern Illinois before he was 
called to Grace Church in Bloomington in 1905. 
On the side, he taught English, the Bible, and 
ethics at Illinois Wesleyan during the 1906-7 
academic year. Thus, many already knew him 
when he was chosen as Francis Barnes' successor 
as president in 1908. Kemp remained until 1922. 
He knew what a college was, he was a dreamer, 
and he had a magnetic-like attraction for finding 
support. 




Theodore Kemp 

William Wallis, who joined the faculty in 
1912, knew Kemp well. Years later he wrote rec- 
ollections of what Kemp had done: faculty 
salaries increased from $1,000 to $2,500 a year, 
the faculty grew from 14 to 30, the student body 
doubled, and the University was accredited by 



the North Central Association of Colleges and 
Secondary Schools. Even more impressive Kemp 
paid off $120,000 in debts, some acquired while 
he was president. During Kemp's term of office, 
University assets grew from $327,000 to more 
than $2 million. 

"Five times as much money was secured for 
the University during this period," Wallis wrote, 
"as was obtained in all the 58 years of previous 
history of Illinois Wesleyan. Such were the 
achievements of Theodore Kemp." 

Campus Finances 

That finances always were a problem for the 
University was never a surprise to administrators 
or trustees. In 1911 Illinois Wesleyan launched 
an effort to raise an endowment, $500,000 if it 
could. Kemp worked closely with the 
Bloomington Commercial Club, which organ- 
ized 10 teams to help. 

What might happen if University funds grew 
was no mystery. Kemp had the courage to know 
that Illinois Wesleyan needed a library, a law 
building, a gymnasium, and a hall of languages, 
details Fred Muhl, assistant professor of mathe- 
matics and director of athletics, translated into a 
plan which the 1914 yearbook published with 
pride. It bears great similarity to what architect 
Arthur Pillsbury would conceive in more elabo- 
rate detail within the decade. 

Fundraising and Theodore Kemp 

Kemp inherited Barnes' campaign to raise 
$60,000 to guarantee the $30,000 from the 
Carnegie Foundation for the new Science Hall. 



Setting the 
cornerstone 
of Memorial 
Gymnasium. 



82 



Illinois YVVslcv.m ( 'iiifi'iMlv 




/ «* 



Kimi \\i' mi i \-i i n.i \ii: Uxivikmh 




In July, 1908, the campaign was $18,000 short of 
the mark, but within a year, Kemp found the 
money, even increased the total to $100,000 to 
provide for the building and its equipment. And, 
so on March 10, 1910, ground was broken for 
the new science building, which today is known 
as Stevenson Hall. It was ready for occupancy 
for the beginning of the 1911-12 academic year. 
By June, 1915, additional efforts increased 
University assets by $379,000. 

Mathematics Professor Cliff Guild — who 
also served as registrar, bursar, board secretary, 
and bookstore manager between 1905 and the 
1940s — wrote: "Thus ended the first major 
financial campaign for [Illinois] Wesleyan. It 
had paid for itself, added nearly $200,000 to 
permanent funds, paid off all indebtedness and 
annual deficits, and had a small balance to 



As early as November, 1910, Kemp had 
included among the University's construction 
needs a women's dormitory (which became 
Kemp Hall) and a gymnasium. However, only 
toward the end of Kemp's administration did 
Memorial Gymnasium rise at a cost of $200,000. 
The result, according to Wallis again, was "an 
increased interest in intercollegiate athletics and 
an increased solidarity of the student body. 
Regular classes in swimming, gymnasium work 
and organized games under trained instructors 
for both men and women with a system of intra- 
mural competition" began a new era in campus 
athletics. 

Women's University Guild 

The Women's University Guild continued as a 
source of community support. It had planned a 
"cottage dormitory system," and in 1911 the 



84 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



i Mi i IXEGIATEl 




Wcmen of Kemp Hall 
circa 1920s. 




View of Kemp Hall from 
Main Street. 



Continuity & Change B5 



nil l \ 'in., \n I \i\kr;-m 



guild was running two houses on Chestnut 
Street — East Hall and West Hall. The next 
year this housing moved to a house on East 
Washington, which housed a dozen women, but 
welcomed 25 others for meals. The students paid 
$3.50 a week for board and the rooms rented for 
$10412 a month. 

Male students lived at home, boarded in 
town, or lived in the houses that were now 
becoming an expected part of each fraternity 
chapter. Phi Gamma Delta, Sigma Chi, Tut 
Kappa Epsilon, and Phi Alpha Delta all had 
houses, but the sororities did not. The 
University sensed a special responsibility for 
women students. 



A Great Academic Transformation 

Kemp and his colleagues recovered the liberal- 
arts tradition and did much to transform the 
University. In the 1910-11 academic year, for 
example, there was a major reorganization, 
affecting the School of Commerce and the 
colleges of Home Economics, Law, and Fine 
Arts. (No one was ever sure from month to 
month whether those segments were colleges, 
schools, or departments.) 

Curricular revisions taught students to speak 
of majors, minors, and distribution requirements. 
The catalogue announced a philosophy that put 
specialization in one field in the context of 
broad learning in four general disciplines. 








Chemistry laboratory in the Science Hall. 



,Sf> 



/Nm.Hs Wcslcvan Unix 



Kl:MI' ANli Illl- Q 'I I li il.-VI'l: LlNlVI-HMI'l 



Students had to take a major, plus course work 
in four areas: languages (French, German, 
Greek, Latin); science or mathematics; English, 
speaking, religion, or philosophy; and history or 
social sciences. 

Students and registrars now learned to count 
in hours as well, another national currency mak- 
ing its way to Bloomington markets. Degrees 
required 128 hours, a major 24, a minor 14- And 
for the first time grades would determine Latin 
Honors, a distinction first bestowed during the 
1903-4 school year. Summa cum laude was to he 
given rarely and for special excellence only. 
Magna cum laude went only to those who had no 
grade lower than B, and no more than 15 per- 
cent of the class. Cum laude recognized students 
with no grade lower than B, and not more than 
25 percent of the class. Then there was also the 
now extinct Honorable Mention, which recog- 
nized "successful and sustained work in one or 
more departments of study." When first given in 
1910, there were no summas, four magnas, 12 
cum laudes , and one Honorable Mention. 

With the reorganization, the bachelor of phi- 
losophy degree was dropped, and henceforth the 
normal undergraduate degrees were bachelor of 
arts and bachelor of science. 

A Distinguished Chemist 

The fact that Carl S. Marvel (1894-1988) 
received bachelor's and master's degrees at 1915's 
commencement revealed his future promise and 
at least minimal life in the resident graduate pro- 
gram. Marvel grew up on a farm 25 miles from 
Bloomington and had studied Greek at the 
Waynesville Academy preparing for admission. 
When Marvel enrolled in 191 1 — joining his 
older sister Edith, already in the home-econom- 
ics course — tuition was $56, but the family got a 
discount, as did others, who had more than one 
student attending. In 1912, 14 of the 39 sopho- 
mores were chemistry students. 

Marvel launched his studies in the new sci- 
ence building under Alfred W Homberger, the 
Isaac Funk Professor of Chemistry. Homberger, a 




cosmopolitan sort who had studied in Germany, 
had revamped the chemistry curriculum to offer 
a broad range of 18 courses. 

Eighty years later, Homberger's work was the 
subject of a careful study in the journal of 
Chemical Education, in part because of the 
achievements of his students. All chemistry was 
taught by Homberger with three undergraduate 
assistants. Yet those early years in the new sci- 
ence building were wondrous times for chemistry 
students, five of whom went on to receive 
Ph.D.s. and four of them eventually listed in 
American Men in Science . 

After receiving a Ph.D. at the University of 
Illinois, Carl Marvel was the founding father of 
polymer chemistry, which led to the develop- 
ment of plastics and other synthetic materials. 
He helped develop aviation fuel, synthetic rub- 
ber, and fire-retardant synthetic fibers used in 
space suits and in industrial applications as sub- 
stitutes for asbestos. President Ronald Reagan 
honored Marvel in 1986 with the National 
Medal of Science. 

The 91 -year-old Marvel — who taught at the 
University of Illinois and the University of 
Arizona — received Illinois Wesleyan's 1987 
Distinguished Alumnus Award for his contribu- 
tions to chemical research and teaching. 

School of Music Flourishes 

The School of Music was flourishing around 
1910. From its city headquarters, its 13 teachers 



Continuity & Change 



^ 



KfcMi 1 ani« mi- O 'i.i.h .1 \i I I. niyi i;-.in 




Charles F. Sindlinger 

trained preparatory and college students and 
operated a far-flung network of alumni, who were 
teaching in small towns who in turn sent their 
students to Bloomington. 

There had been a complete reorganization of 
the school in 1909. This action presumably was a 
none-too-happy event for Mrs. John Gray, who 
had co-directed the school, since she decamped. 
Oddly President Theodore Kemp also became 
dean of the School of Music, at least for one cat- 
alogue. Not to be outdone, Mrs. Gray simply 
opened her own school, called, for her logically 
enough, Mrs. John R. Gray's College of Music. 
Never subtle, she even took a full-page advertise- 
ment in the University yearbook. 

Bloomington music has long cast itself in a 
national context. There were great performers 
on the faculty and promotional rhetoric was not 
mere hype. Glenn Dillard Gunn was "one of 
America's foremost pianists," while A. F. 
McCarrell was "one of the most prominent 
organists in the west." Charles F. Sindlinger was a 
singer and conductor "known throughout the 
country." L. E. Hersey was a gifted teacher of vio- 
lin, who in some seasons migrated off to Mrs. 
Gray's school, but usually returned to Illinois 
Wesleyan. These artists — plus the offerings of the 
Amateur Music Club and occasional appearances 
by grand opera companies — made Bloomington 
an interesting place for music. 



At a time when college tuition was $36-a- 
year, Gunn could command $6 for an hour les- 
son. Born in Kansas in 1874, Gunn went to 
Leipzig for piano studies at age 19 and remained 
in Germany and Austria studying and perform- 
ing. In 1900 he returned to Chicago to teach at 
the American Conservatory, the Chicago 
Musical College, and the University of Chicago, 
while he also toured extensively. Paradoxically, 
given his completely European training, he was 
founding conductor of the American Symphony 
Orchestra, which was dedicated to the perform- 
ance of American works with American soloists. 

The director of the School of Music from 
1913 to 1919 was equally distinguished. Henry 
Purmont Eames was a Chicago native, who spent 
three years at Cornell College before taking a 
law degree at Northwestern University. Music 
triumphed over law and he went on to study 
piano with famed Polish musician Ignace 
Paderewski. Though officially teaching in 
Lincoln, Nebraska, from 1898 to 1908, Eames 
spent much of that decade touring America, 
Britain, and continental Europe. Eames, who also 
was a composer, came to Bloomington in 1913. 

The School of Law Prospers 

The law school prospered under Judge Owen T 
Reeves, who was dean until his death on March 
2, 1911. Illinois Wesleyan owed him a great debt 
for 58 years of constant service. He was surely no 
opponent to multiple titles. Just before his death, 
he was president of the board and dean of the 
law school,- yet to courthouse colleagues he was 
Judge Reeves, unless they were his old soldier- 
friends who perhaps called him colonel. At Ohio 
Wesleyan he was Dr. Reeves, from the LL.D. that 
institution had given him. 

Law classes were taught in the basement of 
the Main Building, except for the moot-court 
sessions in the Courthouse. However, in Reeves' 
last years he was hoping a separate law building 
might emerge. After his death, the new dean, 
Charles Laben Capen, inherited the same 
futile hope. 



Illinois Wesleyan Unircrsilv 



Mil: Cl >l III .1 Ml Ul\!IVl:l<MI V 





:iixaiiuM 



J I \ J MMUiKlllJ I'Z 






Sigma Chi House, Homecoming 1922. 



In 1917 the law school lost its other founder 
with the death of its first dean, Judge Reuben 
M. Benjamin. The Argus ran an appreciation of 
him. He had arrived in Bloomington in 1856 in 
time to hear Abraham Lincoln's famous "Lost 
Speech" in Major's Hall. "Lincoln was one of 
the three lawyers to examine this young candi- 
date for the Illinois bar," the Argus reported. 
"The certificate to the effect that Mr. Benjamin 
had passed the examination was written by 
Lincoln himself." 

Kemp and Making a University 
into a College 

Theodore Kemp's leadership reversed some 
of the trends of the Barnes' years in creating 
separate centers of educational programs. The 
College of Liberal Arts reemerged as the central 
educational focus. 

Schools are sometimes associated with indi- 
viduals, and when Delmar Darrah resigned as 
head of the School of Oratory in 1910, the 



school split into a Department of Elocution and 
Dramatic Art, led by Winifred Kates, and a 
Department of Oratory run by Pearl Cliffe 
Somerville. The School of Oratory, thus, faded 
with its founder, though for 1911-12 there was 
the School of Music and Oratory. Oratory disap- 
peared, as did the College of Home Economics, 
demoted to a department within a liberal-arts 
context. A college in 1909, Commerce was gone 
even as a department in the following year. 

Campus Life, Traditions, and Spirit 

Yearbooks could hardly be more buoyant than 
those produced while Kemp was president. The 
yearbooks record a campus full of lively joy. 
The YMCA, YWCA, and Oxford Club activi- 
ties of a few years ago were now loosing ground 
to bands, plays, ukulele clubs, and an annual 
outburst of new organizations. Witty comment 
and well-captioned yearbook photos allow 
readers to see just how much fun students were 
having on campus. 



Continuity & Change 



so 



Kemi anT' Tin- t.'i »i i ii -i.vir U\i\ i:i;-m 



Airplane Float, 
Homecoming 
circa 1920s. 




Student Government Emerges 

Premonitions of student government had come 
in 1906 when President Barnes, as the yearbook 
said, sought a "system and unity in the cheering 
done by students" at athletic games. Conse- 
quently a student organization started with no 
purpose but to coordinate cheers and songs. 

Toward the end of 1914-15, Kemp went fur- 
ther. Perhaps an overall student organization 
would improve communication, but when he 
asked whether there should be a student govern- 
ment, the campus actually split on the issue. 
Kemp and the faculty moved ahead, and "The 
Student Council" was organized that spring, 
charged with making "sane" student opinions 
effective through helpful cooperation. It has 
worked ever since. 

Among later Student Council activities was 
the parade associated with the Bradley football 
game in the fall of 1919. Special railroad cars 
were arranged to take spectators to Decatur, 111., 



and an all-school banquet was held for the foot- 
ball team at the Hills Hotel during which they 
were given "W" sweaters. The student govern- 
ment reminded freshmen that they were 
required to wear green caps, "which they did 
very meekly," according to the 1921 yearbook. 

The Student Council's name was changed to 
the Student Union in 1933 and in 1957 it 
became the Student Senate, the name by which 
it still flourishes. 

Student Life 

The 1911-12 school year brought a new series of 
convocations. These were not chapels, but 
weekly assemblies of all students in liberal arts, 
home economics, and the academy to hear 
speakers, musical performances, or discussions of 
University life, which could be in the form of 
debates, oratory, or discussions of student publi- 
cations or athletics. 



90 



Wesleyan University 



I llll ( . 'I I he, I -\ I i- I iNIVKRSm 



A happy sequence of growing traditions took 
the students through the academic year in the 
early 20th century. 

The year began with The Grind, known as 
the "get acquainted" dance and "one of the hig 
events" of the college year, according to the 
1915 Wesleyana. Even in the 1970s this tradition 
was still grinding away. 

College falls brought programmed competi- 
tion between freshmen and sophomores across 
America. Illinois Wesleyan joined the trend 
with an annual ritual, which involved attempts 
by sophomores to cut the hair of freshmen, it the 
freshmen tried 
to throw a 
class party. 
The 1913 

Wesleyana ^ |g^ i 

chronicles this 
escapade in an 
article, "The 
Freshman 
Party, From a 
Sophomore's 
Pen." 

Fall now 




meant football 



Ralph Freese 



and a new 

sports mania swept the country. Normally staid 
weekly convocations were now sometimes trans- 
formed into "Enthusiasm Meetings" or in later 
terms, pep rallies. In October, 1911, Coach Fred 
Muhl's football team had just beaten 
Northwestern, and, accordingly, the team was 
called to the front of the chapel to talk about 
the next game against Lake Forest. As Ralph S. 
Freese, class of 191 1, finished off the session 
with his "vigorous yells," "the enthusiasm 
reached a higher point than it has for some 
time," according to the 1912 Wesleyana. Freese 
was filled with school spirit for during the 1910- 
1 1 school year, he wrote the music to The Cheer 
Song, still played at every home football and 
men's basketball game. Chalmers H. Marquis, 
class of 1910, wrote the words. 



Cheerleaders appear in the yearbooks of the 
first decade of the 20th century. However they 
were not called cheerleaders then, they were 
"yellmasters." They were men in light colored 
"W" sweaters, sometimes wearing hats and show- 
ing a great deal of confident enthusiasm. Their 
"yells" are recorded in the yearbooks, but by 
1919, however, they had become "cheer leaders." 

October brought the first of two carnivals. 
The women oi the YWCA threw the Halloween 
Carnival in the science building's basement every 
October 30. In 1912 the event raised funds to 
furnish a YWCA room in the new science build- 
ing. The Halloween Carnival had a fortune 
teller's booth, a candy booth, stunts, and a boot- 
blacking sendee administered by 

t the freshmen for 

C *t£$k2Y Aht their "elders." 

' - " The Alumni 

Association went 
back to 1866, but 
Homecoming was a 
new idea on 
November 10, 1917. 
It started full blown 
with fully decorated 
fraternity houses and 
residence halls, an elabo- 
rate parade down Main 
Street to the Courthouse 
Square, returning to Wilder 
Field, where the football team delighted return- 
ing alumni by defeating Bradley, 14-0. 

Homecoming was not over. The night 
brought stunt shows and a program in Amie 
Chapel, where military themes predominated in 
the acts sponsored by fraternities and sororities. 
The whole thing had been organized in about a 
week. 

Homecoming was an instant tradition. The 
1919 Wesleyana commented: "Homecoming was 
a complete success . . . Old-fashioned football 
reigned and the boys played well." The yearbook 
continued: "The old grads began pouring back 
the night before, and by Saturday morning 



Continuity & C/iui 



Kemp and the Collei iiati I m\ i rsi i \ 




Memorial Gymnasium 



interest was tense." The festivities included a 
parade down Main Street highlighted by the 
hand and cheerleaders. 

Swing Out Day, which originated in the 
1910s, came toward the end of March. Then 
seniors entering chapel "appeared for the first 
time in all the dignity of Senior apparel." The 
event was described by the yearbook as an 
engaging mixture of comedy and slight trauma. 
After Swing Out Day, seniors wore their caps 
and gowns to chapel every Friday for the balance 
of the school year. 

Similarly appearing in the 1910s was 
Wesleyana Day, an event typically occurring in 
May and centering around students receiving 
copies of the yearbook. Far more than just hand- 
ing out books to be read while ignoring the con- 
vocation in Amie Chapel, there was an inter-fra- 
ternity tennis match, a baseball game, a picnic 
lunch, and an evening program. 



The seniors of 1913 revived what they took 
to be the custom of producing a play before com- 
mencement. The production that year was The 
House Next Door by J. Hartley Manners and it 
was directed by Winifred Kates of the elocution 
and dramatic arts programs. 

By 1914 the May Carnival was a few years 
old. It was a junior-class party, which began with 
singing and an address by a professor. Afternoon 
activities, included a baseball game at Wilder 
Field, with a "parade in which the small children 
from all schools were given an opportunity to 
exhibit their individuality in decorating their 
bicycles and doll buggies." There was a May pole 
dance and spectators watched a stunt show in 
Amie Chapel. 

By 1915 Piker's Day was among the most 
anticipated events on the annual calendar, even 
though it was a movable feast. Piker's Day usual- 
ly took place in the spring — but the seniors in 



''.' 



Illinois Wcsleyan University 



The Legendary Frederick L. Muhl 



^ 



1915 had theirs in the fall. Piker's Day amounted 
to a "Senior Party," when members of the gradu- 
ating class skipped a day of school (an approved 
action) and took a trip to the country, where 
they had a picnic. They would spend the rest of 
the day, according to the 1915 Wesley ana, 
"roaming over the hills, gathering cat tails, or 
boating on the lake." 

Clean Up Day came on a rainy April 25 th in 
1916. With rakes, hoes, knives, and baskets, stu- 
dents covered the campus tidying up the 
grounds. Freshman boys raked the grass, girls dug 
up dandelions, juniors raked the tennis courts, 
while seniors lined walks with stone. Faculty 
helped, too. Domestic-science students made a 
wonderful lunch for everyone, and that after- 
noon the seniors planted a tree. 

Memorial Gymnasium Constructed 

Athletics took on greater emphasis with comple- 
tion of Memorial Gymnasium. As part of the 
agreement to keep the University in town, the 
Bloomington Association of Commerce helped 
raise $600,000 for the land and building, and 
the cornerstone for Memorial Gymnasium was 
laid in November, 1921. 

The building was part of Pillsbury's architec- 
tural plan for the entire campus, in fact the only 
building actually built from the original concep- 
tion. 

The Wesleyana offered a tour: "When one 
enters the front doors of the new building he 
will be in a great hall, memorializing the soldiers 
of the world war . . . the gym floor will be 
90 by 120 feet. The clear space in the middle 
will be 50 by 85, ample for basket-ball. Bleachers 
will be constructed around the sides. At one end 
there will be a gallery . . . An important feature 
of the gymnasium will be a large stage where 
oratorios, festivals and large meetings may be 
accommodated . . . The swimming pool will be 
in the basement under the stage." The facility 
also included offices for men's and women's 
physical education directors, storage for athletic 
equipment, and locker rooms. 




Tom W. Scott, Illinois Wesleyan's first athletic 
director, left the University in 1910 to be followed 
by Frederick Lewis Muhl as director of athletics 
and instructor in mathematics. Muhl was a fix- 
ture on campus for decades. In football his 
record was 44-40-11, while in basketball he tallied 
a 139-62 record. 

The 1912 yearbook reported on Muhl's influ- 
ence in starting tennis. "With the advent of Coach 
Muhl," the yearbook noted, "came tennis, that is, 
an interest in it, because he is interested in it." 
There was an interest but no tennis courts and 
during the 1911-12 school year Coach Muhl start- 
ed collecting contributions for courts, which 
eventually were built, only to be completely oblit- 
erated by the new science building. Two new 
courts were ready by spring, 1914, behind the 
new science building. 

Muhl became a legend for his longevity and 
range of talent. In 1933, for example, he still was 
coaching track and was an assistant professor of 
mathematics. In 1939-40 he returned to his old 
role as athletic director. And, in the 1952 year- 
book, 42 years after his arrival, he's no longer 
coaching day-to-day, but still serves as an assis- 
tant mathematics professor. A gauge of just how 
beloved a character this faculty member had 
become is seen in the 1951 Wesleyana, where he 
is shown in a Homecoming photo with 11 of his 
players from his 1910 football team, all in forma- 
tion four decades after the fact. 



Continuity & Change 



93 




:v ; 



■*.>■■'■ 



kl-.Ml' ANH II II: (..< 'I.I li .1 All I M\ II' II. 



Coach Hill on 
Wilder Field. 



Golden Age of Athletics 

Overall, the Kemp years were a "golden age" of 
athletics at Illinois Wesleyan, in part because of 
Fred Mnhl, who became football coach in 1909. 
That year, the team held rival Northwestern 
University to a scoreless tie, a precursor to a 
widely heralded 3-0 victory over Northwestern 
in 1910. That team, under Captain Theodore 
Fieker, class of 1912, went on to win the state 
championship, while the spring's track team won 
the intercollegiate meet in Peoria. 

The men's basketball team emerged in 191 1. 
Fred Young, class of 1915, was captain of the 
squad that won the 1912 Illinois small-college 
basketball tournament. And, a few years later, 
the baseball team won the Little Nineteen 
championship. 

Regional athletic groups were in constant 
flux and opponents vary widely from the local 
small colleges, to schools, to YMCAs, to 
Northwestern, Illinois, the Little Nineteen, or 
the College Conference of Illinois and 
Wisconsin. 

The decade spanning 1910 to 1920 boasted 
many athletic stars, including J. Norman Elliott, 
class of 1916, twice captain of the basketball 
team and a future football coach, and Scott 
Lucas, class of 1914, a left end on the 1912 foot- 
ball team and future Majority Leader of the U.S. 
Senate. 

Get the Goat: Athletic Rivalries 

Sports thrive on classic rivalries and for decades 
the motto, GET THE GOAT, decorated floats 
and events surrounding the Millikin game. To 
get one's goat is a normal enough idiom, but 
around 1912 there was an actual object, a stuffed 
goat, connected to a charming toy cart. Pictured 
in the 1912 yearbook, the trophy moved back 
and forth between Bloomington and Decatur 
after each appropriate contest — football, basket- 
ball, baseball, track, or debate. Travel started in 
1905 and by 1912 the symbol of prowess had 
moved back and forth 31 times. 



Intercollegiate Play for Women 

The 1919 yearbook reports a first — intercolle- 
giate play for women. The women's tennis team 
played Millikin on May 19, 1917, in what the 
editors said was the first year of a women's tour- 
nament. Illinois Wesleyan won, but everybody 
got a souvenir trophy. 

Coach Muhl also revived women's basket- 
ball. Elaine Strayer was director of women's ath- 
letics and the 1921 yearbook reported the "first 
girls' basket-ball team." The new women's coach 
teamed up with visiting French student Elaine 
Thiebaut, who had led a team in France. 
Together they had a 13-player team, which com- 
peted with high schools and other local teams. 

The 1921 yearbook cited Muhl's accomplish- 
ments, noting he had a record surpassing any 
other in the conference — one football, one track, 
one baseball, and three basketball championships. 
He even had faculty playing. The 1920 tennis 
Conference Faculty Championship was won by 
Professor Ralph Clayton Hartsough. Only stu- 
dents, however, were members of the "W" Club, 
having won an official letter in a major sport. 

Social Clubs 

The Xi chapter of Alpha Gamma Delta was 
established in 1914 at a time when women's 
groups had chapter rooms, rather than resi- 
dences. Their room was located on the third 
floor of the Academy Building. Later the chapter 
room moved to Old Main and to a rented house, 
with ownership of a house on Main Street com- 
ing in 1930. Alpha Gamma Delta was founded 
in 1904 by 1 1 women at Syracuse University. 

Greek-Life Pranks 

Fraternity and sorority high jinks are part of the 
era's remembered lore. A "pajama parade," 
reported in the June 10, 1913, edition of the 
Argus is a case in point. It seems that in the wee 
hours of Tuesday morning, June 3, after the 
year's last fraternity meetings, a group oi ven- 
turesome spirits "donned their garb for retiring" 
to raid various dormitories. ". . . the sleepers 



Continuity & Change 



Kemp and the Collegiate University 




"Pajama Games" Homecoming 1928. 



[were] dislodged hy feet, arms, legs and otherwise 
and pressed into line," the newspaper reported. 
The parade included 43 pairs of pajamas, 18 
night shirts, two bath robes, and two men 'other- 
wise attired.'" 

The paraders sang and offered University 
cheers, despite threats of police action, prompting 
"a few Juliets" to push aside the curtains and 
appear at upstairs' windows. The revelers traipsed 
through Bloomington's streets accompanied by 
the "steady tramp of bath room slippers," waking 
residents. They even visited the homes of a few 
drowsy professors, encouraging the scholars to 
"sally forth and deliver their best lectures which 
they did with the best grace possible." 

World War I Comes to Campus 

A chauffeur's wrong turn down a Sarajevo street 
in 1914 and two gunshots, killing Archduke 
Franz Ferdinand — heir apparent to the Viennese 



throne — and his wife, Sophie, triggered World 
War I. The clash, which lasted 1,567 days, killed 
15- million soldiers and civilians, toppled four 
monarchies, and cost about $337.9 billion. 

Illinois Wesleyan President Theodore Kemp 
called World War I, 191448, "the holiest cause 
ever undertaken by the country." The conflict 
deeply affected the University. Some faculty 
were caught in Europe when hostilities broke 
out. At the start of the 1917-18 academic year, 
enrollment dropped 15 percent, to 262 students, 
with women outnumbering men on campus 141- 
121. Only a half dozen men graduated in the 
spring of 1918, and the Daily Pantagraph 
observed: "The fraternity houses at [Illinois] 
Wesleyan are all but deserted now and as long as 
the war continues the same condition is very 
likely to exist 

. . . Nearly every fraternity at [Illinois] Wesleyan 
has a service flag from 30 to 50 stars on it." 



96 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



IIII ( i iLLEOIATE UlMIVERS 



On the home front, sororities like Sigma 
Kappa held a "French market" in a hotel, which 
raised $500 for the Belgian Relief Fund. During 
the influenza epidemic that swept the United 
States during the war years, a fraternity offered 
its house as a temporary hospital for flu victims. 
Among those hardest hit by the epidemic were 
the campus's own soldier-students, the boys in 
the Student Army Training Corps (SATC). 

The United States had entered the "war to 
end all wars" in April, 1917. Subsequently the 
University was among 300 campuses nationally 
with SATC units offering students military 
instruction. 

As overall enrollment fell, President Kemp 
advertised the new government program to find 
federal dollars to replace local tuition: "Go to 
College. Free Tuition. Free Board and Room. 
Free Gymnasium. Free Swimming Pool. $30.00 
per month from the Government." There was 
nothing about making the world safe for democ- 
racy in this advertisement and only the "Free 
Uniform" and a few details in fine print showed 
this was anything more than free college. As 
military drill became compulsory for all male 
students, there soon were three units training on 
University grounds. 

The SATC was part of a government pro- 
gram to subsidize colleges for loss of their male 
students because of the draft law. On September 
16, 1918, Illinois Wesleyan signed contracts to 
take 300 military students and provide housing 
and instruction. The fall program was to begin on 
October 1, therefore, the beginning of the regular 
semester was pushed back to September 30. 

But all of this was very perplexing for Kemp 
and his colleagues as each messenger brought 
telegrams with different plans. A commanding 
officer did not arrive until October 8, though 
the University was quite happy to have Captain 
H. M. Wheaton, a Yale alumnus and former 
football coach at the U.S. Naval Academy at 
Annapolis. 

The Bloomington Association of Commerce 
joined with the University in helping finance 



and construct a combination barracks and mess 
hall on the future site of Memorial Gymnasium. 
A large building project, the wooden structure 
was nonetheless finished and occupied by 
November 9 just in time for the war's end on 
November 11, 1918. 

What to do now? At first, the plan was that 
the men would continue in residence, with their 
drillmasters, for the rest of year, spending by gov- 
ernment directive more time on college studies 
than military pursuits. But new orders were 
forthcoming and everyone was sent home on 
December 13, 1918. 

Shortly thereafter, the barracks were sold off 
and removed and by 1920 there was virtually no 
sign of the program. In fact, the 1920 yearbook 
commented boldly that the SATC was "a huge 
joke and costly experiment." 

French Students Escaped the War 

In the fall of 1918, 133 French college students 
came to the United States, sent overseas by the 
French government to continue their education. 
Three of those exchange students enrolled at 
Illinois Wesleyan. Two of these students were the 
Baron sisters — Idellette and Annette — from 
Lyons, who lived in Kemp Hall. One of the 
women "expressed wonder and surprise at the 
richness of America and its comparative freedom 
from the pinch of war, as compared with her 
own country," according to an article in McLean 
County and the World War. 

The third exchange student from Belfort, 
Alsace, was Jeanne Seigneur. She is mentioned 
in the 1920 Wesley ana in a piece headlined, "Our 
French Girls," which commented: "Our love and 
admiration for France and her noble people have 
been strengthened by having in our midst such 
fine types of French womanhood." Seigneur and 
Annette Baron graduated in 1920, while 
Idellette was a member of the class of 1921. 

"War Fever" 

The wartime mood on campus was captured in 
the book, Through the Eyes of the Argus: 100 



Continuity & Change 



KlMI' \NI> Fill- OHII-UATI UN1VI KM II 



Years of Journalism at Illinois Wesleyan University, 
which reported: "The first active-duty issue [of 
the Argus], which appeared on October 17, 
1917, complete with a patriotic front-cover 
graphic, told how 'war fever' had set in at 
[Illinois] Wesleyan. Even the peace orators who 
had been preaching international cooperation 
just one year before were now 'devoting all their 
energies to the study of how to fight successfully 
tor Uncle Sam,' according to an editorial." 

April 18, 1917, was Flag Raising Day, timed 
to commemorate Paul Revere 's famous ride 
through the Massachusetts' countryside warning 
the colonists that the "British are coming" dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War. Earlier that spring 
workmen had finished putting up a 75-foot-tall 
flagpole and April 1 8 was set for its inaugura- 
tion. There were Coach Muhl's cadets, the 
Daughters of the American Revolution, and the 
Grand Army of the Republic — the local Civil 
War veterans — who had marched to the campus 
from the courthouse with their own flags. 

This "war fever" may have contributed to 
sparking a new spirit on campus, especially 
among female students. One manifestation of 



this was the [Illinois] Wesleyan Girls' Training 
Camp, an effort apart from sororities or the 
YWCA which united the women "with the idea 
of service in every way possible to the school," 
according to the November 28, 1917, Argus. 

"Over There" 

By the war's end, about 200 students and alumni 
had served in the military. Though records are 
sketchy and at times contradictory about 15 
alumni died during the war: five on battlefields 
and 10 from illnesses. Memorial Gymnasium was 
dedicated on December 14, 1922, in memory of 
the University's World War I dead. 

Army Private Paul Martin, class of 1918, was 
among the first of 1.3-million U.S. troops to face 
the Germans in October, 1917. Martin, a 
member of a medical detachment with the 
Army's 26th Infantry Division, got a feel for 
combat by talking to English veterans. Martin 
wrote in an October 8, 1917, letter that, "There 
is something about the rough soldiers' life that 
gets into a man's blood and holds him." 

In June, 1918, U.S. Marines, including 
Sergeant Gerald Thomas, class of 1919 and a 



■■■:- ^ . ;-:-.;-.-. - 



Athlete to Sportswriter 



Fred Young, class of 1915, was an early 
20th-century sports standout in basketball, 
baseball, and tennis. To those who knew 
him, he was always "Brick" Young. By any 
standards he was basketball's key star in its 
first four seasons, sometimes making as 
many as 25 points a game. He was an out- 
standing baseball pitcher. A career highlight 
came for him when he pitched a no-hitter 
against future Chicago Cubs' pitcher Joe 
Cook in a semi-pro league and drove in the 
game's only run. 



Illinois Wesleyan Argt 




After a brief tour of duty in semi-profes- 
sional basketball and baseball, Young 
became a reporter for Bloomington's Daily 
Pantagraph in 1918. He was named the 
newspaper's sports editor in 1922, a post he 
held for decades. Over the years, Young 
organized baseball road trips and for 40 
years helped recruit athletes for the 
University. He died in 1980 at age 88, after 
having attended many games in a field 
house named for him. 



98 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



' I I I F ( ' >1 I.I > .1 Ml I ''.I'M I'M I 




lloomington men preparing to go off to World War I 



chemistry student, were rushed from their rest 
camp on an hour's notice to face a German drive 
at Chateau-Thierry, where U.S. troops quashed 
the enemy advance less than 50 miles northeast 
of Paris. For days, Thomas wrote, they faced 
withering artillery and machine-gun fire without 
provisions, water, or sleep. 

"We stopped the 'Boche,'" Thomas wrote his 
family, "and recaptured a number of positions. 
Many of my comrades of the last year are gone. 
Among them my first 'bunkie.'" 

Commenting on Thomas' exploits at 
Chateau-Thierry, a newspaper article reported, 
"The commanding officers of the 'fighting sixth' 
[Thomas' unit] were killed and Thomas . . . took 
command of their company and brought them 
through the fight in first class shape . . . Over 
five-sixths of Thomas' company were killed or 
wounded in action." 



Army Lieutenant George E. Butler, class of 
1914 and a lawyer, was captain of Coach Fred 
Muhl's 1914 football squad. In April, 1918, he 
was in No Man's Land, the deadly territory 
separating Allied and German trenches on the 
Western Front in France. "I swore at the moon 
the night I was out in No Man's Land with a 
patrol . . . ," Butler wrote. "It came out so bright- 
ly that I could see the barbs on the German sol- 
diers' wires from a distance of 100 yards." Butler 
faced two German machine-gun nests. They 
were playing target practice with his unit. 

Jesse S. Dancy, an 1899 graduate wrote let- 
ters to the Argus from wartime France. Dancy, a 
hospital chaplain, offered this description ot life 
near the front in an article published in the 
November 14, 1917, edition of the newspaper: 
"It is a great experience to see convoys of 
wounded coming in, worn to the limit with 



Continuity & Change 



99 



mi (.:. >iii. ,i\Th UxiviuMn 



sleepless nights, days and nights of fighting, and 
weakened with loss of blood, hut exhilatated 
with the flush of battle and the confidence of 
victory ... At the time, the loss of a leg, or an 
arm, or an eye seems of no importance when 
compared with the fact that the Germans are 
crumbling before their attacks." 

Infantryman Howard Bolin was the first 
alumnus to die in France. He enlisted in the 
Army when he was a sophomore in the 
academy. Bolin received nine weeks of military 
training at Camp Green in North Carolina 
before shipping out to France. He died of battle- 
field wounds on July 20, 1918, one day short of 
his 23rd birthday. 

Another fatality was Army Lieutenant Elmer 
Doocy, a 1916 law-school graduate, who 
received the Distinguished Service Cross for 
"repeated acts of extraordinary heroism," accord- 
ing to a communique from General John J. 
Pershing, commander-in-chief of the American 
Expeditionary Force in France. 

The armistice came on November 11, 1918. 
Army Captain Ivan Elliott, a 1916 law-school 
graduate, recorded his reaction to peace: "I had a 
hard time getting away from Paris that night. 
They nearly upset the taxicab I was in to get at 
me. Seven French girls and an old woman did 
get me and hugged me." 

Armistice 

When news of the armistice arrived at Illinois 
Wesleyan, the November 22, 1918, Argus 
reported that, "As the parade passed the 
University and Kemp Hall, the girls [who made 
up the majority of the student body] throwing 
books and lessons to the wind, joined in the 
ranks." 

The joy of victory, however, was tempered 
by the grief of parents and others for the 
University's fallen heroes. These men "who gave 
their lives for Liberty and Justice in the Great 
World War" were honored at a May 30, 1919, 
memorial service at Amie Chapel. Among those 
listed in the. program for the service was George 



Herman Anna who "fought like a hero, killing 
two of the three Germans who had concentrated 
their fire on him, but was wounded by the 
third." 

Mildred Ralston of Vermont, Illinois, was 
too grief-stricken to attend the memorial serv- 
ice. She lost her son, Corporal William Ralston, 
a law-school student in 1914, when the steamer 
Otranto was torpedoed by the Germans on 
October 6, 1918, off the Scottish coast. His body 
was recovered three days later and buried with 
full military honors in a 1 7th-century church- 
yard on the Isle of Islay. 

Before sailing for France, Ralston's 22-year- 
old son had written his mother, expressing an 
optimistic sentiment reflective of the World 
War I era: "... the war will be over some day 
and I will follow the flag back home . . . with 
the supreme satisfaction of knowing that my 
duty toward my country was well and faithfully 
done and that this world will be safer and better 
for women and children." 

Post World War I Era 

The Roaring Twenties was an age of speakeasies, 
the Charleston, the "return to normalcy" under 
President Warren G. Harding, and Charles 
Lindbergh's heroic flight to Paris aboard The 
Spirit of St. Louis. Some of the decade's free 
spirit was captured at Illinois Wesleyan in events 
like the Freshman Party. 

Remember the ritual? The sophomores cut 
the freshmen's hair if they caught them having a 
party, which of course made them want to have 
a party. 

Freshmen took to Lexington, Illinois, where 
they set up a camp site near the railroad station 
water tower and "so gathering around the fire 
and roasting their wieners, they ate their 
evening meal," the 1920 Wesleyana recounted. 
Games followed until it was time to catch the 
train back to Normal. Back home, the yearbook 
reported: "... the boys armed themselves with 
clubs and anything available that they could 
find and, fearing a sudden attack of the Sophs, 



J 00 



/l/inois VW.sli'Wii ( /nirer.silv 



Ill ( \ 'I I 1 i ,1 ■•. II I iMVERslTY 



they marched with the girls in the center of 
the group to Kemp Hall, and then on to 
Bloomington. The Sophs were out, but they 
fled from the unconquerable Freshmen. And 
so this indomitable class of '22 can always say: 
'We had our party without any Sophs!" 

On another night, after a rainy three weeks 
in the spring, a progressive party was planned for 
May 8. As the crowd assembled, it was divided 
in two. One delegation headed to Kemp Hall, 
where a half-dozen fortune tellers were 
encamped "and each one was eager to lift the 
veil of mystery and disclose the secrets of the 
future," the 1920 Wesleyana reported. 

Other party stops were the Sigma Chi frater- 
nity house, where popcorn and candy were 
served and a pianist played tunes, including 



"Have a Smile for Everyone You Meet." The 
jolly group also invaded the Tau Kappa Epsilon 
fraternity house, where, according to the 
Wesleyana, "Loren Lewis, at the piano, and Rex 
Howard with his clarinet, gave a number of fine 
selections to an appreciative audience." Punch 
was served at the Phi Gamma Delta house. 

The crowd eventually returned to campus, 
where the air rang with "Dear Old [Illinois] 
Wesleyan." The editors of the yearbook, con- 
cluded with this observation: "The crowning 
glory of the party was the ample lunch served by 
the committee near the hour of midnight, the 
college doors opened and out came a host of 
young people decorated in pink, yellow, blue and 
white streamers, and in their mouths — would 
you believe it — all day suckers!" 



A 6.6-Ounce Gold Medal 



In 1978 Illinois Wesleyan received a 6.6- 
ounce, solid gold medal, measuring 63 
millimeters in diameter. The momento,the 
Acheson Medal, had been awarded to John 
Wesley Marden, class of 1909, in 1952 by the 
Electrochemical Society for his outstanding 
contributions in the science and technology 
of rare metals. The medal, turned over to the 
University by one of Marden's daughters, 
was established in 1928 to honor Edward 
Goodrich Acheson, one of the men who 
helped Thomas Edison develop the incan- 
descent lamp. 

Behind the history of the medal is the 
tale of an interesting and pioneering alum- 
nus, who was present at the creation of 
atomic energy. Marden, who received mas- 
ter's and doctor's degrees from New York 






l^fift. 



University, had taught at the universities of 
Minnesota and Missouri from 1912-20. He 
was tapped by Washington during World 
War I to probe the properties of zirconium, 
fearing the Germans were using the sub- 
stance or a derivative in their Big Bertha 



cannons, sparking his interest in rare metals. 

In 1920 he joined Westinghouse 
Research Laboratories and remained there 
until his retirement in the early 1950s. He 
studied uranium as a possible replacement 
for tungsten in lamp filaments, learning much 
about production of pure uranium that would 
play a pivotal role in World War II 's atomic- 
bomb project. Subsequently, as part of 
Manhattan Project, Marden and his associ- 
ates were called on to produce 60 tons of 
uranium, receiving War Department and 
presidential citations for the work. 

Marden was a charter member of Illinois 
Wesleyan's Science Advisory Committee, 
formed in 1954 to help guide development of 
academic programs, equipment, facilities, 
and graduate-school contacts. 



Continuity & Change 



101 



VIo Realizing tlie Jr illsomry Irian 



gS^Qd 



r 



"SI he end of World War I brought an unexpected proposal, which 
upset local loyalists, but in the end consolidated great strength 
and vision — and in many senses put the University in the 
position it occupies today. 



If other leaders of the University had been ori- 
ented toward frugal survival, President Theodore 
Kemp was the exact opposite. He knew the 
necessities of balanced current budgets, yet 
he saw clearly that future success was based on 
visionary and therefore solid, long-term 
planning. 

Efforts around 1910 had sparked vision and 
Kemp's list of needs was well honed: a library, a 
law building, a gymnasium, and a hall of lan- 
guages. Coach Fred Muhl showed additional tal- 
ents by reducing the vision to a drawing for the 
1914 yearbook, while basketball captain Fred 
Young, class of 1915, did his own parody plan in 
the same volume. 

Kemp's Vision 

There is perhaps no more glorious moment in 
the University's history than Kemp's talk to the 
Board of Trustees on December 9, 1916. Trustee 
minutes record it verbatim, with the copyist 
adding some subheads. Whether Kemp's or not, 
one of the subheads speaks for the whole: 
"Larger Plan Necessary." 

Kemp scanned the environment. State uni- 
versities were gathering thousands of students 
nearby. "What kind of school do we want Illinois 
Wesleyan to be?" he asked the board. His 
answer — a selective college of high achievement. 

With the enthusiasm of the past years, 
undergraduate enrollments were increasing. How 
far should they go? Illinois Wesleyan had grown, 
too, but wisely capped its enrollment at 500. As 
pressure for admission increased — driven by 
competition and the ever-present search for 
quality students — universities were taking only 



the best-prepared students. Kemp suggested an 
undergraduate enrollment of 500. With more 
than 500 students, a college was no longer small 
and personal friendships among teachers and stu- 
dents were diminished. 

As he spoke, there were 246 students in the 
college, gathering in four buildings on six acres. 
Law and music were in town. And, Kemp insist- 
ed on planning for the years ahead — 12 years, 
25 years, and even 50 years — even though that 
might not be adequate given the changes and 
developments in learning sure to follow. 

Two questions were key: the nature of the 
University and its location. Kemp did a quick 
estimate of the buildings Illinois Wesleyan should 
have. He was brave as he listed them unflinch- 
ingly complete with estimated costs. As a com- 
parison, he estimated costs of moving to some 
larger site and building completely anew. 

Rather than thinking the man insane as he 
suggested abandoning a campus where the sci- 
ence building was only six years old, the board 
was mesmerized. Immediately it named a site 
committee, which consulted with Kemp and 
scoured local real estate for options. The board 
gathered again on February 7. It had quick esti- 
mates on 10 buildings, either organized on the 
present site or another. When expenses of 
grounds and construction were factored together, 
the present site could be developed for $570,000, 
a new site $580,000. Kemp then had the courage 
to say an additional $500,000 dollars was needed 
for the endowment. 

The committee had worked hard. It had 
details and prices on 10 sites, ranging in size 
from 250 acres to only 20. Kemp and the board 



Buck Memorial 
Library 



I0> 



Illinois YVcs/c\«>! ( 'iii'i'i'r.silv 



MjtM 



■*» 



V* 



>p 



> *■ 




«**-*^»Vt*i- ••* . 



3*Sfe 



Realizing the Pillsbury Plan 



debated size and concluded 80 acres was a mini- 
mum. The committee disbanded ready to relo- 
cate Illinois Wesleyan University on the grounds 
of the Bloomington Country Club, then owned 
not by the club but by the heirs of an estate. 

Kemp's vision was hardly a secret. The 
February 15, 1917, Argus described the effort: "A 
new movement is now afoot at IWU the object 
of which is to provide for the development and 
expansion of the University; it is a movement 
which is heartily approved by all who are inter- 
ested in [Illinois] Wesleyan for it had long been 
felt that the school was hampered and cramped 
by its small campus and few buildings. This new 
movement, which is being watched with much 
interest, will either provide for the enlargement 
of the present campus and the erection of several 
new buildings or for the securing of an entirely 
new site for the University on which to erect the 
various department buildings . . . The tendency 
and general sentiment seems to be for the 
obtaining of a new site and a new site of not less 
than eighty acres. Public opinion leans towards 
the changing of [Illinois] Wesleyan's situation." 

Sad news came in June. Within 24 hours of 
the University's completing arrangements to buy 
the country-club grounds, the club had pulled 
itself together and made a deal with the owners. 
But the University's site remained an open issue, 
as the board wavered. Should the University buy 
adjacent properties or consider a completely new 
site? 

The Springfield Fracas 

Once the option to move was taken as real, mul- 
tiple possibilities followed. By January, 1918, the 
board had begun very quiet discussions with 
backers, who wanted to move the entire 
University to Springfield. This was no theoreti- 
cal option and there are printed plans with maps 
showing two potential Springfield locations. 
News of the Springfield option leaked in 
early 1919, just after the armistice ending World 
War I. What amounted to a protest meeting 
gathered in April, 1919, as alumni and local 



business leaders made it very clear they had not 
supported Illinois Wesleyan on the assumption it 
would be anywhere but in Bloomington. Kemp 
and his colleagues mastered the growing hubbub 
for the glory of their ongoing plan. Judge Sain 
Welty (1853-1920), class of 1881 and a graduate 
of Yale law, had been head of the board during 
talks with the Springfield interests. He now 
assumed the public role of leading Bloomington 
support to keep the University in town. Six hun- 
dred and sixty thousand dollars later the "New 
Illinois Wesleyan Campaign" had done just that. 
Included in that pledge was funding for a gymna- 
sium, the first of the many buildings, now des- 
tined to rise around the old campus. 

With these commitments in hand, Kemp 
turned to local architect Arthur A. Pillsbury to 
render in new detail what Fred Muhl had 
sketched in 1914: a real architectural plan of the 
new vision. Soon he had plans for each of the 
buildings and above all a birds-eye rendering in 
color of the completed whole. It was breathtaking. 

Architect's Vision 

Arthur Pillsbury had been designing fashionable 
buildings and houses in Bloomington for some 
time. His legacy included the Schroeder building 
(1903), Ensenberger building (1926), 
Bloomington High School, and the building at 
Miller Park Zoo. Pillsbury was commissioned to 
do a complete renovation of the University. Had 
the era been able to afford it, Illinois Wesleyan 
would have had the potential to move to an 
entirely different level. 

An April, 1920, Executive Committee report 
sketched the broad outlines of what might be 
called the "Pillsbury Plan" — an ambitious $1.1- 
million construction scheme. Laid out on 
expanded grounds was the "new" Illinois 
Wesleyan with an administration building (the 
Main Building completely refurbished), a men's 
dormitory group, four science halls, gymnasium, 
chapel, women's dormitory, and a library. 

The Executive Committee report concluded 
the library "should be erected as soon as possible. 



h'l 



Illinois Wesle 



Rtui/iNi , nil- I'u i. -in no Pi an 




The Pillsbury Campus Master Plan 1920. 



The needs of the students fairly cry out for a 
Library." The report added that, "The increased 
income necessary to support such equipment 
would require an addition of $1,320,000.00 to 
the present endowment." If the plan was execut- 
ed, according to the report, the physical plant 
would be valued at nearly $2 million with an 
endowment of $2.25 million. 

Fund-raising initially was in the hands of 
President Kemp and Albert G. Carnine, 
University field secretary and business manager. 
Carnine wrote a page-long essay for the 1922 
yearbook, detailing his philosophy. "Our business 
is to turn out moral giants, well balanced moral- 
ly, physically, and mentally, and in the degree 
that we do this on a larger scale because of an 
increased number of students, can we hope to 
become a 'Greater [Illinois] Wesleyan.'" 

President Kemp was optimistic about 
prospects in June, 1921, as he told the board that 



the University had an "increasing number of 
prospective students knocking at our doors" and 
that "a million dollar endowment fund [had 
been] raised." Kemp predicted that program, 
architecture, and endowment would put Illinois 
among "the foremost colleges ... in this or any 
land." 

First Steps 

That fall marked the first steps toward realizing 
the grand design. The gateway on Main Street 
was completed just as Pillsbury designed it. 
When local committees finished working on 
funds, the University was in a position to begin 
the gymnasium, which would rise as a memorial 
to those who had fought in World War I. Kemp 
and others laid the cornerstone on November 5, 

1921. The gymnasium was finished by June 1, 

1922, and by that time so too was Kemp. He had 
announced his intent to retire on April 18. 



Continuity & Change 



105 



Realizing the Pillsburv Plan 




Kemp wrote then that he had contemplated 
leaving for three or four years, waiting for a 
moment of stability to hand duties on to others. 
He felt some frustration in fundraising. 
Methodist conferences often grouped associated 
institutions for proportional parts of larger cam- 
paigns, therefore, the development officer 
Illinois Wesleyan had hired was often seconded 
for larger Methodist interests. The implicit les- 
son was that the University needed its own 
development efforts and its own roster of sup- 
porters. Kemp mused on things as Memorial 
Gym was finished and he decided the moment 
to leave Illinois Wesleyan had come. On July 1 
he was gone. Among Kemp's activities in later 
life was two years at Hollywood Methodist 
Episcopal Church in Los Angeles and retire- 
ment. He died on May 20, 1937, in Los Angeles. 

However, there were three more days of glory 
for Kemp as his departure neared. He gave a 
valedictory on June 12, telling the Board of 
Trustees that "these eventful years are to me 
more pleasure than all the gold of the world." 
The next day the community paid tribute to 
him at a luncheon at the Bloomington 
Consistory, an event far more than a valedictory. 
It fell to Kemp on that day to announce yet 
another great benefaction of which he had 
worked. Illinois Wesleyan would receive a 
$250,000 bequest from Martha Buck, trustee 
and widow of Hiram Buck, a long-time trustee 
and benefactor. Her gift was to go for the library, 



that great building which evoked so much of 
Kemp's energy. 

His last commencement followed on June 
14. Kemp presented diplomas to 56 seniors and 
then moved to laying the cornerstone of the new 
Buck Library. 

After Kemp's departure, administration of 
the campus was in the hands of Vice President 
Wilbert Ferguson and Dean William Wallis. 
The board did not search long, however, to find 
a successor. Indeed, the trustees never left the 
boardroom and made the president of the Board 
of Trustees the president of the University. 




William Davidson 

William J. Davidson 

William J. Davidson (1869-1968) was a logical 
choice as the next president of Illinois Wesleyan. 
After graduating from Chaddock in 1893, he 
earned another B.A. from Illinois Wesleyan in 
1894- Davidson studied divinity at Garrett and 
then alternated between teaching at Garrett and 
serving Methodist churches in Illinois, at least 
until he was chancellor of Nebraska Wesleyan 
for two years. He then returned to Garrett, 
where he had been professor of religious educa- 
tion. After Judge Sain Welty died in 1920, he 
became head of the board. Davidson was a 
logical choice to be president since he was an 
alumnus, he had led a college, and he had served 



106 



Wesleyan University 



Realizing iiii hi i ;bi 



on the Board of Trustees. He inherited the 
Kemp legacy in September, 1922. 

When Davidson became president, the 
University had a faculty of 51 with 961 students. 
The "Roaring Twenties" saw student numbers 
grow to more than 1,300 with the addition of 
schools of speech and nursing. Despite declines 
in the music school and a 50-percent reduction 
in the number of law students as the law school 
neared closure in the 1920s, the overall student 
population grew as did facilities to accommodate 
their needs. 

Under Davidson, the loyal and elegant 
Wilbert Ferguson, a fixture at the University 
since 1894, remained vice president. He had 
been on the faculty longer than anyone, serving 
as professor of modern languages. 

William Wallis was dean of the College 
of Liberal Arts. A native of southern Illinois, 
Wallis began his higher-education experience at 
Southern Illinois State Normal School before 
finishing at Ohio Wesleyan in 1894- He had 



earned an additional A.M. from the University 
of Illinois in 1920. He was a school principal in 
several Illinois cities before taking on welfare 
work in the Army's 32nd Division during World 
War I. Wallis returned to Bloomington in 1921 
and was appointed dean the following year, 
succeeding Ferguson. 

Alumni Efforts 

The 1922 yearbook reported alumni clubs in 
Chicago and New York. The secretary of the 
New York group was Sukeshige Yanagiwara, class 
of 1900, one of the University's Japanese alumni, 
illustrating the University's international reach. 

Buck Library 

Martha Buck's gilt gave new vision and new 
direction to the Pillsbury Plan. Illinois Wesleyan 
would indeed have a new library, just where 
Kemp and Pillsbury had imagined it, but 
Pillsbury would not design it. The building 
was designed in the collegiate gothic style, 




The reading room of Buck Memorial Library. 



Continuity & Change 



107 



Rl MIZINl. Till- I'll I M'.l n I'l \S 



championed by architect Ralph Adams Cram, 
and easily visible on any trip to Yale, 
Princeton, or the University of Chicago. 

For nearly 75 years, the library had shifted 
among cramped quarters in various buildings. 
Buck Memorial Library was constructed in 1922 
and dedicated in 1923. The 1925 yearbook com- 
mented that the new library was "undoubtedly 
the most artistic building on campus," and even 
today careful inspection uncovers gargoyles 
missed without a lingering look. Its original 
reading room was particularly elegant. 

Fund-Raising in the Roaring Twenties 

Three months into his tenure as president, 
William Davidson reported that he and business 
manager Albert Carnine were spending "every 
day that it was possible ... in the field . . . culti- 
vating men and women," who were interested in 
the University. He added: "We have met cordial 
response in each instance. At no point have we 
met with any antagonism to our institution or 
our plans." 

However, Davidson realized the daunting 
task faced by the University to raise sufficient 
funds to support the University's bold plans. 
Consequently, he cautioned: "... great patience 
is required not only in the doing of the work but 
in the attitude of the Board toward the men who 
are doing it. It requires a number of visits as a 
usual thing to convince a careful and able man 
that he ought to make a large gift to an educa- 
tional institution or an educational cause. When 
the gift is made, however, it becomes clear at 
once that the time has not been misspent." 
More specifically, Davidson pointed out, "We 
are still in the process of financing the gymnasi- 
um. About $25,000 worth of bonds remain 
unsold." 

By the end of Davidson's first year in office, 
he reported in June, 1923, that, "There are indi- 
cations that our work was done not entirely 
without success." He also expressed his apprecia- 
tion to the faculty, noting: "... I believe it 
would be very hard to find a faculty anywhere 




Powell Monument 

moved by a greater spirit of loyalty than is the 
faculty of the Illinois Wesleyan University." 

However, University finances still weighed 
heavily on Davidson's mind, especially the debt 
incurred by construction of Memorial 
Gymnasium. He conceded in a 1923 Board of 
Trustees' report that it would be difficult to gain 
Carnegie Corporation support for a new science 
building because of the debt. And, of course, a 
new science building was a key element of the 
ill-fated Pillsbury Plan. 

Collections and the Powell Monument 

Explorer-professor John Wesley Powell was not 
forgotten and the class of 1923 took special 
pride in creating the monument that still stands 
along the sidewalk on what is now known as the 
Eckley Quadrangle. 

The Aldrich collection, received in 1923, 
was considered to be "probably the most valu- 
able art collection in this part of the country," 
according to the Daily Pantagraph on February 20, 
1926. The collection contained original works 
by the noted English artist, Gainsborough, and 
Tintoretto, a 16th-century Venetian artist. Alas, 
they all disappeared with the Hedding Hall fire 
of 1943. 



108 



is Wesleyan University 



Tllfi PlLLSBI I i I 'I ■.'. 



Academic Programs 

The 1920s were somewhat paradoxical. Kemp's 
vision of a strong, selective school of national 
excellence was bearing fruit. Enrollment was up 
and new honorary societies appeared. Phi Kappa 
Phi became the senior honorary for overall 
excellence in any field. But specialized societies 
recognized outstanding work in particular areas. 
Theta Alpha Pi, in drama; Phi Mu Alpha, in 
music; Sigma Alpha Iota and Delta Omicron 
were music sororities; and a Women's Athletic 
Association. Yet, the appearance of oratory and 
nursing revert to Kemp's model of diversifying 
with programs offering regional usefulness. 

Twilight of the Law School 

Illinois Wesleyan University's law school first 
changed and then disappeared in the 1920s as 
the bar association placed new requirements on 
legal education. The first students in the 1870s 
had completed the law course in one year and 



might enter law school straight from high 
school. No undergraduate work was required. 
Illinois Bar Association rules later mandated a 
three-year course and in the 1920s the state leg- 
islature demanded first one and then two years 
of college before law school. 

Charles Laban Capen (1845-1927) followed 
Owen T Reeves as law-school dean in 1912. 
Another of the many natives of upstate New 
York on the early University staff, Capen had 
come to Bloomington at age 1 1 and graduated 
from Harvard in 1869. He spent two years in 
graduate work at Harvard before returning to 
Bloomington, where he was admitted to the 
Illinois bar in 1871. In 1899 he joined the 
Illinois Wesleyan law faculty. 

Paradoxically the decade that saw the law 
school's demise began with dreams of its expan- 
sion. In 1922 the administration could brag 
quietly to the yearbook writers than an enroll- 
ment of 50 had seemed amazing in the 1890s, 




College fun on 
Friday the 13th, 
1927, in Old North. 



Continuity & Change 



109 



Kl \l l/l'.i . I III I'll I '-.in |:i Pi. \--; 




Groundbreaking for Presser Hall October 13, 1927 



but in the early 1920s it stood at a solid 90 stu- 
dents. And if the University had succeeded in 
its development efforts and the general campus 
plan, then the dean hoped that one of the new 
buildings would house the law school. 

Since its inception the McLean County 
Courthouse had doubled as the Illinois 
Wesleyan law school. Indeed, in the early 1920s 
there was considerable thought of expansion and 
among the Pillsbury Plan for the University was 
a law library, which would have been the first 
law building constructed on the main campus. 

In 1924 the law school celebrated its 50th 
anniversary. The next year there were 107 law 
students enrolled and things seemed to be going 
well, but the school was a memory by 1930. 

The decision to close the law school was 
made in 1925, but the faculty decided to gradu- 
ate the remaining students. The last law-school 
class graduated on June 7, 1927. 

The beginning of the end for the law school 
came in 1923 with a ruling by the North 
Central Association of Colleges and Secondary 



Schools. That organization declared that for a 
liberal-arts college to have an accredited law 
school, it also must be accredited by the 
American Association of Law Schools (AALS). 
Among its accreditation mandates, AALS 
required that law schools have a law library of 
no less than 5,000 volumes and at least three 
full-time professors. Illinois Wesleyan was a 
Class A college by the standards of the North 
Central Association and it lacked the funds to 
meet the AALS requirements. The faculty came 
to the reluctant conclusion that they could only 
graduate the current students and close. 

Dean Capen resigned in 1923 and by 1926- 
27 enrollment had logically dwindled to 26 stu- 
dents. Almost as a celebration at the very end, 
the McLean County Bar Association gave a din- 
ner on May 21, 1927, the very day Lindbergh 
landed in Paris. It was a last gathering of alumni 
while the school still endured. They all knew 
that when classes finished that spring, so did the 
Illinois Wesleyan School of Law. 



110 



Illinois Wesleyan Vni 



Realizing the Pillsbury Plan 




College Dance in the Memorial Gym 1927. 



The School of Music Prospers 

While the law school disappeared, the School of 
Music prospered. In the fall of 1919 a building 
directly opposite the campus at University 
Avenue and East Street was purchased and its 
studios were equipped with grand pianos while 
the practice rooms were provided with upright 
pianos. It was a halfway measure, for students 
still divided their time between the new house 
and the buildings downtown. The program still 
grew, and in 1925, it was occupying two more 
buildings. 

In retrospect Dean Arthur Westbrook 
brought magic when he arrived in 1922, as the 
college merged with the Bloomington School of 
Music. The roster soared to 300 students. 

Arthur Lovejoy who brought the Jazz Age to 
the School of Music, marches through Illinois 
Wesley an University's yearbooks like the golden 
youth of F. Scott Fitzgerald. He organized a jazz 
band — the Illinois Wesleyan Collegiates — and 
got them booked as the talent on a French 



ocean liner bound from New York to France in 
the summer of 1928. The February 10, 1928, 
Daily Pantagraph reported that the group had "a 
six week's engagement in a Paris hotel or cafe 
and a trip through central Europe before they 
play their way back to New York again." Lovejoy 
organized the Apollo Club and bought them lots 
of train tickets to Chicago to broadcast, some- 
times nationally, on WGN and NBC radio. The 
Apollo Quartet continued as heir of that club 
decades after Lovejoy left the faculty. Vera Pearl 
Kemp, however, brought the classics to lunch. 
Students knew her as professor of organ, but 
shoppers remembered her for organizing string 
quartets to play in local department tea rooms. 
She also is credited with sending the yearbook 
the most artistic of faculty photographs. 

Construction of Presser Hall 

The already robust music program advanced fur- 
ther with construction of Presser Hall in 1928-30, 
the last stand ot the Pillsbury Plan. The building 



Continuity & Changt 



RtAMZlNl, nil: ril.l>WMCl PLAN 



Hedding College Building 

in Abingdon, Illinois. 

The columns for the 

Sesquicentennial 

Gateway came 

from this building. 




was made possible hy a conditional pledge of 
$75,000 from the Presser Foundation, established 
by the well-known Philadelphia music publisher, 
Theodore Presser (18484925). 

The $190,000 facility contained 24 studios, 
plus recital halls, classrooms, practice rooms, and 
offices, according to the 1931 catalogue account, 
which added: "It is equipped with five pipe 
organs and 58 pianos. Its sound proof construc- 
tion and convenient appointments remove the 
more serious handicaps under which the work of 
this growing school was for several years con- 
ducted. Presser Hall was dedicated on February 
3, 1930." No one knew it at the time, but Presser 
Hall was the last building constructed that fol- 
lowed the program and design developed by 
Pillsbury and Kemp. 

Schools of Speech and Nursing 

Two new schools appeared in the academic year 
1924-25. The first development of 1924-25 
seems odd — the creation of a School of Oratory, 



exactly what Delmar Darrah had been running 
in the 1890s. The school offered a course of 
study leading to a reintroduced degree: the bach- 
elor of oratory. From one short description, it 
seemed more oriented toward producing actors 
than stump speakers. Yet one assessment said the 
course "was organized to meet the ever- increas- 
ing demand of students for an opportunity to 
specialize in the field of public speaking from a 
professional standpoint." 

That same year the University joined 
Brokaw Hospital in creating a School of Nursing. 
As originally planned, it was a five-year program 
leading to a bachelor of science degree and a 
graduate nurse's diploma. The first two years 
were spent at the University, the third year split, 
and the last two at the hospital. 

Home economics remained but placed less 
emphasis on cookery and more on textiles and 
design, though dietetics still was an important 
component. 



112 



Illinois Wesle 



Rl:AII/IKi, nil: Pill Mil 1RY Pi, 




m\ 



Heddmg Hall with Old North in the background. 



A Memorable Debate 

It was February 23, 1922 — the day after a snowy 
Washington's Birthday holiday — when the 
Ripon College debate team visited Bloomington. 
Ripon defeated Illinois Wesleyan, 2-1. However, 
this contest is remembered because of the later 
fame of a Ripon debater. 

Spencer Tracy, later the Academy Award- 
winning actor, was a Ripon team member. The 
debate was recalled during a 1977 visit to Illinois 
Wesleyan by Curtis MacDougall, the famed jour- 
nalism professor-emeritus at Northwestern 
University, who was among the Ripon debaters 
and one of Tracy's fraternity brothers. 

"We went to the Auditorium Theatre in 
Chicago the night before our debate at [Illinois] 
Wesleyan and saw Lionel Barrymore in The 
Claw," MacDougall recalled. "'Spence' came out 
of the movie and said, 'That settles it I'm going 
to be an actor.' He later appeared with 
Barrymore in movies." 



Campus Life in the Jazz Age 

The Jazz Age at Illinois Wesleyan was summed up 
by the Argus 15 years after the fact. On April 4, 
1939, an article headlined "Traditionally Yours" 
revealed "approximately fifteen years ago, dances 
were an occasion to be hushed up. If the author- 
ities got wind of a dance, it was just too bad. 
Sororities gave their dances in the names of pri- 
vate individuals. The alumni sometimes succeed- 
ed in giving it for them. On certain occasions, 
students had to have written permits from their 
parents in order to attend a dance." 

Traditional rigidity of Illinois Wesleyan 
social rules got publicity without perhaps chang- 
ing student behavior. Even in 1904 the Argus for 
example cited a Chicago Maroon article reporting 
that the IWU faculty had "prohibited dancing, 
card-playing, and theatre-going." However, 
enforcement seemed to be lax. A 1912 Argus 
editorial noted: "These regulations, however, 
have not been observed as judiciously as they 
might have been and a great deal of advantage 



OveHeaf: 
North side of 
Presser Hall shortly 
after it opened 



Continuity & Change 



113 



J \t. 



&. 



M^ 7 ! 






w 






'E 

I 



*adU 



£1' 




,; '.•■;■■".;.■ ■' 



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Kl \ l/IM .Ml! I'll I -.111 ll'i l'i \r. 



has been taken." In 1916 dances were going on, 
though the board reaffirmed its prohibition. 

The Legacies of Chaddock and Hedding 

The roster of Illinois Wesleyan alumni increased 
dramatically in 1928 without a single additional 
graduate walking across a stage to receive a diplo- 
ma. Even before the Great Depression cast a dark 
shadow across the country, Illinois Wesleyan 
became heir to Hedding College of Abingdon, 
Illinois, a victim of economic troubles. 

Illinois Wesleyan had absorbed Chaddock 
College in 1878, which fell to poor management, 
and Hedding, too, faced economic pressures. 
Hedding Collegiate Seminary had opened in a 
Methodist Church in the 1850s. A charter was 
obtained in February, 1857, incorporating the 
institution under the name of Hedding Seminary 
and Central Illinois Female College. Hedding's 
first building also was constructed in 1857 and 
another structure was occupied in 1874. In 
August, 1875, articles of incorporation were 
granted by the state of Illinois under the name of 
Hedding College. Jabez R. Jaques, professor of 
languages, had served as Hedding College presi- 
dent for three years in the 1880s. 

Merger discussions started around 1920. 
Hedding ceased to be a degree-granting college 



in 1922, but continued to operate as a junior 
college until 1926. In June, 1928, Hedding alum- 
ni were formally adopted by action of the 
trustees. In December, 1930, the trustees entered 
into a contract with Hedding's trustees by which 
the endowment and annuities of that college 
were transferred to Bloomington The following 
March the Illinois Wesleyan board renamed 
"Old Mam" to "Hedding Hall." 

There is an interesting story associated with 
the Hedding Bell, now a campus fixture near 
Presser Hall. The bell was used to announce 
classes at Hedding from 1885 to 1918. For its 
first three years in Bloomington, it was inside 
Hedding Hall. Some wanted to put it in the bel- 
fry of Old North, since the University's original 
bell had been given away. But, what to do with 
the Hedding Bell? 

A special monument seemed appropriate, but 
there was a lack of funds for construction. As 
often happened, the Student Union took over. 
Under the direction of Student Union President 
Richard Postlethwait, class of 1936, students 
contributed nickels and dimes as they entered 
the chapel. Enough money was collected to build 
the monument, which was dedicated during a 
downpour at Homecoming, 1934. 



The First Rhodes Scholar: Reuben Borsch 



Reuben Borsch, class of 1925, had a page- 
long profile in the 1925 yearbook. It could 
have been in any section, for the first Rhodes 
Scholar from Illinois Wesleyan was active in 
virtually everything. He majored in social sci- 
ence, was president of his class as a sopho- 
more, the same year he was editor of the 
Argus. He was on the baseball team four 
years, captain as a senior, yet he was also in 




Masquers, the drama club and he was active 
in debate his last two years. 

As a Rhodes Scholar, Borsch studied at 
Oxford University in England, where he 
received a bachelor of civil laws degree. He 
joined the Chicago firm of Winston, Strawn & 
Shaw in 1928, where he practiced law for the 
next 48 years. Borsch also was a long-time 
trustee. 



116 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



Rl -\l.l/ISi, [111: PlLLM'.UKY Pi... 



*: 4 - ' 




President Davidson and 
John Phillip Sousa. 



President Holmes and 
Adlai E. Stevenson III. 



Continuity & Change 1 1 7 



VII 



Jepression Years 




Paint Day during 
the Depression 
years saw faculty 
and staff help to 
maintain the 
campus facilities. 
Here the faculty 
gets ready to 
paint rooms in 
Hedding Hall. 



resident Herbert Hoover was bullish over the U.S. economy 
early in 1929. "A twelve month of unprecedented advance," he 
declared. However, beneath the surface, cracks were growing in 
the nation's economy and Illinois Wesleyan was not immune to 
the collapse which followed. 



Wild speculation sent stock prices to their zenith 
on September 3, 1929, followed by a slow, meas- 
ured decline toward a slump on October 24. Five 
days later, on October 29, 16.4-million shares 
were traded as huge blocks of stock were dumped 
by investors. That cataclysmic day went down in 
history as "Black Tuesday." By December 1, secu- 
rities on the New York Stock Exchange had 
plummeted in value by $26 billion. 

The Great Depression had begun. More than 
1,300 banks shut their doors by the end of 1930. 
By 1932 the decline into economic oblivion 
resulted in 13 -million jobless workers. 

The Depression Hits 

The financial affect of the 1929 stock-market 
crash on Illinois Wesleyan was not immediately 
apparent. However, a "Safety Fund Campaign" 
was launched in 1930, operating from February 
20 to December 30. President William Davidson 
headed the campaign, which had a target of rais- 
ing $750,000. Ultimately, the effort amassed 
$843,333. 

By this time, the University had accumulat- 
ed a deficit of more than $200,000 in operating 
expenses. To cover that debt — and the financial 
pressures triggered by the Great Depression — the 
trustees issued bonds totaling $250,000. 

A Resignation 

President Davidson resigned two years later on 
March 16, 1932. It was hardly a surprise because 
he had been talking with the board about quit- 
ting for months. Brushing aside concerns about 
his health, the board urged him to remain. The 
Pillsbury Plan was far from realized, but 



Davidson, the trustees, and faculty could look 
back with real satisfaction to construction of 
Presser Hall, a substantial endowment, and other 
advances. 

The 1933 yearbook called Davidson a 
"beloved leader and friend" of all students. 
Despite worries about his health, Davidson did 
not retire. In truth, he succeeded his successor. 
Davidson became pastor of the First Methodist 
Church in Springfield, Illinois, when that post 
became vacant as Harry W. McPherson moved 
north to become president of Illinois Wesleyan. 

Harry McPherson Named President 

Harry Wright McPherson ( 1879-1957), a 1906 
graduate, became the third alumnus president 
when he took office in 1932. Born in 
Cumberland County, Illinois, McPherson had 
first come to the campus as a student in the 
academy. He knew student activities from hav- 
ing done them. In his own college years he had 
been a member of the Student Council, as well 
as editor of the Argus and the Wesleyana. He 
also had been in the Oratorical Society, male 
quartet, glee club, track team, Oxford Club, and 
YMCA. After graduation, he went to Boston 
University for divinity school before he was 
ordained to the Methodist ministry. As a 
Methodist minister in Springfield, he had given 
a Founders' Day talk and now he was chosen 
president of the University, an institution he 
already knew otherwise from the inside as a 16- 
year veteran member of the Board of Trustees. 

When McPherson took office, America was 
in the depths of the Great Depression. Franklin 
Roosevelt was elected president ot the United 



Continuity & Change 



I III l>l TUITION Yh.\K> 




Harry W. McPherson 

States the same year McPherson assumed the 
presidency. Wages had dropped 60 percent since 
1929, white-collar salaries were down 40 percent, 
the jobless rate had tripled since 1930, reaching 
24 percent in 1932, and the Federal Reserve 
Board's production index had plummeted 55 per- 
cent since 1929. The popular 1932 tune 
"Brother, Can You Spare a Dime!" captured the 
spirit of the economic quagmire in which 
McPherson was now to run a university. 

Dismal Financial Outlook 

Illinois Wesleyan's financial outlook was bleak 
with accumulated debt of $266,000, the product 
of a decade of deficit spending. Creditors were 
threatening lawsuits and foreclosures, arguments 
the University understood well since it had about 
450 overdue accounts, ranging from 50 cents to 
$17,000. University salaries shared in the prob- 
lem and the success of the time. Staff were kept, 
but with salary cuts of 30 percent or more, while 
continued loans were nudging permissible loan 
limits. 

In writing the centennial history in 1950, 
Professor Elmo Scott Watson spoke to 
McPherson. As a trustee, McPherson had worried 
about piling up debt. "I often think this attitude," 
McPherson said, "had something to do with my 
being thrown into the midst of the stream and 
left to swim- or else!" as IWU president. 



When rumors abounded that the University 
might not open for 1932-33, McPherson released 
a statement of brisk confidence: "On September 
9 Illinois Wesleyan will go into another year with 
the best and most modern college curriculum it 
has ever had to offer students." 

That optimism was justified, for enrollments 
in the fall of 1932 showed a paradoxical 8-per- 
cent increase over the previous year. Other 
campuses found their count 13-percent down. 

A New Tuition Plan 

If he did not plan it as a publicity stunt, he 
should have. In September, 1932, McPherson 
announced the "Farm Produce for Tuition" plan. 
As early as September 9, the Argus reported: 
"Much excitement has been created by the 
recent announcement that [Illinois] Wesleyan is 
accepting farm goods for tuition." McPherson 
and business manager Nate Crabtree recognized 
that farmers had produce, maybe not cash. 
Crabtree even offered the appeal of a premium 
beyond market price. 

The plan generated many deliveries and 
national and international news coverage. The 
Chicago Tribune reported on the IWU initiative, 
sparking newspaper accounts coast-to-coast. 
Paramount filmed "Farm Products for Tuition" as 
a "scoop" for its newsreel, Eyes and Ears of the 
World. The cameras recorded Justin Alikonis, 
class of 1935, chasing a pig and after catching it 
telling business manager Nate Crabtree that he 
wished to have the barnyard animal applied to 
his tuition: - His request was granted. (By the way, 
Alikonis, a chemistry graduate, maintained his 
interest in food. He went on to become a bril- 
liant scientist who revolutionized candy and 
other foods. His ration and survival bars went 
into battle with U.S. soldiers in three wars and 
astronauts took his candy — loaded with calories 
and vitamins — into space as part of their survival 
gear.) News of the produce-for-tuition gambit 
even went as far as London, where a Daily 
Express headline read "Back to Barter at an 
American University: Cattle Accepted." 



20 



Illinois Wesleyan University 




The Faculty 1930. 



McPherson and Crabtree still had other 
money-saving ploys with cooperative houses 
as components of a "work for part of tuition" 
program. In January, 1933, the University 
announced room rates at $1.10 a week, board 
at $2.75 or $3. 

Faculty dedication also helped keep operat- 
ing costs low during these lean years. In January, 
1933, McPherson reported to the board that a 
portion of faculty salaries was being paid in 
"scrip" rather than currency. That the overall 
operating budget was $40,000 below the previ- 
ous year helped, too. 

Student Life in the Depression Era 

The 1933 yearbook gives a good outline of stu- 
dent activities during these tough years, tales 
which appear perhaps more dreary in the 
recounting than they were at the time. Some 
photographs of the period would give no clue 
that an economic crisis was underway. 

The Argus flourished under the editorship of 
Virgil Martin, class of 1932, who would go on 



to be chairman of Carson Pirie Scott, the 
department-store chain. Martin made school 
spirit and appearance a bit of a cause. The fence 
at Wilder Field had not been painted for some 
time. The University treasury lacked funds, so 
Martin organized a collection at the chapel of 
September 30, 1931, to buy the paint, and the 
entire University took a day off on October 1 , 
when faculty and students redecorated Wilder 
Field. It was shabby no more. 

Homecoming in 1931 was November 6, with 
about 100 cars in the parade and a huge pep rally 
at Bloomington's Courthouse. It was even better 
when the football team beat Bradley and Herbie 
Kay and the WGN radio orchestra from Chicago 
played for the first Homecoming dance. 

Tales of the economically depressed 1930s as 
a time of taut seriousness seem dubious com- 
pared to the record of Homecoming, 1932. The 
police were not as pleased at the students, when 
George Withey, class of 1932, led a snake dance 
of students from campus to Bloomington's 
Courthouse. The rest of the morning was spent 



Continuity & Change 



121 



Till Dh['KH>slON YHAKs 



dancing in the gym. There were more festivities 
on Monday. The Majestic Theatre — the vaude- 
ville house built on the site of the Methodist 
church where classes were in 1851 — admitted 
the students free that afternoon and at night 
they were hack in the gym for more dancing. 
The seniors missed it all because they were hav- 
ing Piker's Day at Lake Bloomington. 

On December 9 De Wolfe Hopper appeared 
on the Majestic Theatre stage to perform 
excerpts from the Mikado by Gilbert and 
Sullivan. Since the turn-of-the-century Hopper 
had been one of the biggest names in American 
musical comedy. On a more sober note, that 
same day, there was the annual Phi Kappa Phi 
address by University of Illinois Professor E. L. 
Bogart on "The Place of the United States in 
the World of Depression." Despite the bleakness 
of the times, the Carnival Dance took place in 
the gym on December 12. 

The Titans, the moniker now carried by 
Illinois Wesleyan's athletic teams, celebrated 
New Year's Eve 1932 in the gym by beating 
Cornell University 33-22 in a basketball contest 
and within days the Apollo Club left on a 
singing tour aimed at recruiting new students. 

Just as exams were about to begin in January, 
1932, President Davidson announced that the 
faculty had changed the grading system from A, 
B, C, and D to H, S, and P. This change trig- 
gered some student complaints. An editorial in 
the January 17, 1933, Argus commented: "What 
are the advantages of our grading system over 
the methods more commonly used ? When the 
new grading system was put into operation here, 
it was ostensibly for the purpose of eliminating as 
nearly as possible the tendency of the students to 
work for grades. It was thought that good grades 
should not take the place of desire for knowledge 
as a motive for studying . . . However, there are 
students who have been accustomed to consider 
good grades the only motive for hard work dur- 
ing twelve years previous to matriculation and 
who will allow inborn laziness to influence them 
if they are not spurred by the desire of the 
esteem of their fellow students ..." 



While the rest of the school was on semester 
break, the Apollo Club performed on two 
Chicago radio stations, WMAQ and WGN, and 
sang over the national NBC radio network as 
well. With the help of Alumni Secretary Nathan 
Lewis Crabtree, class of 1929, in making these 
connections, they were sure they had enter- 
tained about 12-million people during the year. 

The campus was moved by Paul Harris, a 
return visitor from the National Council for the 
Prevention of War. He was on the campus 
February 15-17, 1932, and the excitement of his 
visit spurred creation of a student Committee on 
International Peace, which began formulating 
decided opinions on the Manchurian situation 
in the aftermath of Japan's 1931 occupation of 
that Chinese province. 

January and February of 1932 brought other 
intercollegiate contests as the debate team took 
on regional colleges. 

Doing its part for the needy in the communi- 
ty, and keeping up the plan of a dance-a-month, 
students brought old clothes and canned food 
as admission to a Welfare Frolic on February 23, 
1932. 

There was a guest speaker who discussed 
Middle East issues, while faculty speakers created 
new interest in different ways as they reported 
on curricular trends such as fields of concentra- 
tion, survey courses, and senior examinations. 

The Women's Athletic Association held its 
annual Diasia, a great costume festival with 
prizes in this case for two women who dressed as 
George and Martha Washington. Held every 
February, the Diasia was named for an ancient 
Greek festival. 

Professor Don Allen of English was named 
head of the Illinois Wesleyan Night School, a 
non-credit program that began in March, 1932. 
The October 6, 1932, edition of the Argus 
reported: "... members o( the liberal arts and 
music school faculties taught courses of a cultural 
as well as a vocational nature. It is estimated 
that about fifty students were enrolled in this 
school. The expenses were defrayed by a small 
tuition charge for each course . . . [The night 



122 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



Till- ntl'KI-.^ION Yl:ARS 



school has acted] as an agent for good will 
between the people of the community and those 
of the University." 

More than 300 women showed up for 
Woman's Day on April 8, 1932. The spring 
Water Carnival and another dance were part of 
this visitors' weekend. On the admissions and 
marketing fronts, too, were the 700 students who 
converged on the campus from 86 high schools 



on April 22-23. They came for the Illinois 
Wesleyan Music and Literary contest, at the end 
of which the University gave out 32 scholarships 
in music and liberal arts. For those who missed 
that round, the Daily Pantapraph announced an 
essay contest on "Why [Illinois] Wesleyan 
Attracts Me." Essay-contest awards were 20 
scholarships to Illinois Wesleyan, valued at 
$2,170. 




The Founders' Gates 
circa 1920. 



Continuity & Change 



123 



Till- Ohl'KI-sMON YhARs 



On April 22, 1932, the Masquers, the theatre 
group that began in 1915, produced a classic 
French play, Love and Chance , a comedy by 
Marivaux first staged in 1730. The production, 
the 1933 Wesley ana reported, was the fourth 
American production of the play. Among cast 
members were football standout Tony Blazine, 
class of 1935, and future retailing executive Virgil 
Martin, class of 1932. 

The Greek houses showed great spring activi- 
ty on April 27 with a Stunt Show. The winners 
were the Sigma Kappa sorority and the Phi 
Gamma Delta fraternity. Then May 12 was 
declared another Piker's Day and seniors went off 
to Lake Bloomington for a fun-filled day. Once 
they returned to campus, they made Dean 
William Wallis an honorary member of their class. 

May was filled with the Junior and Senior 
Prom and fraternity and sorority dances, all lead- 
ing up to commencement. There was little com- 
plaining about the dreary times with the authors 
of the 1933 Wesleyana declaring the year "one of 
the greatest" in the University's history. 

There are some paradoxes in the Great 
Depression years. The first fraternity had a house 
in 1899. By 1925 only the law fraternity did not 
have a house. There were eight sororities, none 
of them with a house, but by 1929 all six fraterni- 
ties had houses and so, too, did all eight sorori- 
ties. If the late 1920s brought houses for the 
women, they also brought varsity sports. The first 
were volleyball and tennis, a few years later vol- 
leyball, basketball, hockey, and "baseball." Title 
IX, federal legislation requiring equality for 
female athletics, was long in the future, for men 
had eight varsity sports, with football, basketball, 
baseball, track, tennis, golf, swimming, and now 
sometimes wrestling. 

Carl Sandburg and Clarence Darrow 

Tight times did not preclude bringing interesting 
visitors to campus. 

In the late spring of 1930 famed poet and 
Abraham Lincoln biographer Carl Sandburg 



appeared. The Argus reported: "For one and one 
half hours the tall slim figure, dressed in plain 
clothes stood with scarcely a movement, 
explaining the tendencies in arts and poetry, 
reading his own verse, telling jokes, and singing 
folk songs of the prairie." Sandburg offered 38 
definitions of poetry, including: "Poetry is a pack 
sack of invisible keepsakes." He concluded: 
'"Your faces have been good to see and it has 
been good to be here' — He left the stage, carry- 
ing his guitar stiffly by its neck." 

April, 1933, brought Clarence Darrow — the 
Chicago attorney who had defended Nathan 
Leopold and Richard Loeb in a celebrated mur- 
der case and John T Scopes in the infamous 
"monkey trial" over the teaching of evolution. 
The Argus summarized: "Mr. Darrow with his 
cutting sarcasm laid bare the crime of the rich 
people upheld by religious faith which I [the 
article's author] did not include in my article 
because your new editorial writer is planning 
on graduating in June." 

Musicians were no less impressed in October, 
1937, when Marcel Dupre played in Presser 
Hall. Organist of St. Sulpice in Paris, Dupre 
was known for his amazing improvisations and 
during the course of the evening improvised an 
entire symphony in four movements. 

McPherson's Accomplishments 

President Harry McPherson's accomplishments 
went considerably beyond the University's bal- 
ance sheet. During the 1933-34 school year, for 
example, health programs were established for 
students. Times were improving by January, 
1935. Mary Hardtner Blackstock gave $10,000 
toward a women's residence hall and the follow- 
ing January community supporters sought to 
raise $30,000 and eventually tallied about 
$45,000. In June, 1937, when the University 
bought the Benson residence on North East 
Street it became Blackstock Hall. 



24 



Wc.slcyan University 



Till: [)|:I'KKSSKIN Yl-.ARs 




Mary Hardtner Blackstock 

Campus improvements were made during the 
McPherson era. Historic Amie Chapel was 
remodeled and converted into a smaller auditori- 
um with a seating capacity of about 300. The 
balance of the space was transformed into class- 
rooms. A house on Park Street became the 
President's Home and the University acquired a 
radio station, when WJBC moved from LaSalle, 
Illinois, to Bloomington and was located in Old 
North, broadcasting as "WJBC at [Illinois] 
Wesleyan." 

Wilder Field continued much as it bad in the 
1890s. The federal Works Progress Administra- 
tion (WPA), a New Deal agency, offered a major 
upgrade, as the University joined the community 
and the Bloomington Association of Commerce 
in turning the park into a community stadium. 
The proposal went to the WPA in March, 1937, 
and the Argus on September 14 reported ground 
had been broken for the stadium "where, in the 
future, 3,500 spectators would see contests in 
football, baseball, and track." Four years later the 
$200,000 stadium was completed. 

Curriculum changes in the College of Liberal 
Arts followed the faculty's commitment to give 
students a broader world view. A divisional 
organization plan was introduced and majors and 
minors were replaced by fields of concentration, 
adding flexibility to the curriculum. Seminars 
and individual conference courses at the junior 
level also were added. 



"The Ole Bus" 

In the midst of the Great Depression the 
University bought a bus. The Argus described 
the impact of "The Ole Bus" in an April 12, 
1935, appreciation. 

The [Illinois] Wesleyan Bus, purchased in 
1933, accommodated 36 passengers — including 
the driver. It toted various student groups around 
the country, including the football and men's bas- 
ketball teams, the a cappella choir, the glee clubs, 
picnickers, prospective students, and others. 

In its first two years of operation, the bus 
logged more than 18,000 miles, including its 
longest journey to Alabama. "The bus," accord- 
ing to the Argus , "has made an average of three 
trips a week, has a governor which is set to per- 
mit a maximum speed of 50 miles per hour, uses 
a gallon of gasoline every five miles, and holds 
28 quarts of oil at a time." 

Travelers aboard the bus put it to creative 
use. "People have been known to sleep in the 
baggage racks, above the heads of others, even 
bringing pillows and robes for that purpose," the 
Argus observed. 




Wiley G. Brooks 



President Wiley G. Brooks 

Ohioan Wiley G. Brooks was a distinct departure 
as McPherson's successor. He was the first 



Continuity & Change 



.25 



The Depression Years 



The early studio for 
WJBC was in North Hall. 




president who was not a Methodist minister, 
although he was the son of a Methodist preach- 
er. He arrived on campus in 1937. 

Brooks had studied at Baker University 
before he graduated from Nebraska's York 
College in 1910. He took a second bachelor's 
degree in education from Nebraska State 
Teachers College the following year, then was 
superintendent of schools in several districts in 
Idaho, Nebraska, and Iowa. He was also head of 
Burlington (IA) Junior College. Along the way 
he worked in a master's degree from Columbia 
University and a doctorate from the University 
of Iowa. 



Students dedicated their 1938 yearbook to 
him, saying that the new president had found a 
"place at the heart of [Illinois] Wesleyan." Yet a 
year later he left for the Institute for Educational 
Research at Columbia University. In 1941 he 
returned to Nebraska as president of Nebraska 
State Teachers College at Chadron. 

Powell Museum 

The Powell Museum of Natural Sciences, a long- 
time campus landmark, continued during the 
Great Depression years, still located on the third 
floor of Hedding Hall, with its collection of pot- 
tery, geological and botanical specimens, plus 



.26 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



rut ni-PM-.s-n is vi \i- 



other items. New gifts were still arriving. R. E. 
Smith gave a collection of Civil War relics, plus 
a collection of seeds, and there was the George 
R. Harrison collection of 5,000 geological and 
archeological items, plus a collection of 1,200 
pieces of stone craftsmanship. 

Some of the Powell pottery remains today 
because it was moved to another building, but 
the rest of the museum, together with the 
Aldrich collection of paintings, perished in the 
1943 fire that consumed Hedding Hall. 

Depression-Era Students 

Among the students in the Great Depression 
years of the 1930s was Edelbert Rodgers, class of 
1933, an African- American who was born in a 
shack in rural Mississippi in 1909, according to 
an August 14, 1993, article in the Flint Journal. 

Rodgers, the eldest of 10 siblings, worked, 
earning $18 a week. He saved $17 of that sum 
for college. In 1929 Rodgers entered Illinois 
Wesleyan, majoring in sociology and economics. 
He was one of only four Black students enrolled 
in the University at the time. 

Rodgers, a member of the debate team, fond- 
ly remembered Samuel Ratcliffe, a sociology pro- 



fessor, in a 1993 interview. "I'd eat at his house," 

Rodgers said, adding, "... [Ratcliffe] 
was kind of like a father to me." 

After Illinois Wesleyan, Rodgers continued 
his education, earning a master's degree in psy- 
chology from the University of Minnesota in 
1942 and ultimately a doctorate from New York 
University. 

Another Depression-era student was Melba 
Kirkpatrick, class of 1932, who earned a bache- 
lor of arts degree in drama and English literature. 
She headed the drama department from 1936-42 
and later served as theatre director at the 
University of Kansas City for a half-dozen years. 
She also founded a touring summer stock theatre 
group. 

After graduating, Kirkpatrick continued her 
studies in New York and earned a master's degree 
from Northwestern University. She won acclaim 
for her monologue performances, as well as for 
roles such as Madame Arcati in Noel Coward's 
Blythe Spirit, and as Elwood P. Dowd's ditsy 
mother in the popular comedy Harvey. 
Kirkpatrick, who was named Distinguished 
Alumna in 1968, established the E. Melba 
Johnson Kirkpatrick Theatre Artists Series in 



Play Ball 



Scott Anderson received his diploma in 
1935— an event that put him on a course that 
brightened nighttime baseball and other sci- 
entific accomplishments. Anderson, who 
earned master's and doctoral degrees from 
the University of Illinois, early in his career 
worked at the University of Chicago's metal- 
lurgical laboratories on the development of 
stainless uranium. 

Near the end of World War II, he opened 
Anderson Physics Laboratories, Inc., of 




Champaign, Illinois. There he developed the 
process to purify salts and amalgams used in 
the manufacture of electric lamps, pioneer- 
ing work which earned him patents for crys- 
tals used to manufacture lights for baseball 
fields. 

Anderson received an Illinois 
Wesleyan honorary doctorate in 1960 and 
the Distinguished Alumnus Award in 1980. 
In 1982 he established the Anderson Physics 
Scholarship. 



Continuity & Change 



111 



Tut Depression Years 



1971. The series brought to some of the 
nation's most distinguished performers including 
actress Helen Hayes ("the first lady of the 
American theatre") and seven-time Academy 
Award-winning producer-director-actor John 
Houseman. Illinois Wesleyan's laboratory theatre 
was named for her in 1993 in recognition for her 
patronship of the arts. 

Campus Organizations 

Students were involved in many campus organi- 
zations during the 1930s. One of these groups was 
the Student Union, which the 1935 Wesley ana 
described as "composed of elected members from 
every fraternal organization on campus . . . [it] 
exists for the purpose of establishing better rela- 
tionships and understanding between faculty and 
students, forwarding student activities." 

The Baconian Club was composed of stu- 
dents who had completed at least 30 hours of 
college work, including a year of natural science 
and who intended to elect science as a field of 
concentration. College friendship among stu- 
dents and faculty was a goal of this group. 

The English Coffee Club, founded in 1920, 
provided informal meetings for lectures, music, 
and other activities. The tradition of serving cof- 
fee still exists, remarked the 1934 Wesley ana, 
which observed that the club was open to any 
student interested in literature. 

A Home Economics Club was available to 
female students who were majoring or minoring 
in that field. The Upakaraka was another organi- 
zation for female students. It was organized on 
campus in 1931 to promote fellowship among 
non-sorority women and to serve as a conduit for 
their representation in campus activities. A simi- 
lar group was organized for men, the Illinois 
Wesleyan Independents. It was an organization of 
non-fraternity men chartered, according to the 
1934 Wesleyana, "to make the social life of each 
one of its members a worthwhile one." 

Other activities in the late 1920s and early 
1930s reached out to prospective students. 
Women's Day, for example, was set aside for 



female high-school students to visit Illinois 
Wesleyan. The day included music, art, a lunch- 
eon, tea, and a short play. 

Sports in the 1930s 

The 1930s saw many achievements in sports. In 
1930 the baseball team began a decade of 
unparalleled achievement, compiling a record of 
102-1 1. The baseball team in 1930 took its first 
spring road trip to the South, marking the start of 
a decades'-long annual event. Physical-education 
minors were first allowed for women in 1930-31. 
A clear sign that women's athletics was taking on 
greater dimensions was seen in 1931, when the 
Argus added a women's sports editor to cover the 
increasing number of women's intramural events. 

Football coach J. Norman Elliott, class of 
1916, twice captain of the basketball team, 
began a four-year streak in 1931, where the 
team's record was 19-11-4, for a .618 winning 
percentage. Part of the football team's success 
was credited to players like defensive tackle- 
offensive lineman Tony Blazine, class of 1935, 
who earned first-team honors on the Associated 
Press minor-college team in 1935. Blazine holds 
the record for most minutes played in the 
College All-Star game: 57 minutes. Blazine, the 
all-star squad's starting left tackle, had several 
notable teammates: Gerald Ford, the future U.S. 
president; Don Hutson, who became a famous 
end with the Green Bay Packers; and Phil 
Bengtson, who later coached the Packers. Blazine 
played professionally for the Chicago Cardinals 
and New York Giants. 

Athletics, the Great Depression, and 
School Spirit 

Athletics played important social and education- 
al roles in campus life, especially in the bleak 
years of the 1930s. During these tough times, 
athletics added to school spirit and provided 
uplifting moments. 

The 1934 Wesleyana, for example, called the 
past year's football team "the greatest Titan foot- 
ball machine in the history of the school! 



12 x 



Illinois Wesleyan University 




* >* 









The Depression Years 




J. Norman Elliot 

Marching through the toughest opposition in 
the conference to an inevitable championship, 
the Green and White finished the season unde- 
feated and unscored upon by conference foes." 

That same yearbook also offered kudos to the 
baseball team, noting it took second place in the 
1932 Little Nineteen Conference, winning all 
but three conference games out of a stiff 23- 
game schedule. 

The Illinois "Wesleyan Splashers," the swim 
team, placed first in every event, according to 
the 1934 Wesleyana, "to win the Little Nineteen 
Swimming Championship," while setting four 
new records for the 100-yard breast stroke, 220- 
yard free style, 100-yard back stroke, and the 
150-yard medley relay. 

Tennis also saw its share of triumphs. The 
1934 yearbook credited the doubles team with 
winning its way to the semi-finals of the Little 
Nineteen State Tennis Meet. 

"The 1932 Varsity Golf Team," the 1934 
Wesleyana reported, "concluded the most suc- 
cessful season in the history of the school by 
tying for first place with Knox College for the 
Little Nineteen State Golf Team 
Championship." 

Homecoming 1934 was a classic. Illinois 
Wesleyan defeated Bradley University in foot- 
ball, there was a Homecoming parade, and 
fraternities lit bonfires "feared by police as 
Bloomington's greatest fire hazard." The 
Saturday of festivities was completed with a 



"wind-up dance," which ended "in a blaze of 
mirth and merriment." 

"Athletics for All" 

During the early 1930s an intramural program 
emerged under the leadership of J. Arthur Hill, 
professor of physical education. The program's 
motto was simply, "Athletics for All." Earlier 
structures had emphasized group competitions, 
which essentially made the games fraternity 
events. Hill's program was based on "individu- 
ality" rather than teams. 

During the 1933-34 academic year, Hill 
added a real cash motivation for students to 
participate in athletics. For each game played, 
participants received two points. Being on a 
championship team meant five extra points for 
the total. At the end of the athletic season "the 
man" with the most points received a new Elgin 
watch, a gift from the athletic department. 
Intramural sports spanned baseball, track, bas- 
ketball, volleyball, swimming, and ping pong. 

In the 1930s field hockey was the lone 
varsity women's sport, as it was at many New 
England colleges. Women in the 1930s partic- 
ipated in intramural volleyball, basketball, 
and water polo. The 1937 yearbook has "varsity" 
women's basketball and tennis teams, which 
seem to be an all-star selection from the 
intramurals. 

A Perfect Season 

The men's basketball team had an undefeated 
season in 1935-36, a record that still stands in 
the 21st century. The team, led by captain Jack 
Horenberger, class of 1936, compiled a 20-0 
record, winning the Little Nineteen Conference 
title. Horenberger, a guard, was the first athlete 
to receive the Senior Award, as voted by the 
faculty. 

The Order of the Titans was established 
in 1937, recognizing the best varsity lettermen. 

The decade also brought another athletic 
"first" in 1939, when the team played on 
Doubleday Field, where baseball supposedly was 



30 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



Tin in m;i -M' >:. Yi Mr- 




Tennis courts 
circa 1950. 









Field hockey in front 
of Memorial Gym 
circa 1950. 



Continuity & Change 131 



The Depression Years 




The undefeated 1935-36 basketball team featuring Jack Horenberger (fourth from left in the front row). 



first played in 1839. The historic games took 
place at the opening of the Baseball Hall of 
Fame in Cooperstown, New York. Illinois 
Wesleyan defeated the University of Virginia, 9- 
8, in 1 1 innings, but lost to Cornell University, 
3-2, in 10 innings. 

Brooks Resigns 

In June, 1939, the University faced another pres- 
idential change with the announcement that 
President Wiley Brooks had resigned, effective 
September 1. An administrative committee, 
headed by Dean Wilbert Ferguson, assisted by 
Dean Malcolm Love and Frank Jordan, Arthur 
Westbrook's successor as dean of the music 
school, would have charge of the University 
until a new president was chosen. 



At this time of transition, the financial out- 
look had improved. Love reported that expendi- 
tures for 1938-39 had exceeded income by 
$7,000. But this deficit was the result of paying 
off $25,000 in debts — not because of excessive 
operating expenses. 

"This means," Love said, "that there has 
been an actual surplus this year so far as [the] 
working budget is concerned." He also 
announced that for the 1939-40 school year it 
was estimated that expenses would be $21 1,430 
from an expected income of $222,500. 

William E. Shaw Elected 

On the eve of the Nazi invasion of Poland and 
the start of World War II, the trustees met on 
August 31, 1939, to elect William E. Shaw the 



Illinois VWslcvdii ( inii'i'i si(\ 



The Depression Yi.ah- 



12th president of Illinois Wesleyan University. 
Shaw, corresponding secretary of the Methodist 
Board of Foreign Missions in New York, served as 
president until his death in 1947. 

He was born in Minnesota in 1869, the son 
of a Methodist minister. After graduating from 
Moores Hill College in Indiana in 1889, Shaw 
taught school in Kentucky for four years. He 
entered the Garrett Biblical Institute, where he 
graduated in 1896. Shaw held pastorates in sev- 
eral Illinois towns until 1910, when he went to 
the First Methodist church in Peoria, where he 
remained for 22 years. He had served as superin- 
tendent of the Peoria District from 1932 to 1936 
and had been secretary of the Board of Foreign 
Missions for four years when he was elected to 
the Illinois Wesleyan presidency. 

Shaw was no stranger. He had served as a 
member of the Board of Trustees for nearly three 
decades. Merrill Holmes, who served as vice 
president under Shaw and succeeded him as 
campus chief executive, described Shaw this way: 
"He was an idealist, and he felt that if there is to 
be a college at all, it must be a very good college. 
More specifically, he was a practical idealist." 




Shaw's Challenges 

Shaw faced two great challenges during his 
administration. First, he became president when 
the campus was 90 years old — just one short 
decade away from the University's centennial. 



Consequently, a 10-year centennial campaign 
was announced to increase the University's 
endowment from $1 million to $2 million and to 
secure another $2 million to complete the unfin- 
ished stadium, beautify the campus, modernize 
campus buildings, and erect new ones such as a 
men's residence hall, a student center, and a 
chapel building. 

Among Shaw's academic objectives, according 
to historian Elmo Scott Watson, were "securing 
recognition of all accrediting agencies, a more 
selective group of students, a stronger teaching 
staff and an improved curriculum." 

Those goals were achieved, in part, through a 
working partnership with Merrill D. Holmes, 
who was appointed University vice president 
(replacing the legendary Wilbert Ferguson, who 
marked his 84th birthday in 1941) and director 
of the centennial development program. He 
arrived on campus in January, 1941, and began 
raising funds for the endowment and the pro- 
posed construction program. Later in 1941 Shaw 
announced that the University was again accred- 
ited by the Association of American Universities 
and shortly, thereafter, was again placed on the 
approved list of the American Association of 
University Women. In 1943 the music school 
became one of 32 in the United States approved 
for graduate work by the National Association of 
Schools of Music. 

Malcolm Love, dean of administration and 
business manager, assessed the University's 
progress under Shaw's leadership as "phenome- 
nal," citing several facts, including a three year 
balanced budget and the paying off of all out- 
standing debt, while the budget for educational 
programs had experienced a 20-percent increase. 
"We are now in a position," Love said, "where 
we can spend more money for the educational 
program of our students. We are now 
operating on a sound financial basis." 

Over the first three years of Shaw's adminis- 
tration 24 new faculty members and administra- 
tive officers were added. Over the last five years, 
a divisional system of departmental organization 
was put in place in the College of Liberal Arts. 



Continuity & Change 



133 



The Depression Years 



The permanent chairmen of the University's 
three divisions were: William E. Schultz, 
Humanities Division; William T. Beadles, Social 
Studies Division, and F. S. Mortimer, Science 
Division. 

"Under this organization," Love explained, 
"a student chooses a divisional field of concen- 
tration rather than the older major and minor 
and his field of concentration consists of work in 
two closely related departments. This makes for 
a more unified program of study for each indi- 
vidual student." 

The University's improved financial picture 
and the effectiveness of the new divisional 
organization permitted faculty members to take 
leaves-of- absence, enabling them to keep up 
with the latest trends, thoughts, and practices in 
their fields. 

One result of these positive changes was 
increased enrollment. During the 1940-41 aca- 
demic year, enrollment passed the 800-student 
mark, compared to 764 students in 1939. A 
slight increase also was posted the next autumn 
despite activation of a Selective Service System 
in January, 1941, as a prelude to U.S. involve- 
ment in World War II. 

At Homecoming, 1941, the state director of 
the Works Progress Administration, the New 
Deal agency that helped fund the new stadium 




on Wilder Field, handed the keys to that facility 
to Ned E. Dolan, president of the Board of 
Trustees and the Bloomington Association of 
Commerce. The keynote address was given by 
Scott W Lucas, class of 1914, now a U.S. 
Senator from Illinois. Lucas, an athletic standout 
when he was a student, dedicated the communi- 
ty stadium "in the name of freedom and liberty 
to free men and women." 

Six weeks later America's freedom and liber- 
ty were in question after Japan's attack on Pearl 
Harbor in Hawaii. 



Top: Homecoming 
1941 showing (left to 
right) Robert Miato 
'43, Homecoming 
Chair; Senator Scott 
Lucas '14; and 
President Shaw. 
Bottom: Illinois 
Wesleyan Celebrating 
its 90th Year at 
Homecoming 1940. 



Illinois Wi-sL-yan Unh 



Tim Di-.i'KhssioN Yeai^ 




Continuity & Change 135 



JSIlti 



smm 



■amm 



&S&%&Z%>£3& 






VIII. World War II 



< The campus 

watches helplessly 
as Hedding Hall 
burns on Saturday, 
January 9, 1943. 



Roommates Gordon Dale Ruben King (Rubenking), class of 1943, 
and Henry Filip (Petrzilka), class of 1944, were playing chess on a 
quiet Sunday afternoon. As they carefully maneuvered knights, 
bishops, and pawns around the chessboard, their radio was tuned 
to a football game. 



"Henry and I loved to play chess," King recalled 
in a 1995 interview with Illinois Weskyan 
University Magazine . 

However, that chess game was interrupted 
when a radio announcer broadcast a terse news 
bulletin reporting the Japanese attack on Pearl 
Harbor. 

"We turned up the volume on the radio," 
King remembered, "and sat there in shock, lis- 



Wartime on Campus 

At the outset of the war, the campus was opti- 
mistic. Dean William Walks in an interview 
published in the January 14, 1942, edition of the 
Argus said he agreed with British Prime Minister 
Winston Churchill, who said: "If the United 
States goes at it heart and soul . . . things might 
break in 18 months. Walks characterized student 
reaction to the war as 'fairly enthusiastic, [they] 



tening to scraps of news. It was an overwhelming do not crab about going, and are good sports.'" 



thing." 

It was December 7, 1941 — and the United 
States was at war. 

King, a sociology major with a double minor 
in English and history, remembered that in 
March, 1943, he and 40 other students were 
called up for active duty. Eventually, King was 
stationed in Assam Province in India, working as Kemp Hall was occupied by U.S. Navy V-5 



Political-science instructor Ross C. Beiler 
had a more realistic view of the war's outcome. 
"The fact that we were not properly prepared 
adds one more year to the war," he said. "I think 
it will last at least three years ..." 

U.S. Navy on Campus 



an Army cryptographer, handling coded mes- 
sages. 

Filip, a physics and math major, was hired by 
the University of Chicago in 1944. In May, 
1945, he went to a top-secret laboratory in kos 
Alamos, New Mexico, to work on "Project Y" — 
the atomic bomb. 

The wartime experiences of King and Filip 
illustrate the diverse ways students served their 
country in World War II. Illinois Wesleyan sent 
1,250 off to battle — 51 never returned. The 
Memorial Student Center was dedicated in 
October, 1947, to the men and women who 
served in World War II. A plaque listing the 
University's World War II dead, recalling their 
supreme sacrifice, is located in the Center's 
chapel. Their uncommon heroism was common. 



troops, a group of about 40 aviation cadets. 
Another 38 cadets were transferred to the 
University in 1943-44 from another program. In 
total, the 1944 yearbook reported that more 
than 500 cadets had gone through V-5 training 
just in the past year. Training consisted of 
ground-school work in navigation, engine opera- 
tion, maintenance, communications, and mete- 
orology. While the male campus population was 
much diminished, the changing sequence of 
cadets fit right into many familiar scenes as they 
paraded through Bloomington's streets or relaxed 
on Kemp Hall's porch. Their singing of Anchor's 
Away in chapel was far more vigorous than other 
students expected. Some of the V-5 atmosphere 
on campus was captured in the 1944 yearbook in 
photos showing cadets and women undergradu- 



Continuity & Che 



137 



ates dancing in the canteen. Hie Navy unit left 
campus on July 27, 1944- 

Though Illinois Wesleyan students had lived 
in odd spots around town for years, the Navy 
took no such chances with housing the V-5 
cadets. By war's end the campus was dotted with 
a half-dozen barrack buildings, which had been 
constructed quickly to government specification, 
adding utility but not architectural distinction. 

Female Students and the War Effort 

Female students were urged to contribute to the 
war effort. A 1943 pamphlet, published by the 
Office of the Dean of Women, suggested that 
"all women capable of leadership or specialized 
skills [should be guided] into war-related work 
which fully uses their abilities — areas such as 
health services, homemaking, business and 
industry, and community service." 

As manpower flowed to the military, the 
University expedited the awarding of degrees in 
1943 with a mid-year commencement in 
January. This move was prompted by the realiza- 
tion that seniors might be called into military 
service before the traditional spring graduation. 
Former President Harry McPherson was the 
keynote speaker and 14 seniors received their 
bachelor's degrees. 

On the Fighting Fronts 

Illinois Wesleyan sent many alumni and students 
into the military and combat. William Starke, 
class of 1945 — a freshman, class president, and 
an economics major — joined the U.S. Army Air 
Corps, eventually fighting in the Pacific from 
the cockpit of a Lockheed P-38 Lightning. He 
shot down a Japanese bomber over Formosa in 
April, 1945. 

M. Russell Bramwell, class of 1947, a biolo- 
gy-chemistry-pre-med major, fought in the 
Philippines, Borneo, and elsewhere in the 
Pacific. Infantryman Bruce Reeter, class of 1951, 
a radioman-turned-rifleman, also was a veteran 
of the Philippines' campaign. He was part of the 
initial U.S. force that occupied Japan. "We 
sailed by the U.S.S. Missouri the day they signed 



the peace," Reeter said. "It was quite a sight. 
Twenty ships, maybe, went single file into 
Yokohama Bay." 

Louis Clemons, class of 1940, was a crew 
member on a B-26 Marauder, when it crash 
landed into the jungles of Sierra Leone in 
Africa, breaking his back. Africans found the 
crew and crafted stretchers for the trek back to 
their village. "We made it back through the jun- 
gle," Clemons said, 'beating the alligators and 
crossing streams at night. It was a little frighten- 
ing, but I felt so bad I didn't care." A U.S. flying 
boat airlifted survivors to a hospital and he recu- 
perated at several locations, including Walter 
Reed Army Hospital in Washington, DC. 

In Europe, alumni like Paul G. Anderson Jr., 
class of 1940, were flying the fabled Boeing B-17 
Flying Fortress on bombing runs over Germany. 
Bomber pilot Anderson and a 10-man crew flew 
the Belle of the Ball. He flew 46 missions and 
became a squadron and group leader. Anderson 
was a squadron leader on the first U.S. raid on 
Berlin. The "King of Hollywood," Clark Gable, 
was assigned to Anderson's unit, flying five mis- 
sions as a waist gunner. 

Gerald E. Smith, class of 1950, landed on 
Omaha Beach on June 7, 1944 — the second day 
of the massive D-Day invasion to liberate Europe 
from the Nazis. He was a Navy Seabee in a con- 
struction battalion. When he landed, Smith and 
perhaps 500 others trudged through shoulder- 
deep water carrying ammunition, guns, and gas 
masks above their heads to the beach. During 
those moments, Smith said: "I was thinking 
about stepping on mines, and the snipers who 
were still around. I thought about the rest of the 
battalion and what happened to them. I was 
hoping to stay alive." 

John E. Cribbet, class of 1940, a history and 
economics graduate, was a captain in G-3, plans 
and operations, with the 8th Corps, which was 
assigned to General George S. Patton's 3rd 
Army. He was tapped as an aide-de-camp to 8th- 
Corps Commander, General Troy Middleton. "I 
went with Middleton all the time," Cribbet said. 
"I went with him to meetings with Patton," who 



138 



Ulimiis Wesleyan I University 



he described as "the must colorful individual I 
ever met." Crihhet met General Dwight D. 
Eisenhower, supreme allied commander, at a 
luncheon in Normandy, as well as General 
George Marshall, Army chief ot staff, when the 
"organizer of the victory" was in Europe after the 
Rattle of the Bulge. 

Robert L. Behrends, class of 1944, of the 
Army Medical Corps, was taken prisoner by the 
Germans in December, 1944, in Belgium. On 
the march to a prison camp, a seven-day odyssey, 
the prisoners were fed meager rations twice and 
slept in ditches, a lumberyard, and in a cow barn 
with wet manure. At one point, Behrends' 
weight dropped to barely 100 pounds from a nor- 
mal 160 pounds. As Soviet troops advanced, he 
was evacuated by the Germans, and was fired on 
by U.S. warplanes while the train he was aboard 
stopped in the Dresden freight yards. 

Campus was a sad place during the war, said 
Colleen Costigan Welch, class of 1946, a politi- 
cal-science major. "We marched to the train sta- 
tion to see people off," for military duty," she 
said. "We gave everyone a hug, stood on the 
platform, and waved good-bye. It seemed like an 
adventure, and everyone was brave. But we were 
well aware that it was a serious time." 



Welch, like many women, wanted to 
contribute to the war effort. She joined the 
WAVES — Women Accepted for Volunteer 
Emergency Services, going on active duty in 
July, 1944- Welch became an antiaircraft 
gunnery instructor. 

Supreme Sacrifice 

February 3, 1943. The Dorchester, a troop ship on 
a voyage to Europe, went down in the icy waters 
off Greenland, torpedoed by a German subma- 
rine. More than 900 souls were aboard, including 
Methodist Army Chaplain George Fox, class of 
1932. Fox was in the company of three other 
clergymen: a Catholic priest, a minister, and a 
rabbi. 

After the troop ship was fatally struck, the 
four chaplains handed out life jackets, calming 
the desperate young men. They instructed the 
soldiers to get into the water and away from the 
ship. But there weren't enough jackets or 
lifeboats. Life expectancy in the frigid waters was 
only a few minutes — and the Dorchester was 
sinking fast. 

When the life jackets were gone, one of the 
chaplains took off his own, handing it to a sol- 
dier. The other three chaplains did likewise. As 



Navy Flyer to Retailing Executive 



One of Illinois Wesleyan's wartime gradu- 
ates was economics major Edward R. 
Telling, class of 1942, who spent the next 
four years as a Navy pilot. Three decades 
later, he was the head of the world's largest 
merchandiser. 

In 1978 Telling became chairman and 
chief executive officer of Sears, Roebuck 
and Company. He reached that post after 




rising through the company's ranks, begin- 
ning as a stock clerk-management trainee 
in his hometown of Danville, Illinois. 

He addressed the 300 graduates at the 
1978 commencement in an address entitled 
"Private versus Public Power." He also is 
remembered through the establishment of 
the Edward R. Telling Distinguished 
Professorship in Business Administration. 



Continuity & Change 



139 



World War II 




the ship tipped and plunged into the sea, the 
four chaplains clasped arms and prayed — in 
Latin, Hebrew, and English — as soldiers gathered 
around them. 

The chaplains' faith and calm as the 
Dorchester sank was an image that burned itself 



into the memories of the ship's survivors and 
others. In 1948 the U.S. government issued a 
postage stamp bearing the faces of Fox and the 
other chaplains above the sinking ship. The four 
chaplains were given posthumous honors and 
on February 3, 1951, President Harry Truman 
dedicated the Chapel of the Four Chaplains at 
Temple University in Philadelphia. 

In April, 1945, Illinois Wesleyan paused to 
offer respects to Franklin Roosevelt, who also 
gave the supreme sacrifice in pursuing victory. 
A memorial service was held for the fallen chief 
executive on April 13, 1945. The memorial 
program described the dead president as 
"a gallant spirit," "friend of mankind," and a 
"world leader." Prayers were offered by President 
William E. Shaw and others, while history pro- 
fessor William Wallis delivered "A Tribute To 
Our President." The program closed with Taps. 



A Marine Corps General 



Gerald C. Thomas (1895-1984), class of 1919, 
joined the U.S. Marine Corps in 1917 during 
World War I, surviving the ugly trench 
warfare in France. A highly decorated soldier 
in World War I, World War II, and the Korean 
War, Thomas retired from active duty as a 
four-star general in 1956. He served as 
assistant commandant of the Marine Corps, 
1952-54, and was a member of the National 
Security Council. In a 1993 review of a 
Thomas biography, In Many A Strife: 
General Gerald C. Thomas and the U.S. 
Marine Corps 1917-1956, Thomas was 
referred to as a "gray eminence" of the 
Corps. 

During World War II, as operations offi- 
cer for the 1st Marine Division in 1942, "... 
he prepared operational plans for the assault 
and capture of Guadalcanal and Tulagi," 




according to a Marine Corps' biography of 
Thomas. 

Following action in the Pacific theatre, 
he served as director of the Division of Plans 
and Policies at Marine Corps headquarters 
in Washington, D.C.,from 1944 to 1946. A 



Marine Corps' historian wrote: "Thomas' 
efforts helped build the divisions and corps 
that stormed Peleliu, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and 
a host of other Pacific islands." 

After serving in several high-ranking 
posts, Thomas took command of the 1st 
Marine Division in Korea in 1951-52 — a unit 
whose front stretched 27 miles at one point. 
Commenting on Thomas' actions in the 
Korean War, Colonel Angus M. Fraser wrote 
in the June, 1984, Marine Corps Gazette: 
"Thomas was constantly on the move, 
sometimes by jeep, other times by helicopter. 
He went about his long work day with no 
apparent concern for the North Korean and 
Chinese reactions to his presence ..." 

The University awarded Thomas an hon- 
orary doctor of law degree on February 10, 
1954. 



140 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



Building the Bomb 

While alumni, students, and faculty were fight- 
ing on many fronts, others were toiling for victo- 
ry in secret laboratories and other installations 
around the country. 

The United States attacked the Japanese 
cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with atomic 
bombs in August, 1945, ending the war in the 
Pacific. Among scientists who crafted the war's 
top-secret weapon were three alumni, who 
worked on the Manhattan Project: Vernon 
Struebing, class of 1943, Roger Rasmussen, class 
of 1944, and Henry Petrzilka (Filip), class of 
1944. Another alumnus, Wesley D. Meyers, class 
of 1937, discovered after the war he had worked 
on an element of the atomic bomb — the armor 
plating — at the Naval Proving Ground in 
Virginia. 

Long working hours and tight security 
marked the months between the time the men 
arrived at Los Alamos, New Mexico, the focal 
point of atomic research, and the first atomic- 
bomb detonation on July 16, 1945. All three — 
Struebing, Rasmussen, and Filip — did work lead- 
ing directly to that first test and the wartime 
atomic bombings of Japan. 

Struebing, a chemistry major, worked on the 
plutonium "source;" Rasmussen, a chemistry and 
physics major, worked on electronic equipment 
being installed in a tank that would be used at 
"ground zero" for the first New Mexico test to 
get ground samples by remote control after the 
explosion; and Filip worked on the 64 detona- 
tors needed for one model of the bomb. 

"I remember the delight of all of us in the 
laboratory" at the Japanese surrender Rasmussen 
said. "We were just overjoyed" to have played a 
part in it. "I still felt a little guilty that 1 wasn't 
storming Normandy or Iwo Jima. I felt guilty for 
those that paid the ultimate price, and I don't 
know how to apologize to them." 

When Filip visited campus for Homecoming 
in 1994 for his 50th year class reunion, he 
brought several logbooks and papers from his 
Los Alamos research — documents that were 
placed in the University's archives. 



Two other alumni from the class of 1943 
worked on the Manhattan Project at the subur- 
ban Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory that later 
became Argonne National Laboratory: George 
Thomas and Elmer Rylander. 

Thomas recalled in a 1994 Illinois Wesleyan 
University Magazine article that Franklin 
Spencer Mortimer, a chemistry professor, 
received a letter from the University of Chicago 
saying they had an ultra-secret project and need- 
ed young scientists. This opened the way for job 
interviews and the hiring of graduates like 
Thomas and Rylander for the project. 

"When they hired us to go up there," 
Thomas said, "we still had no idea what it was." 
But they were told several weeks later. Scientists 
at the Metallurgical Laboratory had obtained the 
first nuclear chain reaction about six months 
before Thomas and Rylander arrived. The duo 
were involved in determining the parameters of 
a nuclear reaction that would make it effective 
as a bomb, including the amount of uranium 
needed, and the material surrounding the bomb 
that would keep it from exploding until the 
desired moment. 

509th Composite Group 

While a handful of alumni were laboring in 
America's laboratories putting science to work 
building the atomic bomb, another alumnus was 
preparing to deliver the terrible weapon to the 
enemy's homeland. 

The B-29 Superfortresses Enola Gay and the 
Great Artiste were in the air 45 minutes when 
Captain George Marquardt, class of 1942, 
maneuvered another B-29, Necessary Evil, into 
formation off the Enola Gay's left wing. The trio 
of bombers had taken off from Tinian, a Pacific 
island, and were lumbering toward Japan in the 
early hours of August 6, 1945. Tucked into the 
Enola Gay's bomb bay was a 10,000-pound atom- 
ic bomb. Marquardt's plane carried photographic 
equipment and a scientist to record the atomic 
explosion's effects on Hiroshima. 

Marquardt, who majored in banking and 
mathematics before joining the U.S. Army Air 



Continuity & Change 



HI 



A tribute to the 

Illinois Wesleyan 

students lost 

during World War II 

still on display 

III Ihl! MlMIKIMill 

Student Center. 




14.' 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



Corps, was one of 15 bomber commanders 
attached to the 509th Composite Group, a super- 
secret unit whose job it was to deliver atomic 
bombs to enemy targets. 

Marquardt, an eyewitness to the world's first 
atomic-bomb attack, wrote a memoir, Field Order 
#13, marking the 50th anniversary of the his- 
toric mission. When the bomb was dropped from 
31,000 feet, exploding over Hiroshima at 8:16 
a.m., Marquardt recalled: "There was a brilliant 
flash, which was partially obscured by the special 
goggles, which had been issued for the mission. It 
seemed as if the sun had come out of the earth 
and exploded. Smoke boiled around the flash as 
it rose . . . The shock wave from the blast 
reached my plane and it felt and sounded as it a 
monster had slapped the side of the plane. This 
occurred about 1 5 miles from ground zero as I 
was flying toward the mushroom cloud, which 
had already reached our altitude and continued 
to climb above us. I flew around the perimeter of 
the mushroom cloud three times. We had been 
instructed not to fly into the cloud as it might 
make us 'sterile.' I made my last turn and began 
my journey back to Tinian." 

Marquardt was back in the air August 9. He 
was flying a weather plane, checking atmospheric 
conditions in connection with the second atom- 
ic-bomb attack on Nagasaki. Marquardt, accord- 
ing to his wife, Bernece, would have commanded 
a third atomic-bomb mission, but Japan surren- 
dered on August 11. Marquardt spearheaded a 
fund-raising drive to build a monument to the 
509th at the unit's Wendover, Utah, training 
site, which was unveiled in 1990. 

The G.I. Bill 

When George H. Bauer, a 1918 graduate of the 
law school and World War I veteran, met with 
seven other veterans at an American Legion post 
in Salem, Illinois, on November 4, 1943, he did- 
n't know he was starting a revolution that would 
touch millions of lives and cost U.S. taxpayers 
$14.5 billion. 

Bauer and his colleagues drafted a sweeping 
proposal that in congressional jargon became the 



"Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944." But 
to 15.4-million World War II veterans, it was 
simply, "The G.I. Bill of Rights." 

President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the 
G.I. Bill into law on June 22, 1944 — just 16 days 
after D-Day. The legislation gave veterans educa- 
tion, home-loan guaranty, and jobless benefits. 

Explaining his father's support for the G.I. 
Bill, George J. Bauer, class of 1960, said: "He 
didn't want a repeat of what happened after 
the World War I troops came home. They had 
nothing to look forward to." 

The Hedding Hall Fire 

On Saturday, January 9, 1943, perhaps the most 
spectacular event in the University's history hap- 
pened with the fire that destroyed Hedding Hall 
in a matter of hours. The fire, reportedly due to 
faulty electric wiring, burned the 7 3 -year-old 
campus landmark before the eyes of bewildered 
students and others. Among items lost were 
nearly the entire Powell Museum, the Aldrich 
collection of paintings, Amie Chapel, much 
equipment, classrooms, and laboratories. 

The January 10, 1943, edition of the Argus 
contained many firsthand accounts of the disas- 
ter by students and faculty. A page-one story 
described the heroic actions of football team cap- 
tain Henry Filip (Petrzilka), class of 1944, who 
later worked on the Manhattan atomic-bomb 
project. The January 15 Argus published addi- 
tional descriptions of the fire, including this one: 
"Inside everyone was running around wildly, but 
we finally managed to get organized and carry 
out the office equipment — files, typewriters, dic- 
taphones, and adding machines. The smoke and 
gas nearly choked us, but we were so excited we 
scarcely noticed." 

The January 15 Argus also observed: "On a 
snowy Saturday night, 73 years of [Illinois] 
Wesleyan history lighted the starry sky like a flam- 
ing torch . . . The building of Hedding Hall itself 
has disappeared — leaving only ashes and chaned 
ruins in its place. With the crumbling of the pil- 
lars of Amie Chapel went a lifetime of memories, 
traditions, and customs built by men who were 



Continuity & Change 



:43 



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pioneers in a great venture . . . Each creaking step 
of Hedding could have told a story ..." 

Following the fire came the question of what 
to do. On Sunday, January 10, administrators, 
trustees, and faculty met, and Monday morning 
classes operated as normally as might be expect- 
ed given the complete dislocation. 

The event so affected students that on May 
28, 1943, they presented a play, Sing the Fiery 
Heart: A Fantasy, an original production based 
on the Hedding Hall fire. The back of the play's 
program explained: "This is the first time Illinois 
Wesleyan has ever produced an entirely student- 
written, student-directed theatrical . . . We have 
tried to show the symbolic link between the 
burning of Hedding Hall, our most beloved 
building, and the more ferocious world-fire. Out 
of this, phoenix-like, is the anticipation of some- 
thing new and better." 

Duration Hall was created by roofing over 
the remaining basement walls of Hedding after 
the fire. This was done because the University 
lacked the funds to construct a new building. 
Duration Hall, which was demolished decades 
later, was "made to meet immediate need 
because of wartime building restrictions," accord- 
ing to the Argus, housing classrooms and admin- 
istrative offices. 



Athletics in the 1940s 

The decade of the 1 940s began with a confer- 
ence football championship for the Titans. 
"Bustem" Bob Morrow, class of 1941, led the 
team and was named to the Chicago Tribune's 
all-star team. Morrow was a bruising fullback, 
who gained almost four yards per carry. He 
played on the 1940 College All-Star team, 
which was walloped by the Chicago Bears. 
Morrow played with the National Football 
League's Chicago Cardinals for three seasons in 
the early 1940s and after World War II with the 
New York Yankees of the All- America Football 
Conference, which later merged with the NFL. 
He returned to campus from 1947-50 to coach 
the Titans, leading the football team to a 
19-16-1 record. 

Illinois Wesleyan was among 60 schools con- 
tinuing to play football, basketball, and baseball 
during World War II. By 1943 only 112 of 436 
students were male, but an influx of Navy avia- 
tion cadets training on campus helped the 
school compete on the varsity level. 

"The quality of the athletic teams suffered," 
Illinois Wesleyan University Magazine reported in a 
1995 article, "IWU Athletics Mirrored National 
Trend in War Years." "From 1942-1944, Titan 
football teams won 9, lost 12, and tied 1 game, 
playing teams such as Illinois State, Indiana 
State, and Western Illinois. Basketball teams 
during the period (1941-42 to 1944-45) won 20 
and lost 55, frequently playing teams from Camp 
Grant, Chanute Air Force Base, and Camp Ellis." 

Baseball team captain Robert Fleming, class 
of 1945, recalled coaching turnover was a prob- 
lem. "I had four baseball coaches in my four 
years," he said. 

In 1946 Illinois Wesleyan became a charter 
member of the nine-school College Conference 
of Illinois (CCI). Two years later, the football 
team won the Corn Bowl and the baseball team 
won the CCI baseball championship, the first of 
17 such titles. And, the following year, the bas- 
ketball team won the CCI championship, the 
first of 23. Lights for night games were installed 



l-ll 



Illinois Wesleyan Unix 



World War II 




The Hedding Hall arch is supported after the fire. The arch will later be used as the entry to Duration Hall 



at Bloomington County Stadium, later Illinois 
Wesleyan Stadium, in 1949. 

Women's athletics in the 1940s largely 
involved exercise and intramurals. These activi 
ties oftentimes were organized by sororities or 



living units. The Terrapin Club, a swimming 
group, was a prominent athletic activity for 
women. Much in the spirit of famed swimmer 
Esther Williams, participants produced artistic 
water pageants. 



Overleaf: 
Duration Hall 
circa 1946. 



Continuity & Change 



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Continuity & Change l-\9 




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IXo Jrostt-War itifxpamsioii 




ith the end of World War II in sight, Illinois Wesleyan began 
planning for an enrollment spurt as veterans flocked to campuses 
nationally spurred by the G.I. Bill of Rights, federal legislation 
offering former soldiers education and other benefits. 



Dedicated during 
Homecoming 1947, the 
Memorial Student Center 
has been the center of 
student life on campus 
for the last 50 years. 



Enrollment in the fall of 1945 stood at 523 
students, but by the end of the 1945-46 
school year, the student body numbered 876. 
Enrollment in 1946 reached 950 students and 
the staff increased to 66 full-time faculty mem- 
bers, the largest in Illinois Wesleyan history up to 
that time. 

The decade spanning 1943-53 saw enroll- 
ment zoom from a low of 436 students to a high 
of 1,355 students — and back to 778 students. 
"You can imagine what financial acrobatics were 
required," former President Lloyd Bertholf told 
the class of 1975 in his commencement address, 
"to deal with a rise and fall of those proportions 
within a ten-year period." 

As veterans flowed to the University after 
World War II, a housing shortage resulted. At 
the time, there were no men's dormitories and all 
housing for women was filled. As a short-term 
relief, former Army barracks were moved from 
Weingarten, Missouri, to campus. Four of these 
buildings were homes to veterans and their fami- 
lies until other residences were constructed. But 
living quarters remained scarce even with the 
influx of temporary housing. Subsequently, two 
residences on North Main Street were remodeled 
as women's dormitories: Munsell Hall and 
DeMotte Lodge. 

On the drawing boards were a student center, 
additional dormitories, and a new classroom 
building. Generous gifts from the late Annie 
Merner Pfeiffer and the Magill family, as well as 
other funding, paved the way for construction of 
these projects. By the mid-1950s, Memorial 



Student Center was built, as well as a women's 
residence hall, Pfeiffer Hall, and two men's 
residences, Magill and Dolan halls. A class- 
room building, Shaw Hall, named for the only 
president to die in office, William E. Shaw, also 
was constructed, anchoring the east side of 
campus. 

The Death of President William E. Shaw 

On February 21, 1947, President Shaw met with 
Chicago alumni. He told the group about how 
the University was coping with post-war chal- 
lenges and wound up his presentation by quoting 
from the inscription on the campus' west gates: 
"We stand in a position of incalculable 
responsibility." 

The next day, en route to a Chicago railroad 
station, Shaw had a fatal heart attack. A state- 
ment by students in the aftermath of Shaw's 
death said: "It is with great sorrow and a feeling 
of infinite loss that we view the passing of 
President Shaw, another grand old man of 
[Illinois] Wesleyan. He worked untiringly for the 
improvement of the school, in personnel, its 
buildings, and academic standards. 

"Always ready to crown dance queens or to 
don old clothes and participate in Campus 
Clean-up day," the statement added, "Dr. Shaw 
was a very versatile man. All members of athletic 
teams knew him — he was always a sports booster 
and a familiar spectator at all kinds of games." 

Vice President Merrill D. Holmes, who 
already had been named to succeed Shaw, 
assumed the presidency on March 1, 1947. 



Continuity & Change 



151 



Post- War Expansion 



When Holmes was inaugurated in November, 
1947, as the 13th president, representatives from 
more than 100 educational institutions national- 
ly, attended the ceremony. 



was chaplain to the 165th Infantry during World 
War I. He arrived in Bloomington as University 
vice president in 1941 after teaching at Dakota 
Wesleyan University and serving in other posts. 




Merrill D. Holmes 

A New Chief Executive 

Merrill D. Holmes (1886-1962) was horn in 
Indianola, Iowa. He took a bachelor of arts 
degree in mathematics and philosophy from 
Simpson College. He received a master of arts 
degree from Northwestern University in 1912 
and followed it with a divinity degree from 
Garrett Seminary. Subsequently, he received a 
master's degree in theology from Harvard and 



A Construction Boom 

The years after World War II saw a construction 
boom on the campus: 

• DeMotte Lodge, a residence on North 
Main Street, was acquired in 1947 and used 
as a women's residence hall. 

• Munsell Hall, another North Main Street 
residence, also was acquired in 1947 for use 
as a women's residence. 

• Memorial Student Center was dedicated 
in October, 1947, as a tribute to the Illinois 
Wesleyan men and women who served in 
World War II. 

• Pfeiffer Hall, constructed in 1948 as a 
women's residence, was named in honor of 
Annie Merner Pfeiffer, an Illinois Wesleyan 
benefactress. 

• Magill Hall, also constructed in 1948 as 
a men's residence, was named in honor of 
Hugh S. Magill, class of 1894, and his 
brother, S. Lincoln Magill. 

• Shaw Hall, a classroom and office building 
constructed in 1954, replaced part of the 
facilities lost when Hedding Hall burned a 



Composer 

Aaron Copeland and 

President Holmes, 

Founders' Day 1958. 




152 



..I 




Commencement 
Processional 
June 7, 1957. 



Commencement in 
front of Duration Hall. 
June 5, 1960. 



Continuity 8 Chen 



153 



Post- War Expand >\ 



A Centennial Approaches 




In the late 1940s, Illinois 

Wesleyan was nearing its 
centennial and a special 
committee was appointed to 
direct the program. A 
Founders' Day Convocation 
launched the celebration 
on February 8, 1950. A 
month later the new 
Westminster chimes, a 
carillon, sounded for the first time from 
Presser Hall. Three weeks later news of 
the centennial was heard nationwide on 
a radio broadcast, "America's Town 
Meeting of the Air," which originated 
from the Bloomington Consistory. The 
broadcast was carried by 267 radio sta- 
tions of the American Broadcasting 
Company. U.S. Senate Majority Leader 
Scott Lucas, class of 1914, and others 










discussed federal aid 

to education on the program. 

Other centennial celebrations 
followed: a golden jubilee reunion of 
the class of 1900; the graduation class of 
1950, the largest in IWU history; a 
reunion of members of the 1910 
championship football team during 



Homecoming, and a series 
of alumni meetings across 
the country. 

In 1940 the trustees had 
announced the University's 
centennial program, noting: 
"We recognize that it is 
impossible for any group to 
anticipate all the needs of 
an institution like the Illinois 
Wesleyan ten years in 
advance. But this minimum ten-year 
program is presented with the thought 
that if it is accomplished, the Illinois 
Wesleyan will be enabled to begin its 
second century fitted to make large 
contributions to the many youth that 
will continue to seek the opportunities 
it has to offer." 



154 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



IY>M-W,\H EXI'ANMi >N 




Top: Memorial Student 
Center Left: Anne Merner 
Pfeiffer Hall Right: 
Hugh S. Magill Hall 



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Left: View of Old North, 
Holmes Hall and Shaw 
Hall. Right: Ground 
Breaking for Memorial 
Student Center 1946. 
Bottom: The Grill 1961. 



Continuity & Change 155 



Pom-Wak Expansion 



decade earlier. It is named in recognition of 
William E. Shaw, president from 1939-47. 

• Dolan Hall, a men's residence constructed 
in 1955, is named in honor of Ned E. Dolan, 
a long-time trustee. 

• Gulick Hall, which was called Southwest 
Hall when it was completed in 1957, was a 
women's residence with the Department of 
Home Economics located in a wing of the 
building. 

School of Art 

One of the solid glories of the post-war era was 
creation of the present School of Art in 1946. 
K. B. Loomis organized the new art program, a 
project that had been on the drawing board 
since he crafted a 1942 memo, "The 
Development of the Art Department of Illinois 
Wesleyan University." Over the years, the 
School of Art had many homes and after the 
1943 Hedding Hall fire, the program had moved 
to the structure that currently houses the English 
Department. The Gallery Building and the base- 
ment of Blackstock Hall also were added as 
space for the growing program. By 1947-48 the 
art program had five professors, 25-plus courses, 



and 18 studios or workshops, with the University 
offering a bachelor of fine arts degree. 

Rupert Kilgore, an assistant professor, arrived 
in 1948. He had received an undergraduate 
degree from DePauw University and a master's 
degree from the State University of Iowa. 
Kilgore had taken additional work in art at Ball 
State Teacher's College. His work had been 
exhibited nationally at Chicago's Art Institute, 
Philadelphia Print Club, and other venues. 
Kilgore taught art history, art methods, crafts, 
introduction to art, and design. He succeeded 
Loomis as director of the art program in 1948-49 
and for the next quarter century was associated 
with the school. 

George Vinyard, a 1971 graduate and trustee, 
wrote in Illinois Wesleyan University : Growth , 
Turning Points and New Directions Since the 
Second World War: "It was Kilgore who estab- 
lished the [Illinois] Wesleyan tradition of quality 
art education provided by artist-teachers. These 
traditional qualities led a famous critic and art 
educator who visited the campus to remark that 
Illinois Wesleyan possessed something more than 
a school of art; he called it a 'community of 
artists.'" 



Apollo Quartet 1955-56 

(left to right) Lee York, 

Ed Spry, Robert Cummins, 

John Cobb, and 

Mark Snyder, piano. 




Post- War Exi 



School of Dramatics 

The fine arts made another major advancement 
when the School of Dramatics was founded in 
1947. The following year, however, the School of 
Dramatics, the School of Art, and the School oi 
Music were combined to form the College of 
Fine Arts. 

Vinyard, in his University history, pointed 
out that development of the School of Drama 
paralleled that of the art school. "Dramatics 
formed a prominent portion of the curriculum in 
the Department of Speech before the profession- 
al program was initiated, and dramatic activities 
had long been an important traditional aspect of 
campus life." 

Lawrence Tucker headed the School of 
Drama from its founding until 1968. Just like the 
School ot Art, the School of Drama for many 
years was in search of adequate facilities. After 
the 1943 Hedding Hall fire, stage productions 
shifted to Westbrook Auditorium in Presser Hall. 

"Conflicting programs of the School of 
Music," Vinyard wrote, "led to problems with 
scheduling and other aspects of this arrangement. 
Completion of the Memorial Student Center 
freed the 'Hut', a carriage house adjacent to 



Kemp 1 lall formerly used as a snack bar and 
bookstore, for use as a theatre in 1949." 

Summer productions were staged there in 
what was dubbed, "Spotlight Alley." Drama class- 
es were conducted in Old North. McPherson 
Theatre was completed in 1963, creating for the 
first time a modern production and instructional 
facility for the drama program. 

School of Music 

The School of Music, a key component of the 
fine-arts program, also flourished in the post- 
World War 11 years. This era tor the School of 
Music, according to Vinyard's history, was char- 
acterized by stability and quality. The School of 
Music, he observed, was less affected 
by enrollment fluctuations than other portions of 
the University. 

"Throughout the entire period since World 
War II," Vinyard wrote, "the presence of the 
School [ot Music] has added a unique dimension 
to the intellectual and cultural life of the 
University." 

The national stature ot the School ot Music 
was enhanced over the years by faculty participa- 
tion in organizations such as the National 




Spotlight Alley Theatre 



.57 



1'. >m-\\'\i; h\r\-.-i. v. 



Association of Schools of Music and Phi Mu 
Alpha, the professional music fraternity. Carl M. 
Neumeyer, director of the school from 1952 until 
his death in 1972, headed both of these groups 
at various times. Neumeyer broadened Illinois 
Wesleyan's extensive music program, which fea- 
tured student and faculty recitals, with establish- 
ment of the annual Symposium of Contemporary 
Music in 1952, which brings prominent com- 
posers to campus. 




Illinois Wesleyan was a performance venue 
for two jazz greats in the 1950s: Count Basie and 
Dizzie Gillespie. Count Basie's internationally 
famous orchestra played Memorial Gymnasium 
on February 15, 1958. A year later, on April 13, 
1959, Gillespie and his quintet also performed 
in Memorial Gymnasium. Gillespie's concert 
was sponsored by the Inter-fratemity and 
Panhellenic Councils as part of Greek Week 
festivities. Tickets ranged in price from 
$1.50 to $2.50. 

The Presidency of Lloyd Bertholf 

Lloyd Bertholf succeeded Merrill D. Holmes as 
Illinois Wesleyan's 14th president in 1958. 
Holmes, near age 70, retired after serving as 
University chief executive from 1947-58. 

Bertholf, a native of rural Kansas, attended 
Friends University, Wichita, Kansas, but graduat- 
ed from Southwestern College in Winticld, 




Lloyd Bertholf 

Kansas. He served in the coast artillery in World 
War I, stationed at Fort Monroe, Virginia. 
Bertholf went off for graduate work at Johns 
Hopkins University in Baltimore in 1921. He 
began his career teaching biology at the North 
Carolina College for Women in Greensboro, a 
post that paid this newly wed just $2,400 a year. 
For about 15 years he supplemented college 
teaching with summer work performing research 
for the U.S. Agriculture Department's Bureau of 
Entomology and Plant Quarantine in 
Washington, D.C. 

Bertholf taught at Western Maryland 
College in Westminster for a quarter-century, 
where he also served as dean of freshmen and 
dean of faculty. In 1930 he received a postdoc- 
toral fellowship to study in Munich, Germany, 
on a Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship. 
Bertholf made a career change in 1948, moving 
to the West Coast to join the College of the 
Pacific, where he was a professor of biology and 
academic vice president. 

Bertholf, who served as president from 1958- 
68, reflected on his years as a campus chief exec- 
utive in a Spring 2000 Illinois Wesleyan University 
Magazine article, marking his 100th birthday on 
December 15, 1999. "We increased the endow- 
ment considerably," he pointed out, "of course- 
nothing like it is now, but for those days it was 
considerable. And, we started January Term-the 
short term [that eventually became the current 
May Term] . . . We started a lot of construction. 



Wc.s levari L7n iversit 



Post- War Exiv 




Nurses in training 1957. 



Mary D. Shanks 



I was there 10 years and we had a new piece of 
construction, or were finishing up one, every 
year I was there." 

Among new buildings added to the campus 
during Bertholf's tenure were: Holmes Hall 
(1960), Fred Young Fieldhouse (1962), 
McPherson Theatre (1963), Earl Edward Sherff 
Hall of Science (1963), Book Store (1963), 
Ferguson Hall (1963), and Munsell Hall (1966). 
Moreover, the Memorial Student Center and 
power plant were expanded and Stevenson Hall 
and Westbrook Auditorium in Presser Hall were 
refurbished. 

During Bertholf's administration, the enroll- 
ment grew from 1,148 students to 1,500 stu- 
dents; the faculty increased from 75 to 109; and 
the value of the campus climbed from $6.5 mil- 
lion to $14-3 million. 

Bertholf also had great faith in students. 
Among his first acts as president, he gave the 
Student Senate full authority over student 
activity fee funds. 

When the clock struck midnight on January 
1, 2000, the President-Emeritus Lloyd Bertholf 
crossed a rare threshold becoming one of a 
handful of people whose life had spanned three 
centuries and two millennia. 

School of Nursing 

Among Lloyd Bertholf's lasting achievements as 
Illinois Wesleyan's president is the School of 



Nursing, which was founded during his adminis- 
tration. 

Bertholf wrote about the school's genesis in 
his 1984 memoir: "The first major change in the 
academic program I faced was whether or n< )t to 
proceed with plans for a Collegiate School of 
Nursing . . . The University already was in a 
cooperative agreement with Brokaw Hospital, 
and had been for some 30 years. The program 
was essentially a three-year diploma program 
conducted by the hospital, with collegiate work 
[at Illinois Wesleyan] added on." 

Although the Brokaw program had graduat- 
ed many outstanding nurses, the initiative to 
launch a full-fledged baccalaureate program 
reflected a general movement in nursing in the 
late 1950s. The nursing school was launched in 
1959, with Brokaw continuing to serve as a 
main laboratory for clinical experience. 

Despite skepticism among some University 
leaders that the school could meet all ot the 
many requirements for accreditation, Bertholf 
held fast in his support and just three years later 
"the program achieved National League for 
Nursing accreditation," wrote Bertholf, "a virtu- 
ally unheard-of accomplishment tor so new a 
program." 

Mary D. Shanks led the nursing school for 
years. She had a Brokaw diploma and an Illinois 
Wesleyan degree, as well as a master's degree 
from Catholic University and a Columbia 



Cont 



& Change 



159 



l\ isT-WAR EXI'ANMi IN 




Anne Meierhofer 



William Schultz 



University doctorate. She became director of 
the University's nursing school in 1960. George 
Vinyard in his booklet, Illinois Wesleyan 
University: Growth, Turning Points and New 
Directions Since the Second World War, noted 
that Shanks' "leadership has been a prime factor 
in [the nursing school's] success. The new 
School of Nursing completed the course of 
instruction for the final class of students in the 
Brokaw diploma program and admitted its first 
class of 71 degree students in 1959." 

The School of Nursing eventually was 
housed in the old science building (rededicated 
as the Edgar M. Stevenson Hall), a facility that 
became available when the departments of biol- 
ogy, chemistry, mathematics, and physics moved 
in 1964 to Sherff Hall, the new science building. 

The Bertholf Team 

After Bertholf assumed the presidency, he 
wrote: "... 1 soon came to be very proud 
indeed of the staff I had inherited from Dr. 
Holmes." 

William T Beadles, class of 1923, was dean 
of the University, vice president, professor of 
business administration and insurance, and a 
respected and influential force on campus for 40 
years. John Sylvester Smith, who had been dean 
at Dillard University in New Orleans, succeeded 
Beadles in 1959, serving for two years. And, 
Everette Walker filled the post in 1961. 



George T Oborn, an ordained Methodist 
minister, joined the history faculty in 1946. 
However, in 1953, he assumed responsibility for 
fund-raising activities and was valued for his 
knowledge of charitable giving and estate plan- 
ning. Business Manager Philip W Kasch had 
joined the University in 1948, bringing expert- 
ise in budgeting, accounting, investment, pur- 
chasing, contracting, and other fields. 

Anne Meierhofer was dean of students, hav- 
ing come to Illinois Wesleyan in 1946 as dean 
of women. "Anne had the happy faculty," 
Bertholf wrote, "of being able to enter into the 
lives of students, their concerns and problems, 
as if these were her very own affairs." 

Bertholf characterized Director of 
Admission Lee Short, class of 1944, as "a great 
idea-man. He was always thinking up new ways 
to advertise the University, new reasons for 
bringing prospective students to the campus, 
new devices for telling our story to the local 
business and professional men, new ideas for 
Homecoming or Alumni Days, new ways of 
making our catalog and other literature more 
attractive." Short's success as an admission and 
public-relations officer, according to Bertholf, 
was that "he believed wholeheartedly in the 
thing he was 'selling.'" 

Joseph D. Kelley, Jr., a member of the class 
of 1939, was appointed registrar in 1956. An 
Air Force veteran and former public-school 



IKi'tmi's Wesleyan University 



I'i -l-W.\l< I:\lv\Ns 




Clockwise upper left: 

President Bertholf and 

freshmen students in their 

IWU "beenies", Planting 

of the "Tree of Knowledge", 

Professor Henry Charles, 

Professor Dwight Drexler, 

Professor Wayne Wantland, 

Professor Dorothea 

Franzen. 



Continuity & Change 161 



I' >- I W \i I 'I v.-i ■■. 



teacher and coach, Kelley had a reputation for 
knowing every student by name. Tragically, he 
died from injuries sustained in a traffic accident 
in 1964, while on his way to officiate a high- 
school football game. 

Nurse Velma Arnold, a member of the class 
of 1930, joined the staff in 1942. Bertholf 
recalled that "Nurse Arnold" set up "a highly 
successful nursing service here, one of the few 
such programs which provided for nursing visits 
to student rooms under certain conditions." 

Russell Troxel, class of 1923, was named 
executive secretary of the Alumni Association 
in 1957 after serving as a public-school adminis- 
trator. "Russ vigorously carried on the process of 
organizing the alumni in various centers all over 
Illinois and all across the nation," Bertholf said, 
"with the result that when I came on the job 
there were literally dozens of groups ready for 
me to visit." 

The Faculty 

"I was much impressed by the quality of the fac- 
ulty . . .," Bertholf observed in his memoirs. 

Among faculty he cited as "genuine assets to 
the University" were William Eben Schultz in 
humanities (who died at his desk on April 16, 
1964), Wayne Wantland in natural sciences, 
Bunyan Andrew in social sciences, Rupert 
Kilgore in art, Lawrence Tucker in drama, and 
Carl Neumeyer in music. "They were a team 
that would do credit to any college," Bertholf 
said, "in their respective fields, both as teachers 
and administrators." 



Among other faculty of note, according to 
Bertholf's reminiscence, were Elizabeth Oggel, 
Lucile Klauser, and Joseph and Doris Meyers in 
English; Patricia Deitz and Constance Ferguson 
in French; Pedro Labarthe in Spanish; Paul 
Hessert, James Whitehurst, and Charles Thrall 
in religion; Richard Leonard in history, and 
Ralph Browns in philosophy. In the natural sci- 
ences there were Dorothea Franzen in biology 
and Owen York in chemistry. In the social sci- 
ences there were Oliver Luerssen in business, 
Emil Kauder in economics, and Paul Ross and 
Dewey Fristoe in education. In physical educa- 
tion there were Jack Horenberger, Don Larson, 
Bob Keck, Marian Niehaus, and June Schultz. 
In political science there were Glenn Mower, Jr. 
and Donald Brown; in psychology there was 
Frank Holmes; in speech Marie Robinson and 
Ed Carpenter; and in sociology Samuel Ratcliffe 
and Clark Bouwman. 

In the College of Fine Arts, Bertholf 
recalled, Fred Brian and Nona Craycraft in art; 
in drama, John Ficca; and in music, Dwight 
Drexler (piano), Henry Charles (voice), Lillian 
McCord (organ), Mario Mancinelli (violin), 
Varner Chance (music education), Ruth 
Erickson (voice), John McGrosso (band), Zela 
Newcomb (piano for children), Wilbur Ogden 
(composition), John Silber (theory), Maurice 
Willis (wind instruments), Ruth Krieger (vio- 
loncello), Lewis Whikehart (choral music), and 
Virginia Husted (music history and cello). 



VVc-s/fv«,. Univi 



Pi ) lAV-.! I 




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Baseball Team 
on their Spring 
trip 1958. 



Continuity d? Change 163 






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TLe 1960s 



n© ?^?r^ 




hange was the signature trademark of the 1960s. The decade was 
marked by tumult great and small in politics, economics, and soci- 
ety. Illinois Wesleyan was not immune to this great spirit of change 
in the wider world and in the University. 



For example, changes in the academic program 
accompanied transformation of the University's 
campus in the 1960s. 

Psychology, a subject long taught, had been 
housed in a wide variety of academic homes, 
ranging from philosophy to education to human- 
ities. However, by the 1960s experimental psy- 
chology was giving the field more of a "scientific" 
character, a trend that contributed to the pro- 
gram's placement in the natural sciences in 1961. 
A social-work major joined the academic pro- 
gram in 1963-64- Anthropology was added to the 
title of the sociology department in 1967-68 and 
an anthropology major was added the next year. 

Speech and drama programs also saw organi- 
zational changes in the 1960s. The speech 
department was shifted from humanities to 
social sciences under the leadership of Marie 
Robinson. Speech courses were removed from 
the School of Dramatics and Speech and the 
School of Drama was born. 

"The 1958-68 decade," President Lloyd 
Bertholf recalled, "also witnessed the beginning 
of a great new interest on the part of students 
in business courses. Computers were coming 
into use, government regulations were increas- 
ing, taxation was greatly increasing in complex- 
ity, and business was becoming more world- 
wide in its operations." 

These trends prompted the University in 
1967 to combine business administration, eco- 
nomics, and insurance into a subdivision of 
the Division of Social Sciences. In 1968 a 
fourth division of the College of Liberal Arts 



— business and economics — was established 
under the directorship of William T. Beadles. 

Insurance courses, a trademark of the busi- 
ness program, were first listed in the University's 
catalogue in 1929-30. A single course, 
"Insurance," evolved into "Mathematics of Life 
Insurance" and by the mid- 1930s other courses 
were added: "Fundamentals of Life Insurance" 
and "Life Insurance Salesmanship." As the pro- 
gram evolved, other courses appeared, including 
"Fundamentals of Property Insurance." By the 
late 1950s insurance was a department, offering a 
major in the field. 

"Professor Beadles had been associated with 
the work ever since it began in 1929," Lloyd 




Continuity & Change 



165 



Bertholf wrote, "and the State Farm Insurance 
Company had become so pleased with our pro- 
gram that it began, about this time, to give us an 
annual gift to help with the expenses." 

During Bertholf 's presidency an internship 
program was added to the insurance curriculum. 
"This gave students," he wrote, "the opportunity, 
after completing three years toward the major, of 
working for a commercial company for a 10-week 
period during the summer, thus gaining valuable 
practical experience." 

January Term 

A landmark academic reform during Bertholf's 
administration was the introduction of the 
January Term. "J" Term eliminated the "lame 
duck" portion of the fall semester — the three 
weeks or so between the Christmas-New Year 
vacation and final exams at the end of January. 
"I saw a great need," Bertholf said, "to make 
more opportunity for creative instruction, for 
increased student motivation, and for stimulating 
students to assume more responsibility for their 
own learning." 



Bertholf floated the idea of a 14-week fall 
semester, five-week "short term," and a 14- week 
spring semester in January, 1963. A committee 
was appointed to study the proposal. Since 16- 
week semesters would be shaved to 14- weeks, 
Bertholf suggested lengthening class periods by 
1 minutes to an hour. Opinion was divided and 
studies continued, however, the issue was referred 
back to Bertholf for a final decision. The plan 
was put into effect in the fall of 1965. As experi- 
ence with the "short term" grew, it was modified 
to a 14-4-14 calendar with an earlier start to the 
fall semester. 

Other Innovations 

The 1960s also saw the birth of an innovative 
program — College Credit in Escrow — the brain- 
child of Lee Short, director of admission. The 
plan offered certain high-school students the 
chance to take a three-hour college course during 
the summer before their senior year and apply 
the credit later toward a college degree. The pro- 
gram was started in the summer of 1963 with 10 
students enrolling in a general sociology course. 



President Bertholf and 
Senator Everett Dirksen 
at Commencement 1968. 




1 66 



Wesleyan University 




Demolition of Old North 



A summer independent study program was 
reactivated in summer of 1963. In the fall of 
1967, the Academic Challenge Elective (ACE) 
program was initiated under the leadership of 
Everette Walker, academic dean. Upper-class 
students in good standing could take a single 
ACE course per semester, receiving a "credit" or 
"no-credit" grade. 

"When the grade of 'credit' was given," 
President Lloyd Bertholf explained, "the hours 
thus earned would apply toward graduation, hut 
there would be grade-points given, and the 
student's record would he neither hurt nor 
helped by having to take such a course." 

Graduate courses were offered at Illinois 
Wesleyan as early as the 1870s. For three 
decades such courses were available to students 



in absentia by correspondence leading to about 
250 dissertations. However, this program ended 
in 1906 and no graduate work was offered again 
by the University until 1932, when the School 
of Music offered a master of music degree. In 
1951 a master of music education degree was 
introduced. Later in the 1950s a master of sci- 
ence teaching degree was offered, a 30-hour 
course taken in three eight-week summer ses- 
sions, plus a final essay. National Science 
Foundation grants supported the program, which 
ran from 1958-68. 

The Demise of Old North 

Illinois Wesleyan lost a strong link with its past 
in 1966, when Old North — the University's first 
building and only building for 15 years — was 



Continuity & Change 



167 



razed to clear the way for what became Sheean 
Library. 

President Lloyd Bertholf wrote in his mem- 
oirs that the building, constructed in the 1850s, 
"was enveloped in an aura of sentiment" by 
many alumni. Consequently, the building was 
reluctantly demolished only after several other 
alternative plans had been examined. 

"But a careful architectural appraisal of its 
condition," Bertholf wrote of Old North, 
"showed that during its 110 years it had deterio- 
rated to a point where its restoration to modern 
usefulness would have been more expensive than 
to tear it down and rebuild it." 

The wrecking crew began its work on July 9, 
1966, and, according to Bertholf, "within hours 
it was reduced to rubble." 

"Thus," Bertholf concluded, "a symbol of the 
University's first building is preserved for posteri- 



ty, and is displayed at each University function 
where there is a faculty procession." 

Bertholf was referring to the fact that a few 
years after Old North was razed, Professor 
Anthony Vestuto of the School of Art crafted a 
wax sculpture of Old North's bell tower, which 
was cast in bronze and mounted on the head of 
the University mace, a symbol at the head of all 
faculty processions. 

Old North had served a myriad of purposes 
over the decades. At various times it housed 
classrooms, offices, the academy or preparatory 
school, dining hall, library, print shop, physics 
laboratory, a radio station, and chapter offices for 
two fraternities. Old North's rich and varied his- 
tory prompted the Argus to observe in 1960: 
"Thus Old North, with the great variety of activ- 
ities which have gone on there, typifies the spirit 
of a liberal arts college." 



Students protest 

the demolition of 

Duration Hall 1965. 




IdN 



Illinois Wi'.slt'-vun I'm' 



■ 




■' -*** HEr&^; ':■ : '"2 .^ss£*JK"~' i &V" &««fe?sR*: 



Duration Hall 
demolition with Magil 
Hall through the 

windows. 



Continuity & Change L69 




Sherff Hall of Science under construction. 



The End of Duration Hall 

Illinois Wesleyan had lost another enduring 
bond with its history and heritage the year 
before Old North was razed. What remained 
of Old Main — later known as Hedding Hall — 
was bulldozed in 1965. The building had been 
destroyed by fire in January, 1943. All that 
remained was a basement area, which was roofed 
over, and the original arch over the main door. 
For the next 20-plus years, the structure was 
known as Duration Hall and was used largely to 
house administrative offices "for the duration" 
until a new structure could be constructed. It 
served other uses after the new administration 
building, Holmes Hall, was completed in 1960. 

"I must confess," Lloyd Bertholf wrote in his 
presidential memoir, "that it was a rather sad day 
for me when on that October morning in 1965 a 
huge hulldozer moved in and began at the 
north-west corner of the building to push down 
the remaining walls of old Hedding Hall. 

"So much history," Bertholf added, "resided 
in these 95-year-old walls — so much of struggle 
and uncertainty, of faith and perseverance — that 
it pulled at the heartstrings to see the great 



stones treated with such disrespect and violence 
by a mechanical monster." 

New Buildings Constructed 

But while the University lost some of its historic 
buildings in the 1960s, new ones sprouted, a sign 
of the campus' vibrancy and growth. 

Administrative offices in Duration Hall were 
scuttled about New Year's Day 1960, when quar- 
ters were taken up in the new administration 
building — Holmes Hall — which was constructed 
at a cost of $443,000 and dedicated at the 1960 
commencement ceremony. 

The need for improved theatre facilities was 
apparent since "Spotlight Alley," an old carriage 
house, was transformed into a theatre. The 
widow of the 10th president, Harry McPherson 
(1932-37), deeded a family farm to the 
University, consequently, the new facility would 
be called McPherson Theatre. The $498,582 
building was completed in early 1963. 

A new science building — in the age of 
Sputnik and space flight — was another top priori- 
ty. At that same time, the Illinois Agricultural 
Association (IAA) was eyeing office space in 



Illinois Wesleyan I m 









Elllit it i PflB 





Fred Young Fieldhouse 



Bloomington-Normal for its headquarters after a 
move from Chicago. The idea was that IAA 
would construct a temporary facility, while its 
permanent headquarters was under construction, 
and when the organization vacated the tempo- 
rary building it would he given to the University. 

"IAA agreed to build one concrete-and-block 
three-story building of 33,600 square feet to 
become our science building," Lloyd Bertholf 
recalled in his memoir, "and a 26,000 square foot 
Quonset-type building entirely free of supporting 
columns inside, one suitable for a field house." 

The $454,750 Quonset-type building became 
Fred Young Fieldhouse, which was dedicated on 
March 2, 1962. The three-story stmcture, com- 
pleted in 1964, became the $1 -million Earl 
Edward Sherff Hall of Science. Sherff (1886- 
1966) had written Illinois Wesleyan as early as 
1931 about a "relative" who was thinking about 
naming an educational institution as a benefici- 
ary in a will. He had taught at Chicago Teachers 
College and was a research associate at Chicago's 
Field Museum. 

A second grant from Philadelphia's Presser 
Foundation — the first had been used to construct 




Fred Young 

the School of Music building in 1929 — came in 
the 1960s to refurbish the building's auditorium, 
which was rededicated and named for Arthur 
Westbrook, dean of the school from 1922-39. 
Two years earlier, a $30,000 gift from V.C. 
Swigart supported purchase of a new Schantz 
organ — named the Swigart Memorial Organ in 
honor of his late wife, who was a musician — 
which was located in the auditorium. 

The new School of Nursing was located in 
the old science building, which became available 



Continuity & Change 



when Sherff Hall was opened. The building, dat- 
ing to 1910, was remodeled with support from a 
fund-raising effort spearheaded by the nursing 
school's director Mary Shanks and a group of 
prominent women, as well as a $158,000 grant 
from the National Institutes of Health under the 
Medical Facilities Act. A conditional matching 
gift from Hazel Buck Ewing in honor of her friend 
Dr. E. M. Stevenson resulted in naming the 
building Stevenson Hall. The $278,000 remodel- 
ing project was dedicated on October 9, 1965. 



Center from 1947-1960. The facility was dedicat- 
ed on October 19, 1963. 

A second high-rise residence hall was started 
in October, 1965, at the same time that a second 
addition to the Memorial Student Center was 
undertaken. The two projects had a $2.8-million 
price tag and were dedicated at Homecoming, 
1966. The residence hall was named for Charles 
W. C. Munsell, the University's financial agent 
from 1857-73, and his brother, Oliver S. Munsell, 
University president from 1856-73. 




Astronaut Frank Borman setting the Evans Observatory cornerstone. 



Borman with Representative Leslie Arends. 



As a result of burgeoning enrollment in the 
late 1950s, plans were drafted to expand the 
Memorial Student Center. In 1960 the 
University received a low-interest matching loan 
from the federal government to support the proj- 
ect, which added a recreation area, the DugOut 
snack-bar area, and other facilities. The $212,451 
addition was dedicated on October 28, 1961. 

Increased student enrollment also put pres- 
sure on residence halls. Financing this initiative 
was eased as a result of the federal government's 
policy of providing low-interest loans for income- 
producing college facilities. The University 
obtained a $625,000 loan in 1962 for what would 
become Ferguson Hall, named for Wilbert 
Ferguson, a distinguished professor and adminis- 
trator from 1894 to 1944, and his daughter, 
Constance Ferguson, a professor of French from 
1926-1952 and director of the Memorial Student 



"None of the building projects during my admin- 
istration received as much planning attention as 
did the new library," President Lloyd Bertholf 
recalled. 

Initially, the thought was to build an annex 
onto Buck Memorial Library. However, a library 
consultant from Emory University concluded that 
Buck could not be adapted to contemporary 
library use and advised a new building be con- 
structed. Eventually, that approach was endorsed 
and a Library Fund Campaign Committee was 
established. Librarian Rodney Ferguson visited 
other campuses with new libraries to help shape 
the plans. The new library, which was completed 
in the summer of 1968, cost about $1.2 million 
for construction and $1 14,470 for furnishings and 
equipment. A three-part package financed the 
project: a federal loan, Illinois Wesleyan funds, 
and a federal grant under the Higher Education 



172 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



Facilities Acts of 1963. In 1978 the library was 
named for Jack Sheean after his widow made a 
generous contribution to the University. 

By the mid-1960s there was renewed interest 
in astronomy probably in part the result of the 
emerging space age. However, the Behr 
Observatory, which dated to the 1890s, was 
badly deteriorated. Orme Evans, a member of an 
architectural firm that designed many University 
buildings, proposed that the Evans family con- 
tribute a sum that would cover about one-third 
of the cost of a new observatory as a memorial to 
his father, Mark Evans, a World War I-era 
trustee, who played a leading role in the fund- 
raising campaign that resulted in Memorial 
Gymnasium and other projects. Project financ- 
ing also came from University funds, a federal 
grant, and Kresge Foundation support. The cor- 
nerstone for the facility — located on the site of 
the former Behr Observatory — was laid on 
March 18, 1969. Astronaut Frank Borman, com- 
mander of the Christmastime, 1968, Apollo Vlll 
mission, the first manned space flight to orbit 
the moon, headlined the ceremony. 

The Career of "Coach" 

The mid-1960s saw the retirement of legendary 
Jack Horenberger, class of 1936, as men's basket- 
ball coach. He was succeeded by Dennie Bridges, 
class of 1961, a four- year letterman in basketball 
as a guard, baseball team shortstop, and a three- 
year letterman in football as a quarterback. 

Horenberger began his 37-year coaching 
career at his alma mater in 1942. Over the years, 
the captain and guard of the only undefeated 
men's basketball team, also coached baseball and 
served as athletic director and dean of men. 

An appreciation, published in 1993 in Illinois 
Wesleyan University Magazine, described 
Horenberger this way: "'Coach' is, of course, Jack 
Horenberger '36 as permanent a fixture at 
Illinois Wesleyan for the past 50 years as Buck 
Memorial Library. Countless students, col- 
leagues, and friends consider him "Mr. [Illinois] 
Wesleyan' for his contributions in the classroom, 




Jack Horenberger 

on the athletic fields, and as the school's most 
beloved goodwill ambassador." 

The Horenberger record includes coaching 
the men's basketball team to a 264-212 record 
and seven College Conference of Illinois and 
Wisconsin (CCIW) championships from 1942- 
65, and coaching the baseball team to a 509-401 
record and 16 CCIW championships from 1943- 
81. He received the University's Distinguished 
Alumnus Award in 1962. 

"Jack Horenberger '36 epitomized what was 
good and different about [Illinois] Wesleyan 
athletics for 39 years," wrote Robert S. Eckley 
in his memoir. "More than any other individual, 
he set the tone for [Illinois] Wesleyan's student 
athletes. 

"When athletic scholarships were eliminated 
in a shift to need-based awards in the 1960s," 
Eckley explained, "Jack went along but thought 
it would not work. When it did, he was among 
the first to acknowledge that fact and to become 
a vocal supporter for aid based on need. His 
record in coaching basketball and his sport of 
choice, baseball, speak for themselves — it was 
the way he did it that attracted attention and 
respect, along with his ever-present congeniality." 

Sports Landmarks over Two Decades 

The 1950s began with a landmark event in 
Illinois Wesleyan football history with the Titans 
going undefeated and untied in the 1951 season, 
compiling an 8-0 record and winning the CCI 



Continuity c* Change 



173 



(left to right) 
Coaches Larson, 
Keck and Bridges 




174 Illinois Wesleyan University 



championship. The 1951 team's accomplishment 
recalled the gridiron accomplishments of the 
1888 squad and anticipated undefeated seasons 
in 1965 and 1992. 

Football also marked an important 
milestone in 1955, when Don "Swede" Larson, 
class of 1950, began a 31 -year career as football 
coach. Over the years, he amassed a record of 
142421-6. The 1950s also saw Illinois Wesleyan 
win five straight CCI baseball championships 
from 1956-60. 

The decade of the 1960s marked many mile- 
stones for Titan basketball. In 1961 the 
University for the first time won the National 
Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) 
state basketball championship and headed to 
Kansas City for the national tournament. The 
team made similar trips to Kansas City in 1966, 
1970, 1971, 1975, 1976, 1977, and 1980. 

Fred Young Fieldhouse opened in 1962. The 
first men's basketball game played there was an 
85-59 conference championship clinching win 
over Lake Forest College. 

And, in 1967, the College Conference of 
Illinois (CCI), Illinois Wesleyan's athletic 
affiliation, was broadened into the College 
Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin (CCIW). 

A great rivalry ended in 1969, when cross- 
town foe, Illinois State University, played their 
last football game — a 27-6 defeat for Illinois 
Wesleyan. In 1970 the basketball rivalry 
between the two universities ended with a 
last-second Titan victory, 69-68. 

Martin Luther King, Jr. 

The decade of the 1960s was a period of great 
hope and tragedy. This era, filled with contradic- 
tions, was symbolized by the civil-rights 
revolution and manned space flight, as well as 
hippies, the Vietnam War, and a trio of tragic 
assassinations. 

The 1960s was an era when the nation's 
campuses exploded in protest — protests fueled by 
the Vietnam War, the emerging counterculture, 
and a passion for a racially just society. Illinois 
Wesleyan wasn't immune to these forces. 



One of the social forces students probed 
beyond the campus was the civil-rights crusade 
at a time when Freedom Riders and others were 
challenging America's segregated society. 
Consequently, Illinois Wesleyan became a stop 
on the long march to a fairer and more equal 
society, when civil-rights champion Dr. Martin 
Luther King, Jr., visited the campus in 1961 and 
1966. 

King's 1961 message of non-violent social 
change, years before he was awarded the Nobel 
Peace Prize, was summed up in the Argus , when 
the newspaper described the clergyman-social 
activist as "a man who never forgot to 'love his 
enemy;' he made suffering a virtue." 

King addressed an audience at a banquet 
convened in the Main Lounge of the Memorial 
Student Center, advocating peaceful movement 
toward racial equality. He condemned the 
notion of separate but equal rights for America's 
black citizens. 

"Non-violence is the most effective weapon 
for oppressed people," King told his audience. 
"Violence in our struggle would be impractical 
and immoral ... to deal with a moral problem 
we should use a moral means." 

A Return Visit 

King returned to campus in 1966 after winning 
the Nobel Peace Prize and Time Magazine's 1963 
"Man of the Year" award. This visit was spon- 
sored by the Student Senate. More than 3,000 
people crowded into Fred Young Fieldhouse to 
hear his remarks. Additionally, the renowned 
civil-rights leader made classroom appearances 
and addressed local clergy. 

Receiving standing ovations, when he 
entered and left the fieldhouse, King said: "We 
must build a greater America. It cannot be built 
on bombs. It cannot be built on riots. We must 
work to change the climate that makes for bit- 
terness that causes individuals to turn to these 
types of self-destruction." 

Two years later, King was dead after an assas- 
sin's bullet cut him down in April, 1968. Illinois 
Wesleyan remembered him with a candlelight 



Continuity & Change 



175 



vigil. About 25 African- American students also 
held a memorial gathering. 

Sara Ellen Long, class of 1964, wrote in the 
Argus that King "challenged us to accept the 
responsibility of taking the best of our culture 
and redirecting it and remaking it so that 
equality . . . might reign, and so segregation . . . 
would be eliminated." 

Illinois Wesleyan and the 
Civil-Rights Movement 

King was not the only civil-rights leader to use 
the campus as a platform to advocate social jus- 
tice. The Reverend Jesse Jackson, a close associ- 
ate of King, spoke at the Religious Activities 
Commission's symposium in 1967. 

Illinois Wesleyan's interest in civil rights 
went beyond attracting prestigious speakers to 
campus to discuss the pivotal issue. 

Congress passed sweeping civil-rights legisla- 
tion in 1964 and the federal government 
required applicants for U.S. grants and loans to 
sign a statement stating strict compliance with 
the new law. 

"I willingly signed this statement and sent it 
in to Washington in January of 1965," wrote 
President Lloyd Bertholf in his memoir, "and 
told both students and faculty what I had done. 
We were therefore on record that as an institu- 
tion we did not practice racial discrimination in 
any form." 

Concern over the slow pace of integration 
on college campuses nationally in 1 965 triggered 
a statement by the Human Relations Committee 
of the Student Senate, which proclaimed an 
intent to pursue "actively the practice of inte- 
grating [Illinois] Wesleyan affiliated groups and 
organizations." This sparked a campuswide 
debate over the "risks" and "consequences" of 
imposing integration on university groups, espe- 
cially the impact on fraternities and sororities. 

Sociology Professor Emily Dunn Dale offered 
a statement to clarify the Human Relations 
panel's declaration, saying: "It means that we 
believe in an integrated community. . . It means 



that we intend to practice what we affirm rather 
than paying mere lip service to an ideal. And it 
means that we pledge our encouragement to 
those organizations as yet unintegrated which 
affirm their support of the ultimate goal, rather 
than disowning or disavowing them." 

Through the Eyes of the Argus observed: 
"After the Human Relations Committee ensured 
that the rights statement would not shut down 
any University organization, Senate approved it 
on December 12, 1965. (In 1968, five black stu- 
dents chartered [Illinois] Wesleyan's first pre- 
dominantly black fraternity. The organization 
disbanded in 1971)." 

The Bertholf years did more than invite 
minority speakers. For the first time an African- 
American joined the faculty with the appoint- 
ment of John Martin in sociology in 1961. He 
came from New Orleans' Dillard University, 
where he had been an associate professor since 
1957. Martin had received an undergraduate 
degree from Knoxville College and master's and 
doctoral degrees from Atlanta University and 
Indiana University, respectively. 

Assassinated Leaders Remembered 

Tragically, the 1960s was a decade filled with 
assassinations. Gunmen killed President John E 
Kennedy in 1963 and civil-rights leader Dr. 
Martin Luther King, Jr., and U.S. Senator 
Robert E Kennedy (D-N.Y.), the slain presi- 
dent's brother, in 1968. 

Students, faculty, and others attended a serv- 
ice in Memorial Gymnasium for the murdered 
president on November 25, 1963. A newspaper 
account observed: "Many faces were still petri- 
fied with the horror of the assassination which 
greeted them on Friday." 

When King was gunned down five years 
later, the civil-rights leader who had twice visit- 
ed the University was memorialized at a com- 
memoration. Paul Bushnell of the history faculty 
said: "Dr. King gave a vision to our generation, 
which was short on dreams and long on know- 
how . . . While he taught us that hatred corrupts 



176 



Illinois WV.slcvun University 




The visit of 

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 

October 1966. 



Continuity & Change 




1; Tr - '" 

t^'i iii .■$. i 'ItSf " 

^iHfe Jii *** w*r i^ sl&Jf '58 T 4 



■ ii Hi HI '4 




Buck Memorial Library 

and destroys, he also taught us that anger and 
passion are constructive dimensions of life. . . 
Non-violence is power and justice demands the 
right use of power." 

The Vietnam War 

The first U.S. combat troops landed in South 
Vietnam in 1965. U.S. troop strength in the 
beleaguered Southeast Asian nation stood at 
190,000— with 1,350 deaths already recorded. 
President Lyndon Johnson halted bombing of 
North Vietnam, but a peace overture was 
stymied. Nineteen hundred and sixty-five also 
saw about 100,000 people — mostly students — on 
100 campuses attend a teach-in on Vietnam. 
Twenty-five thousand demonstrators marched in 
Washington, D.C., to protest the growing war. 

The next year, U.S. troop strength in 
Vietnam topped 400,000 and a three-day inter- 



national protest against the war took place in 
seven U.S. and seven foreign cities. The 19th 
annual congress of the U.S. National Student 
Association voted to halt all offensive military 
operations in Southeast Asia. 

Despite these trends, the Argus reported stu- 
dent and faculty support for the Vietnam War. 
While not citing polling evidence to support its 
conclusion, the newspaper in November, 1967, 
offered a range of student opinion. One student, 
reflecting Cold War-tensions of the time, said 
the war was "halting a Communist threat to 
strengthen democratic policy." Another student 
took the opposite view, declaring: "I don't feel 
we are fighting for democracy, freedom, liberty 
and all the other high sounding words we pound 
into the 19 year-old GI's heads, but are fighting 
to save a certain somebody's face in 
Washington." 



178 



///nuns Wcsleyan University 




Books found during the renovation of Buck Memorial Library. 



Vietnam Week, a three-day forum, was con- 
vened in 1967. Mutual Broadcasting System 
newsman Craig Spence, recently hack from the 
conflict, and anti-war activist Staughton Lynd — 
among others — squared off on war policy. 

Anti-war protests swept U.S. campuses in 
1968 after the North Vietnamese launched the 
massive Tet Offensive in the South. The senti- 
ment on campus was captured in Through the 
Eyes of the Argus: "The May 3, 1968 Argus 
reported that more than 600 students attended 
the first protest event, which featured speeches 
and readings from 10 faculty members and stu- 
dents." 

Through the Eyes of the Argus added: "During 
the 1969-70 school year, the campus literally 
came to a halt when faculty and students voted 
in favor of a moratorium on October 15, 1969, 



to discuss pro- and anti-war viewpoints. Over 
1,000 students attended the debate, which ulti- 
mately revealed a campuswide anti-war bias." 

Student Senate expressed an anti-war posi- 
tion by voting to remove U.S. troops from 
Vietnam, while the faculty voted to adopt a res- 
olution condemning North Vietnamese treat- 
ment of U.S. prisoners of war. Furthermore, the 
School of Drama staged two anti-war plays in 
1970 and 1971. 

Thomas H. Keeslar, class of 1969, was a 
Marine stationed in DaNang, site of many 
North Vietnamese attacks. He wrote the Argus: 
"There are some people that snuff these men 
and their loyalty to their country, ideals and 
morals ... Is loving your country so wrong? Is 
trying to protect home, family and loved ones 
wrong?" 



Continuity & Change 



179 



I. The 1970s ami 1980s 



"*Nl he 1970s dawned with bloodshed on American campuses. 

Four students were killed at Ohio's Kent State University when 
National Guardsmen opened fire on anti-Vietnam protesters. 
Two students also were killed in a demonstration at Mississippi's 
Jackson State University. The American academic spring gave way to sweep- 
ing campus unrest on May 4, 1970, within hours of the Kent State tragedy. 



The 1971 Wesleyana captured reactions, where 
the news "set off a planned program of protest 
and community education unlike anything pre- 
viously seen at [Illinois] Wesleyan." 

"The outraged reaction of a small group," the 
yearbook continued, "followed hy their request 
that the University's flag be lowered, soon began 
to awaken more students to the tragedy at Kent 
State. Typically [Illinois] Wesleyan, students 
worked through channels, consulting the admin- 
istration, who consulted the Senate, who said 
'Yes.' . . . Other students, incensed by the action, 
stood around in menacing groups, some attempt- 
ing to argue with the 'peace creep Commies' 
around the flagpole. A campus divided." 

The flag was lowered with a flower-filled cof- 
fin at the foot of the flagpole on May 5, while 
the Wednesday chapel was transformed into a 
memorial service and students and faculty organ- 
ized a forum on Kent State and the war in 
Southeast Asia. 

President Robert S. Eckley stood firm in a 
May 7 statement, declaring: "I feel our students 
have acted sensibly in setting up a series of pro- 
grams aimed at showing their concern with 
events of the last few days on both domestic and 
international fronts. I am as certain that they 
will continue to act in a responsible manner." 
Summer at least allowed a respite for planning. 
Administrative, faculty, and trustee colleagues 
reached consensus. As Eckley remembered the 
direction in his memoir: "If the unrest takes no 
more serious form than blocking of facilities, if 



the operation of the University is not immedi- 
ately threatened . . . our response should be mild 
and not resort immediately to physical methods 
of removal . . . Whether or not we would have 
the patience to wait out the occupation of facili- 
ties as was done at Brandeis for eleven days or at 
the University of Chicago for sixteen days is an 
open question." 




Robert Eckley 

Arson in Presser Hall 

May was far from over. Presser Hall went up in 
flames, clearly the work of arsonists setting two 
separate fires. Eckley would remember later, "If 
there was a darkest day in my [Illinois] Wesleyan 
years, this is the most likely candidate." 

More than two years passed before three 
Bloomington-Normal juveniles confessed to the 
crime. Another two years passed before they 
were brought to trial. The group's leader retract- 



Continuity & Change 



1M 



The WOs amp 1980s 




The stage of Westbrook Auditorium after the 1970 f 



ed his confession and was acquitted by a jury. 
The building suffered extensive damage in two 
fires set by the youngsters. The case remains 
officially unsolved. 

Incidentally, fires have played disastrous and 
historic roles in Illinois Wesleyan's history. The 
Tau Kappa Epsilon house had burned in 1930 
and 13 years later a blaze destroyed Hedding 
Hall, while the Kappa Delta house caught fire 
in 1957. Five other fires took place on the cam- 
pus between 1968 and 1986. 

Robert S. Eckley becomes President 

Thus ended the second year of Robert Eckley's 
presidency in an era when college presidents 
survived on campuses a shorter time than the 
average undergraduate course. Paradoxically, 
Eckley was just beginning the longest tenure in 
the University's history. 

After 14 years at the heavy-equipment 
manufacturer, Caterpillar, Eckley was manager 
of the business-economics department, when he 



was named president of Illinois Wesleyan in 
1968. A native of Kankakee, Illinois, he had 
graduated in economics from Bradley 
University in 1942 and finished an M.B.A. at 
the University of Minnesota before three years 
in the Coast Guard on the U.S.S. Davenport. 
After the war he was at Harvard for an M.A. 
and Ph.D. in economics. Two years as assistant 
professor at Kansas led to an appointment as an 
industrial economist at the Federal Reserve 
Bank in Kansas City. From there he went to 
Caterpillar, where he continued to publish in 
economics. 

Eckley's connections to Illinois Wesleyan 
stretched to his paternal grandfather, a 
Methodist minister, who was a graduate of 
Hedding College, and his uncle Wayne Eckley, 
who was a 1927 mathematics and physics alum- 
nus, taught nuclear engineering at the U.S. 
Naval Academy for years. 

The University interested Eckley for other 
reasons, too, as he recalled. 



182 



The 1970s and 1980s 






President Eckley and 


_oMW ' 


his cabinet (left to right) 




Wendell Hess, Lee Short, 




Glenn Swichtenberg, 




President Eckley, 


v 


Phil Kash, Randy Farmer, 




Larry Hitner, and 




Jim Ruoti. 


" r> 








*4 i 




\ 





Lett: President and 
Mrs. Eckley Right: 
President Eckley 
V' ... arriving on campus. 



Continuity & Change 183 



Tilt l 1 -) 70s AND 1980s 



"I had long been interested in higher educa- 
tion and liberal arts colleges, in particular 
because of their exemplary record in preparing 
people for leadership positions." 

"Their performance," he explained, "is 
enhanced by a close relationship between facul- 
ty and students in a teaching environment. 
[Illinois] Wesleyan's commitment to the fine arts 
and the existence of pre-professional programs 
in business, nursing, and teaching as well as the 
liberal arts were compatible with my educational 
interests and philosophy." 

As Eckley embarked on his presidency, he 
sensed a dual mission at the University. "Two of 
the key requirements would be to increase its 
academic and financial strength, something I 
thought I knew how to do." 

Faculty and Student Achievements 

The Eckley years were filled with many head- 
lines and highlights on the academic and schol- 
arly fronts. 

As the curtain was dropping on the 1970s, 
two faculty members revealed important 
insights into the 1700s in an interesting work 
of scholarship. 

It took four years of research, writing, and 
editing but in 1978 the story of a young man's 
life and experiences during and after the 
Revolutionary War came to light with publica- 
tion of The Diary of a Common Soldier in the 
American Revolution, 1775-1783: An Annotated 
Edition of the Military Journal of Jeremiah 
Greenman, prepared by Robert Bray, Colwell 
Professor of English, and Paul Bushnell, profes- 
sor of history. 

The book was the 200-year-old journal kept 
by Greenman, a Rhode Island resident. The 
journal was owned by Greenman's great, great, 
great granddaughter, a Bloomington resident. 
The book related Greenman's war experiences, 
as well as his business ventures and career as a 
sea captain after the revolution. 

A glimpse into some other noteworthy aca- 
demic achievements included: 



• By the time economics major Peter B. 
Berg, class of 1983, won a Fulbright grant for 
study in Germany in 1983-84, it was the 
ninth time in 10 years that at least one 
student had received a Fulbright, created by 
federal legislation. 

• The Nautilus, a scientific journal, report 
ed the discovery of a new species of mol- 
lusk by Dorothea Franzen, professor of 
biology-emeritus, in a 1983 article she 
authored. Franzen, who joined the faculty 
in 1952 and retired in 1977, discovered the 
snail-like species on the shore of Long Lake 
in Michigan in 1967, but conducted research 
during the ensuing years to determine the 
discovery's validity. 

• English Professor James D. McGowan 
drew high praise in 1985 for his translation 
of 66 poems from Charles Baudelaire's "The 
Flowers of Evil." One critic called the work 
"a new high standard of imaginative excel- 
lence and inventive fidelity." 

Teaching Excellence 

When sociology professor Emily Dunn Dale 
became the 29th Century Club honoree in 
1988, she also became the first recipient of the 
Sears-Roebuck Foundation Award for Teaching 
Excellence and Campus Leadership. Over the 
years, Illinois Wesleyan has had countless facul- 
ty — far too many to name — dedicated to quality 
teaching in the classroom, laboratory, on stage, 
and in the studio. This commitment to first-class 
teaching has defined the University over the 
decades. But what makes for a top-notch 
teacher-scholar? 

When Jared Brown, professor and former 
director of the School of Theatre Arts, received 
the DuPont Award for Teaching Excellence in 
1997, he said: "A good teacher has a love for his 
or her discipline, students, and the academic 
life. A good teacher is curious, always attempt- 
ing to learn more. And, of course, the teacher 
wants to share his views, his knowledge, and his 
passions with students. But, in the best of times, 



184 



Till- 1970s ANH 19KO 



that's a reciprocal process, for the students share 
as well, in some mysterious way, we come to 
enlighten and inspire one another." 

Two years later, Michael Seeborg, the Robert 
S. Eckley Distinguished Professor of Economics, 



tifying with the modern aspirations and goals of 
the black man in this country." 

President Eckley said the University would 
make "extra efforts" to employ African- 
American faculty, yet he had to add that since 




James Farmer, President Eckley and Jeff King 72. 



was the teaching-excellence award recipient. "I 
really enjoy working with student-research proj- 
ects," he said, commenting on his teaching phi- 
losophy. "To see students' critical-thinking skills 
improve — mature — brings a lot of satisfaction." 

An "Urgent Concern" 

Consensus sometimes was elusive in the 
America of the 1970s. However, there was 
agreement on one key point at Illinois 
Wesleyan. Faculty and staff were determined 
to increase the number of African- American 
students and enhance the quality of their 
experience. 

The Black Student Association (BSA) was 
formed in 1968. John Martin, the first African- 
American faculty member had joined the sociol- 
ogy department in 1961, but he had left and 
once more the University had no African- 
American professors. The new BSA advocated a 
goal of 10 percent black faculty by the fall of 
1969. These faculty were needed, according to 
an Argus article, "to complete the black students' 
educational experiences and to aid them in iden- 



blacks held only 2 percent of doctorates in the 
liberal arts at that time, "there is little likelihood 
that a major portion of the specialized positions 
can be filled by black candidates, even with the 
extraordinary efforts we are prepared to make." 

In the meantime, alternate tactics could pro- 
vide an improved environment. "We had no 
black faculty or administrative staff initially," 
Eckley wrote, "so we sought to present African- 
American role models through invited guest 
speakers and performers." 

Over the years, the University and the Black 
Student Union collectively invited nationally 
prominent African- American personalities like 
Andrew Young, a colleague of Dr. Martin Luther 
King, Jr; Georgia legislator Julian Bond; civil- 
rights leader James Farmer; soprano Kathleen 
Battle; Ralph David Abernathy of the Southern 
Christian Leadership Conference; and Yolanda 
King, daughter of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 

"Because our black students came from seg- 
regated backgrounds and few joined fraternities 
or sororities," Eckley wrote in his memoir, "I 
granted their request for a house for their activi- 



Continuity & Change 



1SS 



The 1970s and 1980s 



ties and meetings, and the Afro- American 
Cultural Center became a part of the campus 
scene in the spring of 1970." Operated by the 
Black Student Union, the center featured origi- 
nal works by several art majors, discussion 
rooms, a record collection, and a library named 
in honor of Alfred O. Coffin, a Ph.D. and one of 
the University's first African- American students. 

Hiring efforts paid off. From 1970 onward, 
the University had at least one black faculty 
member. Among these faculty were Frank 
Starkey, who taught chemistry from 1971-80, 
and Pamela Muirhead, a member of the class of 
1968, of the English department. In 1983 the 
University elected its first black trustee, David 
Wilkins, class of 1974- And the Student Senate 
provided funding for a Black Fine Arts Festival, 
beginning in 1970-71, and a gospel choir, style 
show, and other activities. 

Eckley remembered, too, that "four social or 
service fraternities and sororities with chiefly 
black membership appeared for a number of 
years, and two were still functioning when I 
retired." 

The civil-rights revolution quite logically 
appeared in the curriculum. Professor Paul 
Bushnell introduced African-American history 
in 1968 and by 1974 the catalogue had much to 
report: "Several courses in the University cur- 
riculum include material on various aspects of 
the Afro-American heritage. In addition, there 
are specific courses in Afro- American History, 
Minorities, and Contemporary Black Literature 
as well as other experimental courses and inde- 
pendent study opportunities." 

Commitment Beyond Tumult 

As the academic community packed for the 
summer of 1970, it feared a fall worse than May. 
Yet summer calmed emotions of the spring, 
without leaving commitments any less intense. 
Politics and human rights remained a focus of 
many campus events, and the panoply of visitors 
showed the vibrancy of campus life. 



Former Irish Prime Minister Terrance 
O'Neill talked about unrest in his country, while 
Julian Bond, the black Georgia state legislator 
and civil-rights leader, discussed social unrest 
and political movements in the United States. 
Former Vice President Hubert Humphrey urged 
abolition of anti-ballistic missiles as he gave the 
fifth annual Adlai E. Stevenson Lecture on 
International Affairs; experimental poet Allen 
Ginsberg, who coined the phrase the "beat gen- 
eration," read his poetry during a campus visit; 
and Bill Russell, the perennial Boston Celtics 
all-star and the first black to coach a professional 
basketball team, discussed the relationships 
among sports, athletes, and contemporary 
events. Other visitors included Apollo VIII 
astronaut Frank Borman, plus Illinois Poet 
Laureate Gwendolyn Brooks, Nancy Hanks, 
chairman of the National Endowment for the 
Arts, and Sears, Roebuck board chairman 
Edward R. Telling, class of 1942. 

And, once the fire damage from arson was 
repaired, Presser Hall continued to offer the clas- 
sics, while other concerts brought The Lettermen 
and the hard rock group, Blood, Sweat, and Tears. 

Curricular Developments 

Overall curricular developments were not lost 
among vibrant political currents. In his inaugu- 
ral address, Eckley observed that the University 
was a distinctive combination of undergraduate 
professional programs in the fine arts and nurs- 
ing, as well as a balanced liberal-arts college. 
"The direction of curricular reform necessary at 
[Illinois] Wesleyan in 1968," Eckley noted, "was 
the improvement of programs and departments 
within the Liberal Arts College." 

He explained: "With the resources available, 
we were close to being over-extended. We had a 
tenuous master's program in music and at least 
two other elements of the University aspired to 
offer master's degree work. At the same time, 
there were weaknesses within the undergraduate 
programs — our core undertaking — which 
required attention." 



186 



Illinois Wesle- 



The 1970s and 1980s 



Liberal-Education Model 

Campus leaders focused on die combination of 
professional schools and liberal arts which the 
University's history had created. A distinctive 
mix seemed possible in a professional model of 
liberal education. Along those lines the 
University had grants in 1976 from the Lilly 
Endowment and the Kellogg Foundation. The 
Lilly grant was tapped to craft a liberal arts-pro- 
fessional model for undergraduate education and 
the Kellogg project focused on bolstering career 
opportunities for liberal-arts college students and 
led to a Career Education Center in 1977. 

"While we fell short of establishing a distinc- 
tive model for American higher education," 
Eckley remembered later, "the work was highly 
beneficial to the University in providing incen- 
tives for curricular and support services innova- 
tion." 

However, on the career-education front, the 
Kellogg grant spurred improvements in career 
advising, including establishment of the pre- 
medical advisory committee in 1972, the pre-law 
committee in 1974, the graduate business com- 
mittee in 1979, and the pre-engineering and 
graduate fellowship committees in 1982. 

To promote programs with a competitive 
edge and to upgrade other areas, the University 
launched a five-year planning process, and over 
several years the faculty established a course-unit 
system which had faculty teaching seven courses 
a year as the students took nine. A General 
Education Task Force in 1974 brought greater 
options as the number of required courses was 
reduced from 16 to 14 out of 34- 

The University's Outlook 

In the fall of 1972 the University had a record 
fall enrollment of 1,685 full-time students, 
which continued a 10-year trend. The College 
of Liberal Arts accounted for 67 percent of the 
total enrollment. Staff and faculty could be espe- 
cially proud that efforts to help students stay 
through graduation had increased junior and 
senior enrollments by 17 percent. 



Financial aid was growing as a student need 
and budgetary necessity, with 62 percent of stu- 
dents receiving some kind of aid by 1973. 

In October, 1975, board approval culminated 
a planning process which aimed at a stable 
enrollment of 1,650 students. At the time it was 
a brave move, for American colleges were full of 
committees planning for decreased enrollments 
which inevitably would come with the declining 
cadre of 18-year-olds. The experience of the 
next decade proved that visible quality and 
strength filled a university despite national num- 
bers. In fact, enrollment was not only stable, it 
reached new heights with the 1,693 full-time 
students in 1986-87. 

The 1980s brought a new phenomenon — 
the annual appearance of new college guides. 
The University's increasing profile was put in 
sharp focus in 1981, when Illinois Wesleyan was 
included among 246 U.S. colleges and universi- 
ties in The Competitive Colleges: Who Are 
They? Where Are They? What Are They Like?, 
published by Peterson's Guides of Princeton, 
New Jersey. Director of Admissions James Ruoti, 
class of 1963, could report three applications for 
each student accepted for a freshman class of 
510. The 1,608 applications for that class set a 
record. 

January Term 

During the 1970s, the innovative January Term 
evolved, proving itself especially appropriate for 
foreign and domestic travel courses, internships, 
and student immersion in a single course for 
concentrated study on campus. By the mid- 
1970s, themes appeared for "J" Term such as: the 
Bicentennial (1976), World Hunger ( 1977), 
Living with Technology (1978), and Human 
Rights (1979). The January Term also provided 
a venue for guest speakers to visit campus and 
for the staging of plays. 

By January Term 1973 faculty could report 
that 266 students — about 16 percent of enroll- 
ment — participated in travel courses in the 
United States or overseas to locales including 



Continuity & Change 



187 



The 1970s and 1980s 




England, France, Germany, Austria, Russia, 
Switzerland, and the Netherlands. One student 
traveled to Singapore to conduct a home-eco- 
nomics research project on foods as they relate 
to culture. Other students studied poetry, 
healthcare, opera and music, international busi- 
ness, insurance, and the making of foreign policy 
in various nations. 

The Age of Computers 

No one at the time would realize the profound 
implication of one purchase order, as the 
University bought an Apple II computer in 
1978. When the box was opened, Illinois 
Wesleyan moved into the computer age. Forty- 
four such machines were in use by 1984, with 
that total soon climbing to 100 computers of 
various types. By the early 1980s more than 80 
percent of students had some exposure to com- 
puters, especially after a National Science 
Foundation grant helped develop new programs. 

"Laboratories were established in the science 
and liberal arts classroom buildings and in the 
library," Eckley explained, describing the com- 
puter revolution on campus. "Many faculty were 
dispatched to summer short courses to enable 
them to teach the introductory course in com- 
puting." 

A new five-course sequence in computer sci- 
ence led to a joint major in mathematics and 
computer science starting in 1981. 



Looking back on the growth of computers in 
higher education over his 18-year presidency, 
Eckley observed there was a "continuous evolu- 
tion and expansion of computer education, 
enabling faculty and students with significant 
interest in computers to develop that interest, 
and equipping practically all students with an 
opportunity to become familiar with microcom- 
puters by gaining first-hand experience." 

Campus Buildings 

The late 1960s and 1970s saw several facilities 
added to the campus. In 1968-69 a new presi- 
dent's house was constructed. Dodds Hall — 
named in 1975 for Glenn Dodds, class of 1926 
and his late wife — was completed in 1970 and is 
a residence hall known for its suite-living 
arrangements. 

Evans Observatory replaced the former Behr 
Observatory in 1970, giving the University new 
capabilities in astronomy, physics, and optics. 
The ground floor of Stevenson Hall was reno- 
vated for the psychology department in 1972. 
Renovations also were made to Buck Memorial 
Library and the football stadium, adding a press 
box in 1974. 




Lloyd and Martha Bertholf 

Bertholf Commons 

The Commons, the student dining area in the 
Memorial Student Center, was named in honor 
of Lloyd Bertholf, the University's 14th president 
from 1958-68, and his wife, Martha, in 1983. 



1H8 



Illinois VVVslc\'«(i University 



The 1970s and 




Installation of the copper 



of Evelyn Chapel. 



This action was especially appropriate since 
Bertholf's presidency is remembered for his many 
"pro-student" policies, including giving the 
Student Senate full authority in handling the 
student activity fee. He also launched a policy of 
including students as members of University 
committees. 

Evelyn Chapel 

Until the 1980s, Illinois Wesleyan didn't have a 
separate chapel building. Evelyn Chapel was 
completed in 1984 and became the center of 
campus religious activity. The chapel's brick 
exterior, laid in the Flemish bond pattern, 
repeats an element of the Georgian style, consis- 



tent with colonial architecture at the time of 
American Methodism's founding in 1784. 

"Evelyn Chapel was designed to provide 
acoustical brilliance for its custom-designed 
Casavant organ and other musical programs," 
according to a pamphlet marking the chapel's 
1984 dedication program series. David 
Gehrenbeck, associate professor of organ and 
sacred music, inaugurated the organ with a 
September 16, 1984 concert. 

The American Institute ot Architects 
bestowed an award on the chapel in 1985, call- 
ing it a "very skillful project . . . classic quality . . . 
decorative, ornamented . . . [with its] undulating 
balcony proficiently handled [with] strong interi- 



Continnity & Change 



189 



The 1970s and 1980s 



or architecture." The chapel also was the subject 
of a cover story in the January, 1985, edition of 
Architecture, the official magazine of the 
American Institute of Architects. The $1.8-mil- 
lion chapel is named in honor of Mrs. Jack 
(Evelyn Howell) Sheean in recognition of her 
efforts as a member of the Volunteers for [an 
Illinois] Wesleyan Chapel and in appreciation of 
her philanthropic gifts. 

Other Facilities 

Beadles Hall, constructed in 1907 and the home 
of the Sigma Pi fraternity, was named in 1980 to 
honor William T Beadles (19024991), class of 
1923, a professor of business administration and 
insurance. Beadles joined the faculty in 1924 as 
an economics instructor and assistant registrar. 
Over the years, he held various administrative 
posts, including chairman of the division of 
social studies, dean of the college of liberal arts, 
dean of the University, and vice president before 
returning to the classroom to teach in 1960. 
Beadles was the first recipient of Illinois 
Wesleyan 's Century Club award for excellence 
in teaching in 1960. He retired in 1968. 



Wilder Hall, acquired in 1980, was named 
in honor of William Wilder, president from 
1888-98. 

The Velma J. Arnold Health Service was 
established in 1941 and named in 1987 in honor 
of its founder and first University nurse. It is 
located in the lower level of Magill Hall, a stu- 
dent residence hall. The health service provides 
primary healthcare and professional referral serv- 
ices for students, faculty, and staff. 

Kemp Hall's development as the Interna- 
tional House dates from the 1980s. It is a living 
and learning center for students interested in 
international issues and concerns. 

The Fine Arts 

The Alice Millar Center for the Fine Arts was 
dedicated in 1973, marking the 25th anniversary 
of the founding of the College of Fine Arts. The 
new art building (28,000 square feet) replaced 
several old houses, Presser Hall was renovated, a 
new music building (25,000 square feet on three 
levels) was added, and a facility for experimental 
theatre was constructed. The art building fea- 
tured a large ground-level gallery, a large lecture 



Millar Fine Arts Center 
Dedication 1973. 




190 



Illinois Wesleyan Vi 



Tut 1970s and 1980s 




Landscaping the 
Quadrangle 




Nelva Weber-Sammataro 

hall, and separate areas for painting, printmak- 
ing, silk screening, lithography, ceramics, sculp- 
ture, welding, design, commercial art, and draw- 
ing, plus studios for faculty and students. 

A Fine Arts Festival was launched, a new 
music-theatre degree was inaugurated in 1977 
and an arts-management program was estab- 
lished in 1978. An accreditation team from the 
North Central Association wrote in 1982: 
"Programs are sound, facilities are superior, and 
equipment and library resources are substantial 



. . . great efforts have lately been made to inte- 
grate the fine [arts] and liberal arts." 

The strength of the Fine Arts Festival early 
in its history is seen in the 1978 program, "The 
Arts: Real to Reel," which attracted famed film- 
maker Frank Capra (Mr. Deeds Goes to Town and 
It's A Wonderful Life), as well as author-screen- 
writer Larry McMurtry (The Last Picture Show), 
and others. 

The keyboard program also excelled with 
faculty such as Dwight Drexler, class of 1934, 
Larry Campbell, David Gehrenbeck, and 
Bedford Watkins. The band programs were led 
by Thomas Streeter and Steven Eggleston. Key 
faculty members of the voice program were 
Henry Charles, David Nott, Robert Donalson, 
and Sammy Scifres, while Todd Tucker led the 
music-theory program. 

The Illinois Wesleyan Civic Orchestra, 
under the baton of Steven Eggleston, director of 
bands, held its inaugural concert in 1985 in 
Presser Hall. The 51 -member orchestra — includ- 
ing five faculty, 23 students, and 2 3 community 
musicians — was formed in November, 1984. 



Continuity & Change 



191 



Tilt WOK ANl. l^SOs 




The School of Art responded gamely to 
enrollment challenges in the early 1970s. 
Printmaker and painter Fred Brian, class of 1950 
and a professor of art, provided leadership for the 
school after the death of long-time director 
Rupert Kilgore, while Miles Bair became director 
in 1979. 

Some artistic endeavors reflected the era's 
social consciousness and concerns. Black 
Resurrection: Pure Suffering — a depiction of the 
hlack experience from the earliest days in Africa 
to the present — was produced in April, 1978, and 
involved nearly all of the University's 80 African- 



American students. The multi-media production, 
presented by the Black Student Union, featured a 
slide presentation, choral numbers, dances, dra- 
matic skits, and oral presentations. 

Landscaping the Campus 

Before construction began on the first campus 
building in the 1850s, the campus site was a small 
portion of Franklin K. Phoenix's Bloomington 
nursery. Those 10 acres — purchased for $2,000 in 
1854 — supported a honey locust tree grove. The 
last of those trees, it is believed, died in 1948. 



192 



Illinois Wesle- 



The 1970s and 1980s 



About a decade later, Dutch Elm disease 
attacked the campus trees, killing more than 100 
elms. Sixteen years later, however, a wave of 
new life swept over the campus. Illinois 
Wesleyan embarked on a mission to transform 
the prairie-like quad into a flourishing vision of 
foliage under the guidance of Nell Eckley, wife of 
President Robert S. Eckley, and landscape archi- 
tect Nelva Weber-Sammataro, class of 1931. 
Basic to the new conception was vacating 
University Street between East and Park, and 
then upon completion of a new walkway system, 
planting began. 

Weber-Sammataro recommended the plant- 
ing of oak, sugar maple, ash, sweet gum, tulip, 
and various other trees. The $100,000 landscap- 
ing project brought 600 new trees to Illinois 
Wesleyan. The project also involved construct- 
ing 2,650 feet of new sidewalks, installing 26 
new light fixtures, and the addition of several 
benches. 

Manager of Grounds Services Eric Nelson 
explained: "Our goal is to create an atmosphere 
for reflection and serious thought. A quiet and 
serene place, with pockets of color, where people 
can mingle or be by themselves without having 
to go into a building." 

The Naked Truth 

Campus capers — from panty raids to bogus issues 
of student newspapers on April Fool's day — are 
part of the legend and lore of American higher 
education. While these high jinks change with 
the generations, they often are memorable. 

In 1974 "streaking" was the memorable fad 
that hit the campus. The March 8, 1974, edition 
of the Argus earmarked a large portion of page 
one, along with photos, to record the latest such 
romp, when a group of Sigma Chi fraternity 
members scampered naked across the quad. 

Through the Eyes of the Argus: 100 Years of 
Journalism at Illinois Wesleyan University reported: 
"However, the Sigs were not the campus' only 
group to take it all off. During one of the frater- 
nity's nude chorus line acts that faced Munsell 



I la II, women danced naked in blackened dorm 
windows while five nude independents ran past 
the dorm and eventually disappeared behind the 
Sheean Library. One spectator told the Argus, 
'It's better than goldfish.'" 




Robert Montgomery 

Alumni Affairs: A Death in the Family 

Robert M. Montgomery, class of 1967 and direc- 
tor of alumni affairs and annual giving from 
1969-73, was killed in 1976 in a head-on car- 
truck collision in Oklahoma. Montgomery was 
director of development and executive assistant 
to the president of Phillips University in Enid, 
Oklahoma, a post he had taken in 1973 after 
leaving Illinois Wesleyan. 

Montgomery's death at age 31 led to the 
establishment of the Robert M. Montgomery 
Outstanding Young Alumnus Award, announced 
annually at Homecoming. 

Presidential Scholars 

The Presidential Scholars' program was unveiled 
at the 1978 President's convocation. The origi- 
nal idea was that just three or four students from 
the entering freshman class would be selected 
each year for their high scholastic potential and 
be known as Presidential Scholars. 

The first Presidential Scholars were from the 
class of 1982: Kathryn Ann Kasley, Janet Carol 
Pauls, Pamela Diane Little, and Tim Joseph 
Vega. 



vuity & Change 



103 



Tilt 1470s AN! - I '-'SIX 



University Finances 

During Robert S. Eckley's 18-year presidency, 
1968-86, the University's operating budget 
almost quadrupled. "To accomplish this general 
rate of increase with a balanced budget," Eckley 
wrote, "even faster increases in current gifts and 
endowment income were necessary because of 
rapid growth in several important categories of 
spending." 

Among those categories was student-finan- 
cial aid spending, which climbed almost seven 
times during Eckley's presidency. "Fortunately," 
Eckley explained in his memoir, "we were able 
to increase endowment income even more rapid- 
ly to accommodate the need. By 1985-86 gift 
and endowment income was still exceeding the 
almost $1.9 million in University aid . . . " 

The 30 largest gifts during the Eckley admin- 
istration totaled about $15 million. Among 
these was a $2-million gift commitment by 
Foster G. McGaw of the American Hospital 
Supply Corporation for the Fine Arts Center, 
named for his mother, Alice Millar. Veteran 
trustee R. Forrest Colwell and his aunt made a 
gift in 1971 establishing an endowed chair in 
American Literature. Additional endowed chairs 
were added during the Eckley years, including 
the Adlai H. Rust Chair in Insurance and the 
Robert S. Eckley Professorship in Economics. 
After a 1971 visit, artist and painter Arrah Lee 
Gaul of Philadelphia bequeathed most of her 
estate and more than 200 paintings to the 
University in honor of her father, who was a 
member of the class of 1899. Bloomington office 
furniture supplier Jack Sheean left a major gift 
when he died in 1977. His widow, Evelyn 
Sheean, increased the bequest and the library 
was named in Mr. Sheean's honor. 

The value of the endowment rose sevenfold 
between 1968-86. The University owned 16 
farms in 1968 totaling 5,357 acres, but by 1986 
these holdings had grown to 22 farms and 6,000 
acres. 

"Investments in securities — almost exclu- 
sively marketable stocks and bonds — were the 



chief emphasis of endowment holdings," Eckley 
explained in his memoir. "They rose from $2.3 
million at market value in 1968 to $35.2 million 
in 1986." 

Eckley summed up the investment strategy 
this way: "The results speak for themselves. For 
the first time in its 130-year existence, the 
University could face the future with an assur- 
ance of financial undergirding. After 1980, 
Illinois Wesleyan had an endowment valued 
among the top 10 percent for colleges with less 
than 3,500 students." 

By 1977 the University ended a $10-million 
fund-raising program. "A little over one-fourth 
of the $10 million has been raised in 
Bloomington-Normal and the surrounding area," 
Larry Hitner, former director of development, 
reported. "That means nearly $7.5 million was 
raised elsewhere, the proceeds of which will be 
used for education in this community." A total 
of 209 gifts were made by 197 donors, with 57 
percent of the total coming from friends of the 
University and 22 percent coming from alumni, 
while 15 percent came from trustees and 6 per- 
cent from foundations and corporations. 

These positive financial trends continued 
into the 1980s and beyond. For example, C. 
Virgil Martin, class of 1932 and retired chairman 
of Carson Pirie Scott & Company told the 
Board of Visitors in April, 1983, that the 
Alumni Campaign for Endowment (ACE) was 
on schedule to raise $15 million by mid-decade. 
Martin, campaign chairman, reported receipts of 
$10.1 million in cash and pledges. The cam- 
paign, said Martin, a former Illinois Wesleyan 
business manager, was needed to retain the 
University's "qualitative edge." Two years later, 
the Board of Visitors learned that ACE, 
launched in 1979, had surpassed its goal, reach- 
ing $15.2 million from 610 donors by mid-decade. 

Record gifts of $1,065,171 were contributed 
to the 1988-89 Illinois Wesleyan Fund. Marvin 
Bower, class of 1945 and chairman of the 
trustees' Development Committee, announced 
the record Illinois Wesleyan Fund tally in 



I'M 



Illinois Wesleyan Uni 



The 1970s and 1980s 



August, 1989, observing that more than 84 per- 
cent of the students received some portion of 
their financial assistance from scholarships fund- 
ed through the annual Illinois Wesleyan Fund. 
Since 1981, the average amount of Illinois 
Wesleyan-funded scholarships had nearly tripled, 
going from $821 per student in 1981 to $2,244 
per student in 1989. 

On the Air 

WESN, Illinois Wesleyan's radio station, began 
operations in January, 1972, adding another 
dimension to the University's student-run media. 
The 10-watt stereo station was located in the 
basement of Kemp Hall, while its transmitter 
was atop Ferguson Hall, a high-rise residence. 

"Besides providing the campus and the com- 
munity with enjoyable and educational FM 
stereo listening," the University's 1972-73 cata- 
logue pointed out, "the station offers opportuni- 
ties for students and faculty to gain technical 
knowledge and experience in station operation. 



The opportunities for involvement in program 
production also give an added dimension to the 
academic and cultural aspects oi the campus." 

Special Events 

By the 1980s several special events were 
enshrined on the annual calendar. One day was 
set aside in the fall and spring for Dads' Day and 
Mothers' Day, respectively. Special Student 
Senate committees planned these events with 
the assistance of parents. Homecoming remained 
an annual fall highlight, featuring a varsity foot- 
ball game, alumni reunions, the Titan Games 
(intramural contests), a parade, selection of a 
Homecoming queen, and a dance or concert. 
The College of Fine Arts, in cooperation 
with the Student Senate, sponsored a spring 
Fine Arts Festival. Typically, the two-week event 
featured a theatre production, guest artists, and 
composers who joined with School of Music 
faculty and students in the Contemporary Music 
Symposium. Film presentations and appearances 




Athletes in Professional Sports 



Jack Sikma wasn't the only athlete to find 
success in professional sports. Shortstop 
Bobby "Ace" Winkles, class of 1952 — who 
hit .400 and led the baseball team in home 
runs, triples, hits, runs batted in, and total 

__ BOHaHH 



s — signed with the Chicago White Sox 
as a shortstop after his junior year. 
Eventually, he became head baseball coach 
at Arizona State University, winning NCAA 
national championships in 1965, 1967, and 
1969. He went on to manage the California 
Angels and Oakland Athletics in the major 
leagues. 

Doug Rader, class of 1966, lead the 
Titans to a College Conference of Illinois title 
in 1963 and a second-place finish in 1964. 
Through the Eyes of the Argus reported: 
"Rader, a gold glove third baseman and a 
.251 lifetime hitter in 11 major league sea- 
sons, played for the Houston Astros, San 
Diego Padres and Toronto Blue Jays, and 
later managed the Texas Rangers, Chicago 




Doug Rader 

White Sox and California Marlins," and was 
a hitting coach with the Florida Marlins. 
Calvin (Cal) Neeman, class of 1951, 
played baseball for the Chicago Cubs, 
Pittsburgh Pirates, and the Philadelphia 
Phillies. 



Bobby Winkles, 



Continuity & Change 



195 



The 1970s and : 




196 Illinois Wesleyan University 



hy authors and literary critics rounded out the 
festival. 

Each spring, residence units planned social 
and philanthropic activities. Three all-University 
convocations — President's, Founders' Day, and 
Honors — provided forums for guest speakers. 

Fort Natatorium 

The early 1980s brought a consensus that the 
University needed a new swimming facility. 
Memorial Gymnasium had been built more than 
60 years ago for a student body about one-third 
of the University's current size. 

A new swimming pool would be located on 
the northeast corner of Emerson Street and 
Franklin Avenue. It was to be modeled on what 
was ideal for Illinois Wesleyan, rather than what 
was merely practical and simple. Thus, plans 
called for eight lanes, a separate diving area, 
locker rooms, spectator seating, classrooms, and 
an office-management area. 

In 1965 Judge Arthur C. Fort, class of 1897, 
bequeathed three farms and other assets as a 



trust which passed into University hands in 
1986. With these assets, the new building was 
named Fort Natatorium in memory of G.L. Fort, 
class of 1877, and his children, Judge Fort and 
Clara E. Fort, class of 1903. 

The Jack Sikma Era 

In the early 1970s the University gained title to 
Bloomington Community Stadium, changing its 
name to Illinois Wesleyan Stadium. 

Athletic achievement continued at record 
level, particularly for men's basketball. Jack 
Sikma, class of 1977, was a business-administra- 
tion major and a GTE Academic All- American. 
During his last three seasons at Illinois 
Wesleyan, the Titans won conference titles and 
44 of 46 conference games. Between 1975-78 
the men's basketball team tallied a 31 -game win- 
ning streak at Fred Young Fieldhouse. Sikma also 
established several individual men's basketball 
records, including most career points, 2,272. 

"After establishing all-time records" at 
Illinois Wesleyan, President Robert S. Eckley 




"The Super Seven 
Plus One" from 1976-77 
"basketball team. 



Continuity & Change 



The 1970s and 1980s 



wrote of Sikma in his memoir, "the small-college 
star unexpectedly was the eighth choice in the 
first round NBA draft in 1977. The choice was a 
good one for the scholar-athlete — in his second 
year with the Seattle Supersonics, he came 
home wearing an NBA championship ring. In 
fourteen seasons, including six with the 
Milwaukee Bucks, he was involved in eleven 
playoffs." A seven-time NBA All-Star, Sikma 
finished his NBA career in 1991. 

As the decade drew to a close, the University 
joined NCAA Division III in 1977. Three years 
later, in 1982, women's sports joined Division III. 

Athletics in the 1980s 

Jack Horenberger retired in 1981 as athletic 
director and baseball coach. He was succeeded as 
athletic director by Dennie Bridges, class of 
1961, who also had succeeded Horenberger as 
men's basketball coach. 

The Women's CCIW was formed in 1984- 
The women's basketball team began six seasons 
of play at Fred Young Fieldhouse in 1988, com- 
piling a 19-4 record the last two years at the 
fieldhouse. 

In his memoir Robert S. Eckley rightfully 
praised coaches for combining academic excel- 
lence with winning. "Much credit goes to the 
coaches and athletic directors: Jack Horenberger, 
Dennie Bridges, Don Larson, Bob Keck, and 
Barb Cothren. They not only fielded excellent 
teams, they helped keep the focus where it 
belonged, on student academic priorities." 

Eckley added: "The excellence of our ath- 
letes is confirmed by the number elected as first- 
team Academic All- Americans by the College 
Sports Information Directors of America." 

Task Force on 1990 

In 1984 Dean Wendell Hess was appointed to 
lead a nine-member faculty, staff, trustee, and 
student group in planning priorities for the last 
half of the 1980s. 

"Hopefully, they will dream about what this 
institution may become," President Robert S. 



Eckley said, "as they weigh alternative directions 
and suggest the most rewarding course for us to 
follow. We anticipate their report in June, 1985." 

The report concluded the University must 
"build from strength." The Task Force agreed 
that success will require the University to "con- 
stantly engage in efforts to stretch its vision." It 
focused on a six-part strategy: developing new 
academic programs; enhancing pre-professional 
opportunities; integrating educational experi- 
ences; fostering the faculty's professional growth; 
financing excellence; and evaluating and com- 
municating quality. 

Specifically, the task force report called for 
establishing an International Studies program 
and a communications concentration; requiring 
a flexible, but university-wide senior capstone 
experience; exploring aggressive program devel- 
opment in pre-engineering; and initiating a 
comprehensive curriculum review. 

A Nation at Risk 

An 18-member federal commission released a 
landmark report in 1983, charging that the "edu- 
cational foundations of our society are presently 
being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity that 
threatens our very future as a nation and a peo- 
ple." President Robert S. Eckley conceded the 
accuracy of the conclusions contained in A 
Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational 
Reform in a presentation to the Board of 
Trustees. 

However, he pointed out that the University 
was successfully swimming against the tide. "I 
believe," Eckley said, "that I am accurate in say- 
ing that the quality of work done by [Illinois] 
Wesleyan students . . . has not deteriorated, but 
we are the exception, and we are being affected 
in many ways by conditions in the schools and 
in higher education generally." 

Eckley pointed out that the University had 
not scuttled general-education requirements, like 
many campuses. Illinois Wesleyan's posture, he 
added, "is that academic work should not be 
compromised in quality and this is likely to posi- 



198 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



tion it well to lead in the reversal (if trends 
described in the National Commission study." 

125th Anniversary 

As the University approached its 125th anniver- 
sary it was reported in October, 1974, that 80 
percent of students were enrolled in business and 
economics, nursing, music, teacher education, 
pre-medicine and related sciences, pre-law, art, 
and drama, with the greatest enrollment increas- 
es in recent years in pre-medicine and pre-law. 
Two-thirds of the College of Liberal Arts faculty 
had doctorates, compared to 40 percent in 1958. 

Illinois Wesleyan marked its 125th anniver- 
sary in 1975. In 1974 it was announced that the 
University would hold many "birthday parties" 
the following year — Founders' Day, the Fine Arts 
Festival, Alumni Day, the President's Club 
Dinner, the opening all-school convocation in 
the fall, commencement, and Homecoming — 
with anniversary-related themes. 

At the Founders' Day convocation, it was 
announced that the congressional papers of 



Leslie C. Arends, a member of the U.S. House . if 
Representatives from 1935-75 and a trustee from 
1937-68, would become part of the library's spe- 
cial collection. Arends' papers, photos, memora- 
bilia, and 250 books filled 200 boxes and crates. 

The Alumni Weekend, convened May 16- 
18, »ave graduates the opportunity to celebrate 
the University's past, present, and future. 
Reunion classes met from 1915, 1920, 1925, 
1930, 1935, 1940, 1945, 1950, and 1955. About 
40 members of the class of 1925 attended for 
their golden anniversary. A slide show chroni- 
cled the University's history and there was a tour 
of Bloomington's historic houses, including the 
David Davis Mansion, once the home of a U.S. 
Supreme Court justice, U.S. Senator, and 
University benefactor. 

At the Alumni Day dinner the University 
received the original manuscript of the 
University's "Cheer Song," written in 1910 by 
Ralph S. Freese, class of 191 1, and Chalmers H. 
Marquis, class of 1910. Freese wrote the music 
and Marquis scripted the lyrics. The document 



Opera Stars Around the World 



One gauge of the music program's success is 
the roster of opera singers it produced 
between the 1960s and the 1980s, including: 
Roger Roloff, class of 1969; Z. Edmund Toliver, 
class of 1970; Susan Quittmeyer-Morris, class 
of 1975; Karen Huffstodt, class of 1977; 
Brenda Hemann Harris, class of 1979; Andrea 
Huber-Burda, class of 1981; Dawn Upshaw, 
class of 1982, and others. 

The accomplishments of 10 international 
opera stars from this era were recounted in 
the Spring, 1997, edition of Illinois Wesleyan 
University Magazine, in an article headlined: 
"The World is Their Stage: IWU Alumni Sing 
Opera from Sydney to Vienna." 

Speaking of the world of opera in Europe, 
Andrea Huber-Burda said: "There are so 




many opportunities here, it's wonderful. There 
are something like 60 opera houses in the 



companies attached. That's not to mention all 
the orchestra and concert work available." 

A 1 999 Illinois Wesleyan University 
Magazine profile of three-time Grammy 
Award-winner Dawn Upshaw pointed out: 
"Part of what makes Upshaw so different is 
that her choices have taken her down an 
astonishing variety of musical roads. A 
favorite at the Metropolitan [Opera in New 
York City] and other world-class opera 
houses for her roles in classic 18th-century 
works by Handel and Mozart, she is equally 
at home in the 20th century," including the 
lead role of Daisy Buchanan in the world 



German-speaking countries, all with complete premiere of "The Great Gatsby" — an adap- 
seasons of 46 weeks a year, and all with act- tation of the F. Scott Fitzgerald novel — at 
ing companies, ballet companies, and opera the Metropolitan Opera." 



Continuity & Change 



199 



The 1970s and 



was presented to the University by Donald 
Freese, class of 1943 and son of the song's co- 
author. The sheet music was accompanied by a 
photo of the entire student body of 1910 stand- 
ing in front of Old Mam. 

The Ferguson Cane 

When Louise Behr Empson died in April, 
1980 — five days after her 103rd birthday — 
Illinois Wesleyan lost its last link to the 
University's fabled Behr Observatory of the 

1890s. 




Sylvester Melvin at age 102 with the Fergu 



Empson was a member of the class of 1 898 
although she had to quit college during her 
sophomore year to care for her ill mother. She 
grew up on Chestnut Street, just a few blocks 
from the campus, and frequently visited the Behr 
Observatory, which her uncle C.A. "Anton" 



Behr, presented to the University in 1894- 

One of her last visits to campus was on May 
13, 1978, Alumni Day, when she received the 
Ferguson Cane, which traditionally was held by 
the oldest living University alumnus. In a 1979 
Argus interview Empson noted that Wilbert 
Ferguson, for whom the cane is named, was her 
favorite professor. Ferguson served as a faculty 
member and administrator from 1894 until his 
death in 1944. 

After Empson 's death, Julia Baker Gray, who 
was approaching her 93rd birthday, became the 
keeper of the cane. Gray — who received a 
teacher's certificate from the College of Music 
when it was located on the second floor of the 
Hoblit Building at Main and Mulberry Streets — 
was one of only a half dozen remaining members 
of the class of 1906. 

The tradition of the Ferguson Cane began in 
1941, when Ferguson — a professor of Greek and 
German — gave it to the University. He had pur- 
chased it in 1892 in Leipzig, Germany, as a gift 
for his father. 

The first recipient was attorney Eli P. Adams, 
class of 1875. He kept it until his death in 1947 
at age 98. His successor was classmate Samuel 
Van Pelt, who died in 1953 at age 98. Sylvester 
Melvin, class of 1878 and a founder of the 
Mutual Insurance Company possessed the fabled 
cane until 1962, when he died at age 1 10. John 
Robert Van Pelt, class of 1882 and brother of 
Samuel, was presented the cane in 1962, but he 
died later that same year. 

Community Service 

Over the years, countless faculty have made 
landmark contributions to their disciplines, 
research, and community service. Samuel C. 
Ratcliffe, who taught sociology from 1927-60, 
was a symbol of that spirit of community serv- 
ice — especially when he delivered the inaugural 
Emeritus Professor lecture in 1982 at a youthful 
95 years of age. 

Ratcliffe, a Canadian by birth who became a 
U.S. citizen in 1935, left a lasting mark on the 



200 



Tut 1970s \m 1980s 




Samuel C R.iti hlh 



Bloomington-Normal community. He assisted in 
organizing the McLean County Senior Citizen's 
Advisory Board. He was a participant and organ- 
izer of the local Office of Economic Opportunity, 
as well as serving as a member of the McLean 
County Social Service Council. He was a 
Head Start director, worked with the State 
Commission on Prevention of Sex Delinquency, 
and served on the War Labor Board. Ratcliffe 
was cofounder of the Bloomington-Normal 
Child Guidance Clinic and the Social Service 
Exchange, and was on the board of directors of 
the Western Avenue Community Center, Red 
Cross Home Service Board, and the 
Bloomington-Normal Church Council. 



The nonagenarian Ratcliffe, one of 11 sib- 
lings, was admitted to college based on his per- 
formance on proficiency exams since he had no 
high-school training. He received degrees from 
Canada's University of Mt. Allison and the 
University of Alberta, as well as a doctorate from 
the University of Chicago. He taught at the 
University of Illinois for seven years before com- 
ing to Illinois Wesleyan in 1927 — the year 
Lindbergh flew the Atlantic — as head of the 
sociology department. He introduced one of the 
first internship progiams for undergraduates to 
study welfare in the United States. He died at 
age 103 in 1990. 



Continuity & Change 



XII. 



or war 



"J a oescruiicejilteiijriial 



C^^D 



"SJ hat Bloomington would have a college seems a given, based on 
the eastern background of the early European settlers. Its form 
and specifics, though, depended very much on politics and details. 



The atrium of 
the Center for 
Natural Science 



In September, 1985, President Robert S. Eckley 
turned age 65. Lloyd Bertholf, his predecessor, 
had retired at age 68, while Merrill Holmes had 
served in the presidency until 72 years of age, 
and William Shaw had died in office at age 78. 
That fall Eckley announced he would retire at 
year's end, making him the longest serving presi- 
dent in the University's history. 

"I have been privileged to serve Illinois 
Wesleyan students, faculty, staff, alumni, and 
trustees for 18 years and now I am looking for- 
ward to a sabbatical," Eckley said. 

The search process named Wayne Anderson 
the University's 16th president and he arrived in 
August, 1986. A graduate of the University of 
Minnesota, he did master's work in public and 
international affairs at Princeton's Woodrow 
Wilson School before receiving a Ph.D. from 
Georgetown University. He had been on the 
staff of the Association of American Colleges 
and his nine years as assistant to the president at 
Johns Hopkins prepared him to be president and 
professor of political science at Maryville College 
at age 39. He knew well the tasks of his new 
office as he took over a planning process already 
in place. 

Anderson brought new sense of vision as he 
urged his new colleagues to be leaders in many 
spheres. Provost Wendell Hess chaired the Task 
Force for 1990, and as the group continued its 
work, Anderson pushed an agenda focused on 
overseas programs, community interaction, pro- 
grams for women and minorities, development of 
the University's visibility and academic profile, 



and plans for new construction and its funding. 
Anderson saw great vigor in the accumulated 
results of the previous decades and urged his col- 
leagues to help consolidate them for national 
visibility. His tenure was brief as he announced 
his resignation after barely 18 months in office, 
yet his departure left many new currents afoot. 
Far sooner than expected the University was in a 
presidential search mode again. The faithful vet- 
eran Provost Wendell Hess became acting presi- 
dent. Hess joined the faculty in 1963 as a chem- 
istry professor and already had been dean of the 
University for 1 1 years when Anderson appoint- 
ed him provost in 1987. There was hardly an 
aspect of the institution he did not know well. 
An admired professor, who won the University's 
top teaching award in his sixth year, Hess had 
been a department chair, division director, and 
leader of the planning process. 

A New President Named 

Minor Myers, jr., became the 17th president of 
Illinois Wesleyan University in 1989. An alum- 
nus of Carleton and Princeton, Myers taught for 
16 years at Connecticut College, where he wrote 
five books and headed the board of a local muse- 
um. Previous to arriving in Bloomington, he had 
spent five years as provost, dean of faculty, and 
professor of political science at Hobart and 
William Smith Colleges. 

University Finances 

In Vice President for Business and Finance, 
Kenneth Browning, the University has contin- 



Continuity & Change 



203 



[ i WAKI i A StSQUlCENTENNIAL 




The Sesquicentennial Gateway 



ued its tradition of balanced budgets. Head of 
tbe Massachusetts Institute of Technology's 
student paper as an undergraduate and then a 
housing officer there, Browning has a natural 
sensitivity to students as well as balance sheets. 
The tradition of the balanced budget reached 
its 42nd year in 2000, a spring in which the 
endowment touched the $225-million mark. 

Special credit for the endowment's success 
goes to Rex James Bates, a former trustee and 
former head of the investment division at State 
Farm insurance. He volunteered vision, advice, 
and management skills during decades in which 
he helped to grow the endowment from a cush- 
ion into a resource. Today, five fund managers do 
what he did alone for years. 

Assets are only as good as the planning for 
them and recent years have allowed the Univer- 
sity to balance other needs with the continual 
enhancement of a student-aid budget that has 
exceeded $10 million annually. More than 80 



percent of students receive some sort of financial 
assistance because of careful planning, alumni 
enthusiasm, and the endowment. 

Development work has excelled. Under 
the leadership of Vice President for University 
Advancement Richard Whitlock and Director of 
Development Ben Rhodes, class of 1969, alumni 
and friends have operated a campaign that has 
exceeded $125 million in commitments. 
Whitlock knows colleges well as an alumnus of 
Gustavus Adolphus College, while Rhodes, an 
IWU alumnus, has family roots in Bloomington 
going back to the 1820s. Their leadership has 
allowed faculty and students to move forward. 

The 1990s inherited a strong financial out- 
look. Even periodic economic slowdowns, which 
devastated the northeast in the decade's early 
years, were something only read about in 
Bloomington. The founders would have been 
amazed. Elements of financial solidity and aca- 
demic success are interrelated. Consequently, 



204 



Illinois Wcslcyan University 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 



Board President E. Hugh Henning explained at 
an October, 1988, trustees' meeting that balanced 
budgets were the product of careful financial 
management, increased student retention, and 
record support from alumni, friends, and founda- 
tions. Board Treasurer Craig C. Hart also reported 
that the market value of the endowment stood at 
$54.7 million. Acting President Hess noted that 
the University had a record enrollment of 1,732 
full-time students. President Wayne Anderson's 
efforts to recruit international students brought 
together representatives of 27 countries, while 
two dozen students were studying off campus in 
London, Paris, Vienna, Washington, D.C., New 
York City, and elsewhere. 

A Campaign 

Trustee Edward B. Rust, Jr., class of 1972, is chief 
executive officer of State Farm insurance, which 
is ranked the 15th largest corporation among the 
Fortune 500. Yet, he readily agreed to chair a 
fund-raising campaign for his alma mater. He 
announced in May, 1992, that the University 





1: $ 58,000,000 



ILLINOIS Hi >*V 




Ed Rust announcing the Campaign for Illinois Wesleyan. 

already had received $30.1 million in gifts and 
pledges. The initial $58-million goal was passed 
in 1995. 

Ebullient leadership among alumni accumu- 
lated $125 million of new support by the sum- 
mer of 2000 and their enthusiasm very quickly 



translated into new buildings, programs, and 
needed scholarship resources for students drawn 
from around the globe. 

The Fort Natatorium proved far more of a 
model than anyone imagined, when the 
Memorial Gymnasium pool looked ripe for 
replacement. When the Shirk Center was 
designed to go with the Natatorium, Russell 
Shirk, class of 1943, in his quiet way set the 
example, which has pervaded each construction 
project that followed. University leaders have 
traveled the entire country, looking at the best 
undergraduate facilities they could find and ask- 
ing what was good and what could be improved. 

Faculty 

The faculty of the 1990s gave vigorous demon- 
stration that scholarship and teaching were not 
antithetical. Indeed at selective colleges they 
reinforce each other. Hardly a faculty meeting 
went by without the provost displaying a new 
faculty publication. Among some of those pieces 
were a cover article in Nature on Assistant 
Professor of Biology Elizabeth (Susie) Balser's 
work on light-emitting octopi to a two-book set 
authored by four Illinois Wesleyan chemists 
Integrated Chemistry: A Two-Year General and 
Organic Chemistry Sequence, published by 
Houghton Mifflin in the late 1990s. The authors 
are David Bailey, professor of chemistry; Forrest 
Frank, associate professor of chemistry, who 
retired in May, 1999; Jeff Frick, associate 
professor of chemistry and department chair; 
and Timothy Rettich, associate professor of 
chemistry. 

Academic Leadership 

Ellen Hurwitz followed Wendell Hess as provost. 
With the additional title of dean of faculty 
Hurwitz stayed until 1992, when she left to 
become president of Albright College and subse- 
quently president of New England College. Janet 
McNew followed as provost and dean of faculty 
in 1993. She and Associate Provost Roger 
Schnaitter and Associate Dean Mona Gardner 



Continuity & Change 



205 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 




Toward a Sesquicentennial 



Center for Natural 
Sciences 



have worked with faculty colleagues to develop 
new curricular offerings, hire new colleagues, 
and design buildings — assignments that have 
enriched the University. 

The joint success of development and admis- 
sions supported a buoyant expansion of the fac- 
ulty. More than 50 percent of Illinois Wesleyan's 
young and vigorous faculty have been appointed 
since 1994- They pride themselves on teaching 
and there is great pride and competition for the 
annual duPont teaching award, yet scarcely a 
faculty meeting goes by with the provost 
announcing important new books, papers, or 
other achievements by productive colleagues. 
John Wesley Powell would be proud of those 
who have followed in his tradition. 

It is perhaps out of that pride that the faculty 
has named the John Wesley Powell Research 
Conference, the annual spring showcase of stu- 
dent-faculty collaboration. In the spring of 2000, 
82 students took part. No one found a new 
species that year, but Karen Lindahl, class of 
1999, had done so the previous year, as she and 
Professor Elizabeth (Susie) Balser found a crea- 
ture barely a millimeter long, a tardigrade, 
Milnesium, in a lichen-covered roof-top area 
outside of Balser's apartment. 

Science Education 

Science took a great step forward in 1995, when 
the University opened the Center for Science 
Learning and Research. Designed by an architec- 
tural consortium of Anderson DeBartolo Pan, 
Inc., of Phoenix, and Shive-Hattery of 
Bloomington, the building provides nearly 
1 30,000 square feet for biology, chemistry, 
physics, mathematics, computer science, and 
psychology, all organized as a community of sci- 
ence. The massive building with its sweeping 
atrium contains 440,000 bricks, 77 miles of wire, 
17 miles of conduit, and 1,400 electrical outlets. 
It was designed for periodic technological 
updates. A key to the building's design is the 22 
student-faculty research laboratories in which 
junior and senior students may maintain 
research projects throughout the year. 



The science center caught the attention ot 
Project Kaleidoscope, a science-education pro- 
gram sponsored with support from the National 
Science Foundation. The project featured it as a 
model building, while Barron's 300 Best Buys in 
College Education wrote: "With the addition of a 
new science facility and equipment, the under- 
graduate program [at Illinois Wesleyan] could 
surpass that at any national university." 

Biology continues to attract almost 100 stu- 
dents in each class oi 560, yet the total roster oi 
physics majors is often more than 50 students, a 
fact almost unknown on other liberal-arts cam- 
puses of 2,000 students. About a fifth of Illinois 
Wesleyan students have a science as one of then- 
majors. Consequently, John Wesley Powells 
great scientific tradition continues to thrive, as 
does his spirit of exploration. 

January Becomes May 

Generations of Illinois Wesleyan students had 
loved the January Term and when the faculty 
decided to move it to May, there was consider- 
able doubt among students and alumni about the 
efficacy of this decision. Now students cannot 
imagine it any other way, and we sense some 
alumni may be envious. 

For the inaugural May Term in 1996, almost 
200 Illinois Wesleyan students had their pass- 
ports stamped for destinations including the 
People's Republic of China, Australia, England, 
Ireland, Greece, and the Czech Republic, while 
others traveled to Hawaii, Texas, New York City, 
and points along the old Oregon Trail. 
University Chaplain and Professor of 
Humanities Dennis Groh, class of 1961, was a 
veteran of 15 archaeological expeditions to Israel 
in 1997, when he took 25 students on an 
archaeological adventure as part of May Term. 

Other Programs Abroad 

May is only one option tor study abroad and 
many students spend a year or term elsewhere. 
Across the curriculum from music to nursing, 
students explore other continents, enriching the 
campus on their return. 



Continuity & Change 



AT 



Toward \ Sesqi m entennial 



A program with Pembroke College, Oxford, 
for example, launched in 1997 with six students 
is particularly popular. Each year students have 
the option of studying and living at the college 
of Samuel Johnson, the dominant figure of 18th- 
century English letters. Though the oldest build- 
ings date from 1624, the great dining hall was 
going up just as Illinois Wesleyan was getting 
started. 

By 2000 Illinois Wesleyan had participated 
in about 10 international exchanges with 
Technos International College in suburban 
Tokyo. The primary goal of the two-week pro- 
gram is to provide participants with a first-hand 
glimpse into Japanese culture through travel, 
seminars, and other activities. 

Humanities and Social Sciences 

When the new science center opened, the old 
science facility, Sherff Hall, was abandoned. 
Planning led to its complete renovation with 
architectural plans by Jack DeBartolo, who had 
worked on the science building and the Shirk 
Center. In 1997 after a $5.1-million renovation 
it became the Center for Liberal Arts (CLA), a 
three-floor brick building housing 60 faculty 
offices, classrooms, seminar rooms, and various 
other facilities. History, philosophy, classics, edu- 
cation, religion, political science, sociology and 
anthropology, economics, and business all moved 
into the CLA. However, the English Department 
opted to remain in its elegant house at 1101 N . 
Main Street. 

The CLA features laboratories for social-sci- 
ence research such as the political-science labo- 
ratory, which houses computers, phone banks, 
and other facilities needed for survey research, 
analysis, and downloading information from 
electronic data banks. 



was consolidated as a major, and with the help of 
the Tanaka Memorial Foundation Japanese was 
added as a new language, as part of a burgeoning 
program in Asian studies. Annual trips to Japan, 
sponsored by the Tanaka Foundation and 
Technos International College, have created 
many more friends for things Japanese, just as 
has the exchange program with Obirin 
University in Tokyo. Both of these spirited pro- 
grams serve as a worthy reawakening of the 
Japanese heritage of our first international stu- 
dents 110 years ago. 

Perhaps least imaginable of all developments 
from the perspective of the 1970s is the reemer- 
gence of the classics. Once more the University 
had specialists in Greece and Rome, centered in 
classics and in history. But the classics of India, 
the rest of Asia, of Latin America, and of Africa 
found a place in the modern curriculum, too, 
which seeks the best and most interesting of all 
continents and centuries. 

Dean of Students 

After 2 1 years as dean of students, Glenn 
Swichtenberg retired in 1996, leaving many gen- 
erations of successful and grateful students. He 
was followed by Debra Wood, who came from 
Coe College and left for Scripps College. She 
was followed by James Matthews, drawn directly 
from the faculty and the Department of Modern 
and Classical Languages. 

Matthews had first come into student affairs 
when Dean Wood put him in charge of a Greek 
Affairs Task Force. When she departed, he 
seemed a natural to work with students to reach 
new levels of programming. In the fall of 1999, 
he and associate deans Malinda Carlson and 
Darcy Greder could count some 700 separate 
events available to students during a semester. 



Foreign Languages 

Language study has grown in offerings and inter- 
est. The complete renovation of Buck Library 
into a computer and language center in 1990 
carried language study to a new level. Russian 



A New Student Center 

Student enthusiasm reached new levels once 
Tom Hansen, class of 1982, got involved. In the 
fall of 1999 he returned to campus to announce 
a major gift to transform the old Memorial 



208 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 




Past and present 
Student Senate 
Presidents and a 
student Senator review 
plans for the Hansen 
Student Center, From 
left to right: Matt Glavin, 
president 2000-2001; 
Harold Gauthier, 
president 1999-2000; 
Greg Adamo, president 
2001-2002; Jerry Pope, 
president 1977-1978, 
and Tom Bowen, 
senator 1998-2001. 



Gymnasium into a vibrant new student center, 
featuring a two-story bookstore, cafe, grille, 
information center, offices for student govern- 
ment and other student organizations, confer- 
ence rooms, newsstand, and an outdoor patio. 

A $2-million gift from Hansen, a business- 
administration graduate, and his family spear- 
headed the student-center project. "I wanted to 
make a gift," he said, "which benefits all students 
at Illinois Wesleyan and the student center proj- 
ect was perfect. The design of the center caters 
to the diverse needs of all students and is very 
conveniently located." 

The student-center project got off to a unique 
start in 2000, when students swung sledgeham- 
mers at a "wallbreaking" ceremony. "Students 
have been part of the student-center planning 
since day one," said Dean of Students James 
Matthews, "so we wanted them to have a role — 
a physical role — in the demolition work that's 
the first step in constructing the new facility. 
The Hansen Student Center is their building." 



Rust House 

The deans of student affairs have been involved 
in considerable other real-estate work as well. 
After Jack DeBartolo's master plan suggested the 
need and place for a new residence hall, the 
trustees turned to BLDD of Decatur, Illinois, to 
design the building that opened in 1997. Dean 
Wood and students led the programming, which 
created a four- floor residence hall offering four-, 
six-, and eight-person suites. Its 54,000 square 
feet accommodate 118 students. The building 
also includes kitchenettes, floor lounges, a recre- 
ation room, laundry facilities, and access to the 
Internet and cable television. 

The Board of Trustees needed little reflection 
to come up with an appropriate name tor the 
structure, for the students of the University for 
decades had no better friend on the board than 
Harriett Fuller Rust, who also was a daughter-in- 
law of a trustee, wife of one, and mother of 
another. In her cheerful way she championed the 
cause of students and their scholarship needs, as 



Continuity & Change 



209 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 



Harnett Fuller 
Rust House 



she organized annual fund support on their 
behalf. All were saddened when she died only 
weeks after her name was emblazoned on the 
stones over the door. 

Earlier construction had created a building at 
1 1 1 E. Emerson, occupied by Sigma Chi, just as 
all but one of the other fraternities occupy 
University buildings. Phi Mti Alpha on Franklin 
Park owns its own building, while the sororities 
own all their own structures. 

Portfolio Class 

The line between student activities and course 
work is often thin, as the portfolio class shows. In 
1992 John Listen, class of 1949, and C. Leroy 
Benner were having lunch in Savannah, 
Georgia, as they did every week, but this time it 
was different. They ended that meal convinced 
that Illinois Wesleyan should have a student- 
investment fund. If biologists have frogs to work 
on, why shouldn't business students have a fund 
to manage? Not much later former trustee Elmo 
Franklin had exactly the same idea and within a 
few months Professor Mona Gardner was work- 
ing with a trustee client board, as she led that 
first group of students in investing $200,000, 
which those first discussions had produced. 
Benner was so pleased with the progress that he 
added another $50,000. Not quite a club, the 
class is an ongoing organization managing a port- 
folio and quite often outperforming key market 
indices and the University's own portfolio man- 
agers. Now under the guidance of Zhenhu Jin, 
associate professor of finance, the fund crossed 
the $1 -million mark for the first time on 
March 24, 2000. In addition, the fund 
contributes 4-75 percent of its principal each 
year to student scholarship funds as a functioning 
part of the endowment. 

Concern for Others 

A key component of a liberal-arts education is 
developing a keen sense of public service as seen 
in the twin coast-to-coast ventures — Make a 
Difference Day and National Volunteer Week — 




The atrium of Rust House 

that Illinois Wesleyan participates in annually. 
When Illinois Wesleyan joined the National 
Volunteer Weekend in 1994, 32 students partici- 
pated. By 1998, the roster included more than 
250 students. The 1998 National Volunteer 
Weekend was typical with students painting the 
local Red Cross office, picking up trash along 
Bloomington-Normal's Constitution Trail, and 
helping the elderly at Path Senior Services. 

In the 1990s Habitat for Humanity became a 
popular public-service project for students. In 
1995, for example, about 30 students spent spring 
break working on Habitat for Humanity homes 
in Conway, South Carolina. Others worked in 
the Bloomington-Normal area. In 1996 students 
were involved in a bike race to raise $10,000 
toward construction of a home locally. Mary 
Kern, a 1997 business and psychology graduate, 
said she was attracted to Habitat for Humanity 
because "it's an active service organization — 
you're not just raising money for a national 
organization to divvy up. You go out and accom- 
plish much yourself and that is satisfying." 

Illinois Wesleyan brought to campus in 1996 
about 1 5 youngsters from Cabrini Connections' 
Tutor/Mentoring Program. Daniel Bassill, class of 



Continuity & Change 



i\ i 



T. WARD A SESQUICENTENNIAL 



1968, started the after-school nurturing program 
for seventh to 12th graders from Chicago's 
Cabrini-Green neighborhood. "The main reason 
Illinois Wesleyan wants to do this is to show stu- 
dents from Cabrini Connections that higher 
education is attainable," said Monica Taylor, 
director of Multi-Cultural Affairs and a 1988 
graduate. 

In 1996 the University began cosponsoring a 
summer Sports & Scholars program, which 
helped 24 Bloomington high-school freshmen 
sharpen their math, science, and writing skills. 
The innovative program — a creative partnership 
among the Bloomington public schools, State 
Farm insurance, and GTE — was described as an 
excellent example of a public school-university 
collaboration by Bloomington School 
Superintendent Richard Sens. 

The University promoted these types of 
community-campus efforts nationally in its 1996 
President's Report, Touching the Future — 
American Collaborations . The report was the 
product of an eight-month canvass of more than 
160 national liberal-arts campuses and selected 
corporations to find out what they were doing in 
collaboration with civic groups and others to 
replace hardship with hope in neighborhoods 
nationwide. 

And, in an entrepreneurial venture, a group 
of students produced a CD, A Musician's 
Christmas, in 1998 with proceeds from the 
recording — which featured 16 holiday songs and 
carols — earmarked for the Peoria Journal-Star's 
Christmas Fund, a charity. 



The festival, launched by Corine Sims and 
the United Community Gospel Singers of 
Bloomington-Normal, became a venue for bring- 
ing to campus noted human-rights leaders com- 
mitted to keeping alive King's vibrant message of 
non-violent social change and social justice. 

The festival also became a magnet attracting 
to campus many members of the King family and 
other civil-rights leaders, including: Martin III 
(son), Bernice (daughter), Yolanda (daughter), 
Vernon (nephew), as well as noted civil-rights 
attorney Morris Dees and former Virginia 
Governor Douglas Wilder. 

In addition to keynote and other speakers, 
the Gospel Festival program typically includes a 
community-wide fellowship dinner and an eight- 
hour musical and educational program. 

Alumni Support 

At its sesquicentennial, Illinois Wesleyan has 
17,481 living alumni distributed all over the 
globe. Recent years have brought notable success 
re-establishing the active alumni clubs of an ear- 
lier era, and alumni enthusiasm has risen sharply 
with continuing student achievement and the 
Ames challenge. 

When B. Charles Ames, class of 1950, and 
his wife Joyce Eichhorn Ames, class of 1949, 
made the landmark gift, which named the new 
library, they equally challenged their fellow 
alumni: if the alumni contributed $1 million 
each for three years they would match it. As this 
book went to press, two of those challenges have 
been met. 



Gospel Festival 

The annual Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Gospel 
Festival became a fixture on the annual calendar 
in the 1990s. The event — slated for the national 
holiday weekend commemorating the slain civil- 
rights leader's birth — became a model of cam- 
pus-community cooperation. It celebrated the 
life and teachings of King, the Nobel Peace Prize 
winner who visited Illinois Wesleyan twice in 
the 1960s. 



A New Magazine 

Bob Aaron joined Illinois Wesleyan in 1991 as 
director of University Communications. Within 
months he had conceived the new Illinois 
Wesleyan University Magazine, which published 
its inaugural issue in the fall of 1992. Four times 
a year it brings campus news to 23,000 alumni 
and friends, at the same time it celebrates alum- 
ni achievements. Aaron came to campus after an 
18-year career in Washington, D.C., where he 



212 



is Wt-slc-vuii University 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 



was a public-relations specialist and a journalist, 
who covered national politics and reported from 
Moscow and Beijing. 

J/lmois Wesleyan University Magazine hit its 
stride during its first eight years of publication 
under two visionary editors — Elaine Graybill and 
Tim Obermiller — and Senior Graphic Designer 
Gary Schwartz. The professional editorial staff, 
supplemented by a talented group of student 
workers, some of whom went on to successful 
careers in journalism and public relations, 
included Stew Salowitz, class of 1976 and direc- 
tor of news services; Sherry Wallace, assistant 
director of university communications; Tina 
Williams, office coordinator; and University 
photographer Marc Featherly. 

Movie Guide 

By 1998 the seventh edition of Illinois Wesleyan 
at the Movies had rolled off the press. The Wall 
Street Journal took note of the first edition, while 
Gannett News Service covered release of the 
fifth edition. 



For the seventh edition the guide reported 
that 34 alumni from the classes of 1932 to 1997 
had appeared in 315 feature and made-for-televi- 
sion films. They have been in Academy Award- 
winners like The Silence of the Lambs and One 
Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. Alumni also have 
had roles in critically acclaimed films like The 
Hustler, The Right Stuff, Hannah and Her Sisters, 
and Mississippi Burning. Among these alumni are 
William Duell, class oi 1949; Kevin Dunn, class 
of 1977; Frankie Faison, class of 1971; Stephanie 
Faracy, class of 1974; Richard Jenkins, class of 
1969; Alison LaPlaca, class of 1982; Sam Smiley, 
class of 1952; and James Sutorius, class of 1967. 

Athletics and the Shirk Center 

Athletic vigor has flourished with academic suc- 
cess. In the late 1980s Russell Shirk, class of 
1943, was a devoted alumnus, known worldwide 
wherever aficionados of his Beer Nuts products 
gathered. A basketball and tennis standout as an 
undergraduate, Shirk remained a spirited Titan 
fan, who nurtured the idea of a new athletic 



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ity & Change 



213 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 



complex. He thought about it for many years and 
soon he and Dennie Bridges, class of 1961 and 
athletic director, were making plans for a struc- 
ture conceived beyond the standard of any other 
building. Trustee Marvin Bower, class of 1945, 
Shirk, and Bridges flew around the country 
studying various athletic centers. 

When Russ Shirk and his wife, Betty, made a 
commitment of $5 million toward the project, 



Coach Keck 
at his final game. 




the future Shirk Center was no longer a theoreti- 
cal investigation. Designed by the St. Louis firm 
Hastings and Chivetta and in conjunction with 
the Fort Natatorium, the new building rose in 
proportions that awed even those who studied 
the plans daily. The performance gymnasium for 
varsity basketball seats 2,500, while an adjacent 
basketball court allows another team to practice 
when the arena is in use. The huge activity cen- 
ter has 200-meter, six-lane track with flexible 
space in the center for tennis, volleyball, basket- 
ball, indoor batting practice, or as we have some- 
times seen even cricket. 

With the opening of the $15-million Shirk 
Center for Athletics and Recreation in 1994, the 
men's basketball team ended 33 seasons of play 
in the Fred Young Fieldhouse, where it had a 
311-80 record, winning 79.5 percent of its home 
games. Women's basketball had come into its 
own in the fieldhouse, and the women chalked 
up a win for their last game there, a 74-61 win 
over North Central College. 

Athletics: The Decade of the 1990s 

The decade of the 1990s opened with NCAA 
Division III Ail-American Malik Jones, class of 
1990, winning the national indoor 55-meter 
high hurdle championship. 



Essai! (Touchdown!) 



American football was catching on in France 
in the early 1990s and three pioneering 
coaches of the French gridiron visited the 
campus for a week in 1993 to sharpen their 
coaching techniques and game plans. They 
tapped Illinois Wesleyan for their tutorial 
after reading an article co-authored by head 
football coach Norm Eash, class of 1975, 
"Exploiting the Defense: Illinois Wesleyan's 
Short Side Passing Attack," which appeared 
in the American Football Coaches 
Association 1993 Summer Manual. 



"We want to learn things we can inte- 
grate in France," explained Emmanuel 
Gorce, assistant coach in charge of the 
offensive and defensive lines for the Saint 
Etienne Giants. "Illinois Wesleyan's approach 
is best for us. We can reproduce it in France 
and I'm sure we will win with this type of 
program." 

Three years later, the Titans traveled to 
Hamburg, Germany, for Charity Bowl IV, a 
gridiron contest pitting them against the 
Hamburg Blue Devils, who lost in the 1995 



German Bowl finals. The first three Charity 
Bowl contests raised about $81,000 for chil- 
dren's-care programs. Illinois Wesleyan foot- 
ball players raised funds to cover trip costs. 

"I want the trip to be fun," football coach 
Eash, said in a pre-game interview, "but at 
the same time I want the team to be compet- 
itive — we're playing for the United States not 
just Illinois Wesleyan, so there's some added 
pressure." 

Illinois Wesleyan was more than com- 
petitive, defeating the Blue Devils, 37-7. 



214 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



Toward a Sesquicenti;nniai. 



Coach Boh Keck retired in 1991 after serv- 
ing 34 years as a professor and assistant coach in 
football, wrestling, men's track, and cross-coun- 
try. He coached 10 NCAA Division 111 Ail- 
Americans. 

The 1992 football season forever will be 
remembered for "the catch." Chris Bisaillon, 
class of 1993, a CTE Academic All- American, 
won national acclaim when he shattered San 
Francisco 49er and NFL all-pro receiver Jerry 
Rice's NCAA all-division touchdown-pass 
reception record of 50 catches in a college- 
career. Bisaillon broke the record during his 
senior year, finishing with 55 TD catches. 
Among the people calling with congratulations 
was Jerry Rice. 

The women's Softball team won the CCIW 
championships in 1994, 1995, and 1996. 

The football and men's basketball teams 
saw post-season action in 1996. The basketball 
team captured third place in the NCAA 
Division III tournament. The football team 
advanced to the quarterfinals of the NCAA 
Division III playoffs, losing to Mt. Union, the 
eventual national champion. 

1996 also inaugurated women's golf com- 
petition. 

National Distinction 

Athletics had a banner year in 1997, with a 
national championship and several distinctions 
for individuals. 

The men's basketball team won the NCAA 
Division III national championship, defeating 
Nebraska Wesleyan, 89-86, while Ail- 
American forward Bryan Crabtree, class of 
1997, earned NCAA Division III "Player 
of the Year" honors from the National 
Association of Basketball Coaches. Crabtree, 
a GTE Academic All- American, also was 
spotlighted in "Faces in the Crowd," a 
Sports Illustrated feature on amateur athletes. 

Coach Dennie Bridges was named "Coach 
of the Year" in 1997 by the National 
Association of Basketball Coaches tor the 
1996-97 season when the Titans went 29-2. 




Chris Bisaillon 




(£g ). "The Catch" - 
5f3|>v ; Chris Bisaillon breaking 
| I Jerry Rice's record. 



Continuity & Change 215 



T< WARD A SESQUICENTENNIAL 




Korey Coon 

That same year Quarterback Lon Erickson, 
class of 1997, won the Gagliardi Trophy as best 
NCAA Division III football player. He also was 
selected as the Academic Alb American of the 
Year for college division players. 

Female athletes also were honored in 1997. 
Nicole Frank, class of 1998, of the track team 
won the NCAA Division III national high-jump 
championship. Laura Carroll, class of 2000, won 
Alb American honors and two events at the 
NCAA Division III swim meet. 

In the spring of 2000 guard Korey Coon, 
class of 2000, won the Jostens Trophy, recogniz- 
ing the outstanding student-athlete in NCAA 
Division III basketball for the 1999-2000 season. 
Coon, too, was named the College Division 
'Academic All- American of the Year," no sur- 
prise since he graduated with a 4.0 average. He 



also was named to All-America teams selected 
by the National Association of Basketball 
Coaches and by the Basketball Times . 

Another award-winning student-athlete in 
2000 was long jumper Martez Clark, class of 
2000, who was named to the first team of the 
Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards for track 
and cross-country athletes. An English-writing 
major and political-science minor, Clark headed 
off to Stanford's law school after two years on 
the NCAA Ail-American list. 

Horenberger Field 

The 1999 baseball season began with the open- 
ing of the $1.65-million Horenberger Field, 
which a stadium plaque declared, "is dedicated 
to the students of Illinois Wesleyan University, 
the youth of McLean County and all those who 
love baseball." The ballpark, named for the leg- 
endary baseball skipper of 38 seasons Jack 
Horenberger, was a first step in upgrading other 
fields. 

Dr. Elmer Beadles, class of 1934, gave the 
University three more tennis courts in honor of 
his wife, the late Marjorie Morse Beadles, class of 
1934, while Tom and Marilyn Neis, the classes 
of 1970 and 1971, respectively, honored several 
in their family in presenting the Neis Soccer 
Field, which opened in the fall of 2000. The gift 
of William C. and Susan Nazha, parents of two 
students, brought lights to Horenberger field, 



Hoop Dreams 




Luther Bedford, class of 1959, had taught 
physical education and coached since the 
early 1960s at Marshall High School, a 1,700- 
student inner-city public school on Chicago's 
West Side. As Marshall's basketball coach in 
the late 1980s and early 1990s, he mentored 
Arthur Agee, one of the two high school 



players featured in the critically acclaimed 
1994 film documentary Hoop Dreams. 

The film won the 1994 Sundance Film 
Festival award for "Best Documentary." 
It tells the story of two high-school basket- 
ball players dreams of some day playing 
professional basketball and the pressures 
in their lives as they work toward that goal 
and others. 



"A modest Luther Bedford would be the 
first to admit he is an unlikely movie 'star,'" a 
1995 Illinois Wesleyan University Magazine 
article pointed out. "Bedford's role (as him- 
self) in the film reinforces his calm dignity as 
a coach in a difficult neighborhood. . . " 



216 



Illinois Wesleyan University 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 




DIVISION 



BW BASK 






Coach Bridges during 
the Championship 
Tournament 1997. 




Continuity & Change 217 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 



The first game at 
Horenberger Field. 





and very quickly to the planning of other fields 
as well, including the new softball field. A new 
standard 400-meter oval running track around 
the football field also took shape in the summer 
of 2000. 

As the 21st century dawned, the University 
gained its 96th berth on the roster of GTE 
Academic All Americans, placing the University 
fourth nationally. 



At the Close of the 20th Century 

As the 20th century came to a close one of its 
distinguishing landmarks in athletics was the 
emergence of women's varsity sports. This devel- 
opment was spurred by Title IX, federal legisla- 
tion requiring campuses receiving U.S. funds to 
offer equivalent sports opportunities, equipment, 
and funding for female athletics. The spirit of 
this legislation is seen in Illinois Wesleyan's ath- 
letics history as early as 1923 when the Women's 
Athletic Association was formed. 

The importance of athletics to women was 
described hy then-students and alumni in the 
1996-97 President's Report: Achievements: Mind & 
Body. Kirstin Rajala Sexson, class of 1990, vol- 
leyball team co-captain and a GTE Academic 
Ail-American, said: "Volleyball taught me ana- 
lytical skills. It taught me the ability to put the 
ball where you want it to go. It's a mind game — 
that's what sets top players apart from average 
players, thinking ahead and learning to think 
quickly." Laurel Hardesty, class of 1995, credited 
playing basketball with improving her teamwork, 



218 



is Wesleyan University 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 



communications, and endurance skills. "No 
matter how bleak things look," she explained, 
"you can't give up, you have to keep going. 
Playing sports — especially team sports — gave me 
the confidence I need today in medical school." 

Student Profile and Selectivity 

New buildings, student achievement, and alum- 
ni support all translated into a very solid admis- 
sions profile. 

With the dawn of the 1990s, Illinois 
Wesleyan continued to buck the national trend 
of a shrinking pool of freshmen applicants. The 
University reported a 10-percent hike in appli- 
cations in August, 1991, compared to the previ- 
ous year. Applications for the class of 1995 
reached 2,913 of which 45 percent were accept- 
ed and 520 students enrolled. 

"We were only able to admit 45 percent of 
those who applied for admission," explained 
Dean of Admissions James Ruoti, class of 1963, 
"which is a very low figure compared to the 
majority of colleges and universities. Our incom- 
ing freshman class is smaller this year as a result 
of the high retention rate of current students." 

Choosing from a large pool of applicants 
enabled Illinois Wesleyan to be more selective. 
The average score on the ACT college-entrance 
exam for incoming freshmen was 26.9, while the 
average SAT score was 1,172 compared to 
national averages of 20.6 and 900, respectively, 
at that time. 

The academic profile continued to sharpen 
throughout the 1990s. When classes began for 
the 1997-98 school year, Illinois Wesleyan 
boasted a record enrollment of 1 ,995 students. 
The freshman class was composed of 560 domes- 
tic students from 16 states and included 37 high- 
school valedictorians, 22 National Merit 
Scholars, 10 international students, and 56 
minority students (African-Americans, Asian- 
Americans, and Hispanics). 



"This year's freshman class," Ruoti said, 
"seems to have a larger number of students who 
are multitalented. They are outstanding students 
academically, but they have done a lot of other 
things in terms of extracurricular activities." 

And, when the class of 2002 entered in the 
fall of 1998, the average ACT score of its mem- 
bers had reached 28. "Based on standardized test 
scores and class rank," Ruoti said, "this is the 
academically brightest class in the history of the 
University." 

The 1999-2000 school year began with a 
record enrollment of about 2,075 full-time stu- 
dents, including 545 first-year students. Ruoti 
credited the academic strength of this multital- 
ented freshman group to several factors, noting, 
"... the word is out due to the national recog- 
nition that we receive in a lot of the college 
guides." 

U.S. News & World Report, Ruoti pointed 
out, ranked Illinois Wesleyan 48th among the 
162 national liberal-arts colleges and Kiplinger's 
Personal Finance Magazine ranked the University 
12th among the nation's best 100 private col- 
leges in providing a top-quality education at an 
affordable cost. 

Ruoti explained: "To me, the Kiplinger Guide 
is probably one of the strongest recommenda- 
tions we have received because it combines 
quality with value." 

At the start of the 21st century, Illinois 
Wesleyan was using technology — particularly 
the Internet — as a marketing tool. 
Consequently, in 2000 the website was ranked 
No. 8 in the United States by the non-profit 
National Research Center for College and 
University Admissions. The study, conducted 
during the summer of 1999, included more than 
800 colleges and universities. 



Continuity 6? Change 



219 



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Toward a Sesquicentennial 




BEST 
UJfGES 






A National Liberal Arts University 

America's Best Colleges, annually published by 
U.S. News & World Report, shifted Illinois 
Wesleyan from a top regional ranking to the 
national liberal-arts university category in 1994- 
President Minor Myers, jr., noted that the change 
was expected and welcomed. 

The change was expected because of a 
change in the University's classification — along 
with many other campuses — by the Carnegie 
Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 
Now, the University was classified a "Bac- 
calaureate (Liberal Arts) I campus, a category 
traditionally home to colleges like Williams, 
Amherst, Carleton, and Swarthmore. The change 
was prompted, according to Carnegie, because 
the undergraduate degrees Illinois Wesleyan 
awards were in liberal-arts fields and "the admis- 
sions policies of the college are very selective." 

Dean of Admission Ruoti pointed out, 
"Illinois Wesleyan competes for students primari- 
ly with schools in the national liberal arts catego- 
ry rather than in the regional category." 

Around this same time, another college 
guide, JO J of the Best Values in Americas Colleges 
and Universities, described the University as 
"undoubtedly one oi the finest small colleges in 
the country," adding, "Illinois Wesleyan has 
surged to national prominence on the basis of its 
reputation as a school with a rock-solid academic 
program." 



Other College-Guide Kudos 

When Illinois Wesleyan was ranked No. 1 in the 
Midwest for the fourth consecutive year in 1992 
by U.S. Neivs & World Report, the 2.3-million 
circulation news weekly profiled freshman Tim 
Culbertson — a National Merit Scholar and an 
Presidential Scholar — as an example of the type 
of student attracted to Illinois Wesleyan. "Some 
of Illinois Wesleyan's more ambitious students, 
like Tim Culbertson . . ." U.S. News & World 
Report wrote, "try to take advantage of both the 
University's high-quality programs in the sciences 
and those in the performing arts. Culbertson, a 
tuba player who is studying music, is thinking 
about adding an unlikely second major: physics. 

"He was drawn to Illinois Wesleyan," the 
magazine added, "not just by the breadth of its 
curriculum but also by its commitment to indi- 
vidual students, something he decided would be 
lacking at the larger Big 10 schools he consid- 
ered. The summer before he arrived on campus, 
Illinois Wesleyan made a gesture that convinced 
him he had made the right decision. The school 
lent Culbertson a tuba until he could save 
enough money to afford to blow his own horn." 

Illinois Wesleyan was among only 359 cam- 
puses nationally included in Competitive Colleges 
1993-94, published by Peterson's, the Princeton, 
New Jersey-based education and career- informa- 
tion publisher. At this same time, the University 
also was included in Barron's 300 Best Buys in 
College Education, Barron's Profiles of American 
Colleges, Comparative Guide to American Colleges, 
Fiske Guide to Colleges, The Multicultural Student's 
Guide to College: What Every African- American , 
Asian- American , Hispanic, and Native American 
Applicant Needs to Know about America's Top 
Schools and The Best 100 Colleges for African- 
American Students. 

Just days after U.S. News & World Report 
ranked the University the top regional campus in 
the Midwest for the fifth consecutive year in 
1993, it picked Illinois Wesleyan as a "best buy" 
among colleges and universities in its America's 
Best College Values. 



Continuity & Change 



Ti m. \KL1 A Sesquicentennial 




B. Charles and Joyce Eichorn Ames 

As Illinois Wesleyan moved full throttle into 
the information age, its efforts were recognized 
nationally in 2000, when the magazine Yahoo! 
Internet Life ranked the University the eighth 
"most wired" college in the nation. 

The Ames Challenge 

A new $12-million fund-raising challenge 
targeted to Illinois Wesleyan alumni was 
announced at Homecoming 1998. It was made 
by B. Charles Ames, a business-administration 
graduate of 1950, and his wife, Joyce Eichhom 
Ames, a class of 1949 art graduate. 

"This challenge," said Craig C. Hart, presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees, "represents the 
largest financial commitment in the history of 
Illinois Wesleyan University" 

In a statement to alumni, the Ameses said: 
"We believe Illinois Wesleyan University has a 
unique opportunity to rank among the top 40 
national liberal arts institutions in the United 
States within the next few years. For this reason, 
we are willing to make a substantial commit- 
ment of funds if our fellow alumni will join us to 
achieve this goal." 



The Ameses proposed to match — on a dol- 
lar-for-dollar basis — all gifts to the Alumni 
Annual Fund, if alumni contribute a minimum 
of $ 1 million annually for the next three years 
for a total of $3 million. Furthermore, the 
Ameses proposed to match — on a dollar-for-dol- 
lar basis, up to $9 million — all gifts earmarked 
for the proposed new library. 

The first and second years of the Ames' 
Challenge were met by alumni by the time this 
book went to press. 

B. Charles Ames is a senior partner with 
Clayton, Dubilier & Rice, Inc., a New York 
City-based investment firm and has been chair- 
man at various times of Uniroyal Goodrich, 
Lexmark, and Kinko's. 

The Ames Library 

Design of a new library followed the model of 
other buildings, as constituents of our communi- 
ty asked what the ideal building should be. The 
University called on the Boston firm of Shepley 
Bullfinch Richardson and Abbott (SBRA) as 
architects. No strangers to libraries, SBRA 
counted among their clients Princeton, Yale, 
and Dartmouth. 

Ground was broken for the $26-million 
Ames Library on November 6, 1999. The 
library's design calls for 103,000-square-foot- 
building, compared to Sheean Library's 37,000 - 
square-foot-area. The five-story library — an 
architectural blend of traditional elements and 
modern technology — will form a new University 
entryway in tandem with a new, two-section 
curved gateway, marking the University's 150th 
anniversary. 

The Ames Library, which is estimated to go 
into operation in the fall of 200 1 , will accom- 
modate 400,000 volumes and a minimum of 100 
computer-equipped workstations. The new 
library also will feature group study rooms, study 
carrels, space for special collections and 
University archives, an auditorium, and an 
Information Commons. 



Ill 



Wesleyan University 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 



' 



&\V 



m : 



i 




Am hitiM t's sketch of The An 



Callback to Washington 

When actress Heather Siemsen, class of 1993, 
stepped onto the Kennedy Center's stage in 
Washington, D.C., in April, 1993, she performed 
in a setting that annually honors the dramatic tal- 
ents of legends like Katharine Hepburn. 

Siemsen was one of 16 students nationally 
who were finalists in the Irene Ryan Acting 
Scholarship Competition, sponsored hy the 
American College Theatre Festival and the John 
F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. 
Participation in the Irene Ryan competition is 
widely regarded as the highest honor a college 
actor can earn. 

While Siemsen did not win the competition, 
she had the chance to take classes with Iony 
Award-winning Broadway actress Uta Hagen, 
who visited the campus in 1975 as part of the E. 
Melba Johnson Kirkpatrick Theatre Artists Series. 

Siemsen earned her way to the Kennedy 
Center stage hy winning a regional acting compe- 
tition, involving about 200 college students from 
five states. Two other students have won Irene 
Ryan regional competitions: Linda Sterling, class 
of 1980, in 1979, and Andrea Huber, class of 
1981, who won the national competition in 1981. 



Centennial of the Argus 

When editor-in-chief Clarence E. Snyder sent the 
first issue of the Argus to press on September 17, 
1894, Grover Cleveland was in the White House 
and Thomas Edison had just publicly shown a 
newfangled invention — motion pictures. A cen- 
tury later, the Argus, the University's campus 
newspaper, still was rolling off the press every 
week, an achievement marked in February, 1994, 
by three events: 

• Publication of a 256-page history of the 
newspaper, Through the Eyes of the Argus : 
100 Years of journalism at Illinois Wesley an 
University, written by staffers Chris Fusco 
and Jennifer Barrell, both of the class ot 1994- 

• A centennial dinner keynoted by Chicago 
Tribune columnist Bob Greene. Also partici- 
pating in the festivities was Bob Page, class 
oi 1958 — former United Press International 
(UPI) executive vice president and former 
president-publisher of the Chicago Sun-Times 
and Boston Herald — who was Argus editor in 
1956-57. 

• A Founders' Day Convocation address by 
Lin's veteran White House bureau chief- 
Helen Thomas. 



Continuity & Change 



223 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 



&#^ 




Commencement 

on the Eckley 

Quadrangle 2000. 



224 Illinois Wesleyan University 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 




for Liberal Arts. 



Interesting People Doing 
Interesting Things 

The 1990s saw a wave of interesting and chal- 
lenging activity sweep through the campus, 
engaging students and faculty in a wide range of 
eclectic and exciting projects. Here's a sample: 

• The Helene Fuld Health Trust awarded a 
grant to the School of Nursing in 1990 for 
interactive video hardware. This equipment, 
said Donna Hartweg, director of the nursing 
school, "is viewed as a high-tech approach to 
increase clinical decision-making skills." 

• The Illinois Wesleyan "Select 100" hit 
bookshelves in 1991. It was a collection of 
100 must-read books, a compilation based on 
nominations received by the Bookstore 
Advisory Committee. The compendium 
included well-known classics — The Odyssey 
by Homer, Great Expectations by Charles 
Dickens, and John Steinbeck's The Grapes of 
Wrath — but it also contained lesser-known 
works like Johnny Got His Gun by Dalton 
Trumbo. 

• Rolling Stone magazine in 1991 recognized 
biology professor Thomas Griffiths as one of 
the top college teachers in the United 
States. Griffiths, who came in 1981, is a 
nationally recognized authority on bats. 



• Two physicists worked with the federal 
space agency in the summer of 1992 on 
projects involving superconductivity and 
studies of data beamed to Earth from satel- 
lites exploring planets at the edge of the 
solar system. Narendra Jaggi conducted 
research on superconductivity and Herman 
(Lew) Detweiler studied data from the 
International Ultraviolet Explorer and 
Voyager II, a satellite launched in 1977, 
which probed the mysteries of Jupiter, 
Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. 

• A $1 10,000 federal education department 
grant received by the University in 1992 
helped launch three new international-stud 
ies programs, expand the teaching of 
Russian, and establish a new Japanese- 
language program. 

• The 46-member Collegiate Choir capped 
its 10-day, six-state spring concert tour in 
1992 with a performance at New York's 
famed Lincoln Center, home of the 
Metropolitan Opera and the New York 
Philharmonic Orchestra. The Camerata, a 
23-member chamber music group, took its 
"Music for Peace" program on a three-con- 
cert east coast tour in 1993, including a per- 
formance in New York City's Carnegie Hall. 



Continuity C? Change 



111 



Toward a Si-.xjuiohNTKNNiAL 



• Donna Hartweg, Rupert Professor and 
director of the nursing school, joined the 
deans of about 45 nursing schools nation 
wide in 1993 for a peek into President Bill 
Clinton's health-care reform proposals at a 
White House meeting. 

• The scholarship of faculty also was reflect 
ed in the hooks they authored. W. Michael 
Weis, professor of history, wrote Cold 
Warriors & Coups D'Etat — Brazilian- 
American Relations, 1945-1964, and 
Carolyn Jarvis, adjunct assistant professor of 
nursing, wrote Physical Examinations and 
Health Assessment, used by almost 200 nurs- 
ing schools and 10,000 students nation- 
wide — both books appeared in 1993. 

• The estate of Aaron Copland, one of 
America's foremost composers and music 
educators, bequeathed to Illinois Wesleyan 
more than 1 50 of his published works in 
1993. Copland, who died in 1990, received 
an honorary doctorate from the University 
in 1958 and participated in the Symposium 
on Contemporary Music. 

• Discover magazine, the 1.1 -million circula- 
tion monthly, profiled former Illinois 
Wesleyan geochemist Wendy Wolbach in 
1994- It described her pioneering work in 
connection with the hypothesis that an 
asteroid's collision with the Earth 65 -million 
years ago triggered the death of the dinosaurs. 

• In 1994 Illinois Wesleyan became the first 
private college and the first campus outside 
Michigan to join the Wade H. McCree, Jr. 
Incentive Scholarship Program, which guar- 
antees that talented minority high-school 
students from Detroit will have the chance 
to attend college. 

• James Plath, professor of English, won a 
Fulbright Scholarship in 1995, to teach 
courses on the American novel and 
short story at the University of the West 
Indies-Cave Hill campus. 

• Economics Professor Margaret Chapman, 
Political-Science Professor Emeritus John 
Wenum, and a co-author in 1995 probed the 



political, social, and economic impact of a 
U.S. -based Japanese auto factory in 
Mitsubishi Motors in Illinois: Global Strategies, 
Local Impact. The Chicago Tribune's John 
McCarron wrote: "It seems that a team of 
economists from [Illinois Wesleyan 
University] actually took the time to evalu- 
ate the impact of one of these public-private 
ventures . . . The [Illinois] Wesleyan team 
dissected one of the biggest 'giveaways' in 
Illinois history — the $183 million bag of 
goodies that the state and local governments 
put together in 1985 to convince 
Chrysler/Mitsubishi to build its $500 million 
Diamond-Star automobile plant in 
Bloomington." 

• Retired Army General William 
Westmoreland, who commanded a half-mil- 
lion U.S. troops in Vietnam, was inter 
viewed at his Charleston, South Carolina, 
home in 1995 by two classes of 1995 history 
majors — Christopher La Jeunesse and Matt 
Nelson — for an oral history tracing his life 
and career as part of a January Term research 
project. 

• Neal Vermillion, a class of 1996 political 
science and history major, took time off from 
the Washington, D.C., Semester Program 
and a Capitol Hill internship in 1995 to 
appear on the top-rated TV quiz show, 
Jeopardy! Cheering him on at the Culver 
City, California, studio was a contingent of 
alumni, wearing Illinois Wesleyan sweat- 
shirts, arid Ellen Myers, wife of President 
Minor Myers, jr. "I won $5,000 for an hours' 
work. You can't beat that," Vermillion said 
about his appearance on the Jeopardy ! 
College Championship , which involved 
students from 1 5 campuses nation-wide, 
including Harvard and Stanford. 

• The National Science Foundation award 
ed a grant to Illinois Wesleyan in 1996 to 
purchase scientific equipment earmarked for 
experiments to pinpoint pesticide levels in 
migratory birds and other environmental 
studies. 



226 



Wesleyan Uni 



Toward a Semicentennial 




Buck Memorial Library 



Continuity & Change 227 



Ti WAR] i A SESQUICENTENNIAL 



• By 1996 the annual student-research con- 
ference had evolved into the John Wesley 
Powell Research Conference, named for the 
post-Civil War faculty member who was the 
first U.S. professor to use field work to teach 
science. In the conference's seventh year it 
attracted as a keynote speaker the famed 
Harvard evolutionary biologist and best-sell- 
ing author Stephen J. Gould. Research 
projects on Alzheimer's Disease, divorce, 
methods to detect cocaine metabolites in 
urine, and coronary-artery disease highlight- 
ed the two-day conference. 

• In 1996 junior Kurt Galbreath, a biology 
major, was among 264 college sophomores 
and juniors nationally — out of a field of 
1,200 students from 516 campuses — to win 
scholarships named for former U.S. Senator 
Barry Goldwater of Arizona, the Republican 
party's 1964 presidential nominee. Two 
members of the class of 1 998 won Goldwater 
Scholarships in 1997: Nathan Mueggenburg, 
a physics-mathematics major, and Jeremy 
Kotter, a physics major. And, in 1999 
Matthew Dearing, a class of 2000 physics 
major, was a Goldwater Scholarship recipi- 
ent. Goldwater Scholarships are considered 
the foremost undergraduate award of their 
type in mathematics, the natural sciences, 
and engineering. 

• Former Vice President Dan Quayle pro - 
filed Darnell Burtin, class of 1996, his sister, 
DaToya, class of 2000, and their parents in a 
1996 book he co-authored, The American 
Family — Discovering the Values That Make Us 
Strong. 

• Shelley — Illinois Wesleyan's version of 
R2D2, the cinematic robot of Star Wars' 
fame — had a coming-out party in 1996. She 
was designed and built by students and 
faculty and was a key tool in cognitive- 
science teaching and research. Shelley was 
designed to play the piano, recite poetry, 
and solve puzzles. 

• Celebrity photographer Annie Liebovitz 
had a new assistant in the summer of 1997, 



Lisa Hillmer, an art major from the class of 
1998. After sending a slide portfolio and 
"self-promotion piece" to Leibovitz, Hillmer 
flew to New York for an interview and won 
the job. 

• Michael Votava, class of 1997, won 
Honorable Mention honors in USA Today's 
1997 All-USA College Academic Team 
Competition, recognizing "the best and the 
brightest," according to the newspaper. He 
was recognized for his alcohol and drug- 
education work with high-school students, as 
well as his scholastic performance and long 
list of community-service activities. 

• A $2-million gift was made in 1998 to 
endow the School of Art building. The gift 
was made in tribute to Joyce Eichhorn 
Ames, class of 1949, by her husband, B. 
Charles Ames, class of 1950, through the 
Ames Family Foundation. "The Ames family 
desire," said B. Charles Ames, "is to make 
the School of Art the finest school of art in 
the nation for a college the size of Illinois 
Wesleyan University." In addition to the 
naming of the school of art building, the 
Joyce Ames Scholarship Fund was estab- 
lished to support students majoring in the 
fine arts. 

• Illinois Wesleyan's scenic quad was named 
The Eckley Quadrangle in 1998 in honor of 
former President Robert S. Eckley and his 
wife, Nell. It was through the Eckleys' efforts 
that the quad's beautification and current 
land scape design took shape. 

• The first Freshman Fall Festival took place 
in 1998, introducing the class of 2002 to 
Illinois Wesleyan in a sweeping new orienta- 
tion program. The festival, an annual event, 
helps classes develop an identity, as well as 
expose first-year students to the people, 
places, and issues they will come in contact 
with at the University. 

• Three faculty were appointed to endowed 
professorships in 1998. Donna Hartweg, pro- 
fessor and director of the School of Nursing, 
was the recipient of the Carolyn F. Rupert 



,"s 



lis Wesleyan Univi 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 



Professorship of Nursing. Lawrence 
Campbell, professor of music and chair of 
the piano department, was named the Fern 
Rosetta Sherff Professor ot Music. Thomas 
A. Griffiths, professor of biology, was 
appointed to the Earl H. and Marion A. 
Beling Professor of Natural Sciences. 

• The First-Year Experience program was 
introduced in 1999 to assist "rookies" in 
making a smooth transition from high schoc 
to college through a semester-long calendar 
of seminars, workshops, and other activities. 

• Susan Anderson-Freed, professor of com- 
puter science, won a contract in 1999 from 
publisher Prentice Hall to author a book — 
Weaving Arachne's New Web — about 
programming worldwide web pages. 



• Chicago's Victory Gardens Theatre was 
the site of the 1999 world premiere of Friday 
m America, a play written by John Ficca, 
professor of theatre arts, and featuring a 10- 
member cast of Illinois Wesleyan alumni — 
all theatre professionals. 

• The 24-member Jazz Ensemble traveled to 
Japan in 1999, bringing the sound of the 
great Duke Ellington to Bloomington- 
Normal's sister city, Asahikawa. It also 
released its first CD recording, It's Swinging at 
IWV , featuring 14 1940s-era swing tunes. 

• Eight Russian nurses from Bloomington's 
sister city, Vladimir, studied U.S. nursing and 
medical practices at Illinois Wesleyan and 
elsewhere in 1999 under a federal grant. 
Charla Renner, an associate professor of 



m :&■' 



Campus in Spring 2000 



H 



■JfeSSRSS'' 






*>• ** ' i 



4 x$ - 



i*' 'fcf 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 



nursing emeritus, was among community- 
nursing leaders who coordinated the 
Russians' visit. 

• Cancer-causing agents found in the envi- 
ronment that trigger lung and colon cancer 
were the target of 1999 research conducted 
by Ram Mohan, assistant professor of chem- 
istry, and four students under a grant from 
the Petroleum Research Fund. Mohan was 
awarded a $124,000 National Science 
Foundation grant in 2000 to develop 
environmentally friendly compounds using 
bismuth, a metal whose various compounds 
are found in pharmaceuticals. 

• David Vayo, professor of music, won a 
Guggenheim Fellowship in 2000 to support 
writing a composition for a chamber orchestra. 

VIPs on Campus in 90s 

The 1990s flourished as a time when Illinois 
Wesleyan showcased its robust tradition of pro- 
viding a forum for the marketplace of ideas by 
inviting to campus a wide range of guest speak- 
ers. This tradition extends formal education 
beyond the classroom and draws its strength 
from America's coveted First Amendment free- 
doms. This tradition gives students and faculty — 
as well as the community — the unique opportu- 
nity to see and hear first hand men and women 
who shape our times. 

Illinois Wesleyan 's guest book for the 1990s 
and into 2000 included five Nobel Prize winners: 
Oscar Arias, former president of Costa Rica 
(Peace, 1987); Mairead Maguire, the Northern 
Ireland peace activist (Peace, 1977); Derek 
Walcott, poet-playwright (Literature, 1992); 
Jean-Marie Lehn, a scientist (Chemistry, 1987), 
and James D. Watson, the co-discoverer of the 
structure of DNA (Medicine, 1962). The 
University also hosted statesmen such as former 
Jamaican Prime Minister Michael Manley, for- 
mer British Prime Minister Sir Edward Heath, 
and Slovenian Prime Minister Janez Drnovsek. 

A wide range of political and government 
figures visited the campus in the 1990s, includ- 



ing: U.S. Senators Paul Simon (D-Ill.) and 
Richard Durbin (D-Ill.), former State 
Department spokesperson Margaret Tutwiler, 
U.S. Navy Admiral Leighton Smith (Ret.), the 
former NATO commander in war-torn Bosnia, 
environmentalist and consumer advocate Ralph 
Nader, and former Defense Secretary, White 
House Chief of Staff and U.S. Representative 
Donald Rumsfeld (R-Ill). 




Donald Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense 

A wide range of personalities, sharing a com- 
mon commitment to civil and human rights, 
addressed Illinois Wesleyan audiences: black 
nationalist leader Kwame Ture (formerly Stokley 
Carmichael), AIDS activist Jeanne White- 
Cinder, civil-rights fighter Morris Dees, NAACP 
chair Myrlie Evers-Williams, Holocaust survivor 
Benjamin Jacobs, Chinese freedom fighter Harry 
Wu, women's-rights advocate Gloria Steinem, 
and Maulana Karenga, the educator and author 
who created Kwanzaa, the African- American 
and Pan African cultural holiday. 

Pioneering scientists and groundbreaking 
researchers also shared their insights with stu- 
dents and faculty, including: archaeologist and 
Dead Sea Scrolls researcher James F. Strange, 
National Medal of Science recipient Harry B. 
Gray, and the father of the asteroid-dinosaur 
demise theory Walter Alvarez. 

Men and women of literature and ideas visit- 
ed the Univesity, including: award-winning 



230 



/1/hiiMs Wiw/i'vun I'nivci sity 



Toward a Sesquicentennial 



Mexican novelist and diplomat Carlos Fuentes; 
Cornel West, one of America's leading African- 
American philosophers; civil-rights Freedom 
Rider, author, and former Yale University 
Chaplain William Sloane Coffin; Kurt 
Vonnegut, author of Slaughterhouse Five and 
other critically acclaimed works; poet 
Gwendolyn Brooks; and author Maya Angelou. 

Many of America's outstanding journalists 
shared their eyewitness experiences with various 
Illinois Wesleyan groups, including: Pulitzer 
Prize-winner Peter Kann of the Wall Street 
Journal, New York Times' science reporter 
Laurie Garrett, United Press International's 
White House bureau chief Helen Thomas, ABC 
News Correspondent Chris Wallace, Emmy 
Award-winning newsman Ken Bode, and James 
Fallows, then editor of U.S. News & World 
Report. 

Celebrities from the world of entertainment 
spoke out about the stage, screen, and television 
professions, including: filmmaker Spike Lee, vet- 
eran actor John Randolph, film producer Ismail 
Merchant, and Reinhold Weege, creator of the 
wacky world of television's long-running and 
award-winning sitcom, Night Court, who attend- 
ed the University in 1970. 

Conclusion 

The sweep of Illinois Wesleyan's history is strik- 
ing. The University with its trademark single 
building and lone sidewalk in the 1850s has 
matured into an elegant campus with a strong 
national reputation over a century and a half. 
But, first and foremost the Illinois Wesleyan 
saga is the story of people — people with big 
ideas, people with imagination, people with per- 
severance. 

This can-do spirit is what we celebrate upon 
the university's Sesciuicentennial in 2000- 
2001 — a time when we remember and honor 




Redesigned plaza of Sheean tibrary. 



the great personalities and landmark events that 
shaped Illinois Wesleyan. As we survey it's his- 
tory, it is remarkable that our founders had the 
vision and determination to commit themselves 
to establishing "an Institution of learning of 
Collegiate Grade" — and that the many genera- 
tions who followed them did their best to 
remain faithful to the founders' bold vision. 

One of those founders wrote, "... but most 
especially and emphatically I say success to 
Illinois Wesleyan University . . . may her 
endowments and facilities, and buildings and 
apparatuses and libraries ... be speedily and 
abundantly enriched ..." 

This book is a tribute to the achievement ot 
that lofty prophecy. 



Overleaf: 

Entry bridge 

to the Center 

for Natural 

Sciences. 



Continuity & Change 



231 




m 



'ij'fit' : ^jt^i:2 ■ ■ ■'&' 




«m> 



]M 




A>\n , Boh, 2 1 

Abernathy, Ralph David, 185 

Academy Building, 95 

Acheson, Edward Goodrich, 101 

Acheson Medal, 101 

Adams, Eli P., 200 

Adams, William Henry Harrison, 3, 49, 59, 60, 

61,63,67 
African- American, 3, 4 
Afro- American Cultural Center, 186 
Akers, Peter, 29 

Alice Millar Center for the Fine Arts, 190 
Allen, Don, 122 
Allen, Rhodes C, 41 
Allin, James, 9, 10, 14 
Allin, William H., 21, 22, 26, 27, 28, 29 
Alpha Gamma Delta, 95 
Alumni Journal, 42, 49 
Alvarez, Walter, 230 
American Chemical Society, 6 
Ames, B.Charles, 5, 212, 222, 228 
Ames, Joyce Eichhorn, 5, 212, 228 
Amie Chapel, 47, 48, 71, 143 
Anderson, Scott, 127 
Anderson, Wayne, 203, 205 
Anderson, William W., 64 
Anderson-Freed, Susan, 229 
Andrus, Reuben, 16, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29 
Angelou, Maya, 231 
Anna, George Herman, 100 
Anthony, Hettie M., 79 
Apollo VIII, 4, 173, 186 
Apollo Quartet, 1 1 1 
Arends, Leslie C, 199 
Argus 6, 37, 44, 64, 72, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 

104, 113, 116, 119, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 

143, 144, 175, 176, 178, 179, 185, 193, 195, 

200,223 
Arnold, Velma, 162 
Athenian, 53, 72 
Atkinson, C. Roy, 73 
Avenger, 50 



an Club, 128 

ey, David, 205 
Pair, Miles, 192 

Baksh, V.F. Ilahi, 48 
Balser, Elizabeth, 205, 207 
Barger, James II., 36 




ex 



Barger, John S., 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 23, 24, 

26, 27, 36 
Barnes, Alan, 49 
Barnes, Francis George, 49, 63, 77, 78, 79, 80, 

82, 89, 90 
Barrell, Jennifer L, 6, 223 
Bassill, Daniel, 211 
Bates, Rex James, 204 
Battle, Kathleen, 185 
Bauer, George H., 143 
Bauer, George J . , 143 
Beadles, Elmer, 218 
Beadles Hall, 190 
Beadles, Marjorie Morse, 218 
Beadles, William T., 134, 165, 190 
Bedford, Luther, 216 
Behr, C.A., 67, 68 

Behr Observatory, 63, 67, 173, 188, 200 
Behrends, Robert L, 139 
Beiler, Ross C, 137 
Beling, Earl H, 229 
Beling, Marion A., 229 
Belles Lettres Society, 35, 48, 65 
Benjamin, Martha, 45 
Benner, C. Leroy, 211 
Berg, Peter B., 184 
Bertholf Commons, 188 
Bertholf, Lloyd M., 6, 151, 158, 159, 160, 162, 

165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 176, 188, 

189, 203 
Bisaillon, Chris, 214, 215 
Bishop, Francis Marion, 41 
Black Student Union, 1 86 
Blackstock Hall 124, 156 
Blackstock, Mary Hardtner, 124, 125 
Blazine, Tony, 128 
Blooming Grove, 9 
Bloomington, Illinois, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 

16, 17, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 

31, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 42, 45, 46, 49, 50, 56, 

58, 59, 60, 65, 68, 69, 71, 75, 77, 87, 88, 89, 

96,97,99, 101, 106, 107 
Board of Trustees, 1 3, 14, 1 5, 16, 21, 22, 23, 

24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 45, 46, 61, 80, 

82, 102, 106, 107, 108, 119, 134, 209, 222 
Bode, Ken, 231 
Bolin, Howard, 100 
Bond, Julian, 185, 186 
Borman, Frank, 4, 173, 186 
Borsch, Reuben, 1 16 
Bouwman, Clark, 162 



234 



Wesleyan University 



Bower, Marvin, 214 

Bramwell, M. Russell, 1 38 

Bray, Robert, 184 

Brian, Fred, 162, 192 

Brokaw Hospital, 159 

Brooks, Gwendolyn, 186, 231 

Brooks, Wiley G., 125 

Brown, Donald, 162 

Brown, Jared, 184 

Browning, Kenneth, 203 

Browns, Ralph, 162 

Buck, Hiram, 63 

Buck, Martha, 106, 107 

Buck Memorial Library, 102, 107, 108, 172, 

173, 188, 208 
Bunyan, Andrew, 162 
Burham, Daniel, 4 
Bushnell, Paul, 176, 184, 186 
Butler, E., 99 




Cold War, 3 

College Boarding House, 52 
College Hall, 28, 50 
College of Fine Arts, DO, 195 
College of Law, 54, 56 
College of Liberal Arts, 165 
College of Music, 68, 73, 200 
College of Oratory, 69 
Colwell, R. Forrest, 194 
Coon, Korey, 216 
Copland, Aaron, 226 
Cothren, Barb, 198 
Crabtree, Bryan, 216 
Crabtree, Nathan Lewis, 120, L 
Craig, Charles C, 51 
Cram, Adams, 108 
Cramp, Charles, 45, 65 
Cramp, Henrietta, 45, 46 
Craycraft, Nona, 162 
Cribbet, John E., 138 
Culbertson, Tim, 221 



Cameron, Martha E., 64 

Smpbell, C Morris, 68, 79 
Campbell, Larry, 191, 229 
Campbell, Mabel, 79 
Capen, Charles Laban, 109, 1 10 
Capra, Frank, 191 
Carlson, Malinda, 208 
Carnine, Albert C, 105, 108 
Carpenter, Ed, 162 
Carroll, Laura, 216 
Carson Pirie Scott, 121, 194 
Carthage, 14 

Center for Natural Sciences, 4 
Central Illinois Female College, 28 
Chaddock College, 25, 35, 59, 60, 65, 106, 116 
Chance, Varner, 162 
Chapman, Margaret, 226 
Charles, Henry, 162, 191 
Chase, Philander P., 14 
Chi Phi, 53 

Churchill, Winston, 137 
Civil War, 4, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39,42 
Clark, Hyre D„ 76 
Clark, Martez, 216 
Clark, Millie, 53 
Clean Up Day, 93 
Clemons, Louis, 138 
Coffin, Alfred O., 44, 186 
Coffin, William Sloane, 231 



lA 



Dcl/y Pantagraph, 31,3 3, 38, 41, 50, 51, 60, 64, 
65, 73, 77, 79, 82, 96, 98, 108, 111, 123 

Dancy, Jesse S., 99 

Darrah, Delmar D, 69, 76, 89, 112 

Darrow, Clarence, 124 

David Davis Mansion, 199 

Davidson, William ]., 106, 107, 108, 1 17, 1 19, 
122 

Davis, David, 28, 35, 38 

Dearing, Matthew, 228 

DeBartolo, Jack, 208, 209 

Dees, Morris, 212, 230 

Deitz, Patricia, 162 

Delta Phi, 53 

Delta Tau Delta, 73 

DeMange, Antoine, 81 

DeMotte, Harvey C, 35, 36, 42, 46, 54, 57 

DeMotte Lodge, 152 

Dempster, John, 24, 25, 29 

Denman, Martha Luella, 65 

Detweiler, Herman, 225 

Dickinson, 22 

Dodds, Glenn, 188 

DolanHall, 156 

Dolan, Ned E., 134, 156 
Domestic Science Class, 78 
Domestic Science Program, 79 



Continuity & Change 



235 



Donalson, Robert, 191 
Doocy, Elmer, 100 
Doubleday Field, 132 
Douglas, Stephen A., 35 
Drexler, Dwight, 162, 191 
Duell, William, 213 
Dunn, Kevin, 213 
Dunn Dale, Emily, 176, 184 
Duration Hall, 4, 144, 170 
Durbin, Richard, 230 
DurleyHall, 50, 53 
Durley, Lyle H., 41 




Earjjes, Henry Purmont, 88 

Edward Sherff Hall of Science, 159, 171 
Eash, Norm, 214 
East Hall, 81,86 
Eckley, Nell, 193 
Eckley Quadrangle, 108 
Eckley, Robert S„ 6, 173, 181, 182, 185, 186, 

188, 193, 194, 197, 198,203,228 
Eckley, Wayne, 182 
Edgar M. Stevenson Hall, 160 
Edison, Thomas, 101, 223 
Edwards, Katherine, 6 
Eggleston, Steven, 191 
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 139 
Eliot, Charles William, 3 
Elliot, J. Norman, 95, 128, 130 
Elliott, Ivan, 100 
Elrod, Morton J., 65 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 35 
Empson, Louise Behr, 200 
Enoch, CD., 73 
Erickson, Lon, 216 
Erickson, Ruth, 162 
Evans, Mark, 173 
Evans Observatory, 188 
Evans, Orme, 1 73 
Evelyn Chapel 5, 189 
Evers-Williams, Myrlie, 230 
Ewing, Hazel Buck, 172 
Ewing, James Stevenson, 21 



F 

I Falsoi 

- LL Fallo\ 



Fargo, J.F., 58 

Farmer, James, 185 

Featherly, Marc, 7, 213 

Fell, Edwin, 21 

Fell, Kersey, 35 

Female College, 29 

Female Normal School, 46 

Fennemore, Joseph, 58 

Ferguson Cane, 200 

Ferguson, Constance, 162, 172, 

Ferguson Hall, 159, 172, 195 

Ferguson, Wilbert X, 65, 72, 106, 107, 

132, 172 
Ficca,John, 162,229 
Fiter, George H., 37 
Filer, Joseph, 48 
Blip, Henry, 137 
Fillmore, Millard, 28 
FinleyJ.C, 15 
Fitzgerald, E Scott, 111, 199 
Fleming, Robert, 144 
Fort, Arthur C, 197 
Fort, Clara E., 197, 200 
Fort Natatorium, 197, 205, 214 
Fort Sumter, 35 
Foster, Lemuel, 10 
Founders' Day, 154 
Fox, George, 71 
Frank, Forrest, 205 
Frank, Nicole, 216 
Franklin, Elmo, 21 1 
Franzen, Dorothea, 162, 184 
Fred Young Fieldhouse, 159, 171, 175, 197, 198 
Freese, Donald, 200 
Freese, RalphS., 91, 199 
Frick, Jeff, 205 
Fristoe, Dewey, 162 
Fry, Susannah M.D., 45, 46 
Fuentes, Carlos, 231 
Funk, Dwight, 75 
Funk, Isaac, 5, 42, 87 
Funk, Sarah, 28 
Fusco, Christopher J., 6, 223 



Falson, Frankie, 2 1 3 

allows, James, 55, 56, 58, 59, 231 
Faracy, Stephanie, 213 




G.J|BiIl, 143, 151 

wreath, Kurt, 228 
Galesburg, Illinois, 14 
Gardner, Mona, 205, 21 1 
Garrett Biblical Institute, 65, 82 



2 36 



/lli'nois WVslrvmi University 



Gehrenbeck, David, 189, 191 

Ginsberg, Allen, 186 

Goldwater, Barry, 228 

Goldwater Scholars, 5 

Goodfellow, William, 22, 2 3, 24, 25, 26, 29 

Gorce, Emmanuel, 214 

Gould, Stephen J., 228 

Graham, Robert O., 58, 64, 75 

Graves, Linus, 14, 28 

Gray, Harry B., 230 

Gray, John R., 68, 69 

Gray, Mrs. John R., 88 

Gray, Julia Baker, 200 

Graybill, Elaine, 213 

Great Depression, 4 

Green, Ralph M., 71, 72 

Greene, Bob, 223 

Greenman, Jeremiah, 184 

Griffes, Amos Arthur, 71 

Griffiths, Thomas A., 225, 229 

GulickHall, 156 



J-L H* 



Ha"*n, Uta, 223 

, Nancy, 186 
Hansen Student Genter 209 
Hansen, Tom, 208 
Hardesty, Laurel, 219 
Harding, Warren G., 100 
Hargrave, Kathleen, 80 
Harrison, George R., 127 
Hart, Craig C., 205, 222 
Hartsough, Ralph Clayton, 95 
Hartweg, Donald, 225, 228 
Hartzell, Joseph C, 41 
Heath, Edward, 230 
Hedding College, 112, 116 
Hedding Hall, 4, 7,47,48, 55, 113, 

144, 157, 170, 182 
Hemann-Harris, Brenda, 199 
Henning, E. Hugh, 205 
Henrietta Hall, 46, 66 
Henry, Delia, 45 
Hepburn, Katharine, 223 
Hersey, L.E., 88 
Hess, Wendell, 198,203,205 
Hessert, Paul, 162 
Hill, Gus A., 44 
Hill, J. Arthur, 95, 130, 133 
Hillmer, Lisa, 228 



16, 143, 



Hillsboro College, 14 

Hitner, Larry, 194 

Hobbs, W.C., 10, 14 

Hodge, William, 10 

Holmes, Frank, 162 

Holmes Hall, 159 

Holmes, Merrill, 117, 133, 151, 152, 160, 203 

Home Economics Club, 128 

Hoover, Herbert, 1 19 

Hopkins, Johns, 203 

Horenberger Field, 216, 218 

Horenberger, Jack, 162, 173, 198 

Huber-Burda, Andrea, 199, 223 

Huffstodt, Karen, 199 

Humphrey, Hubert, 186 

Humphreys, Laura B., 58 

Hunt, Elisha, 23 

Hurwitz, Ellen, 205 

Husted, Virginia, 162 

I 

Illinois Central Railroad, 29 
^-rrlinois State Historical Society, 6 



la, 



1J|ckson, Jesse, 176 

eksonville, Illinois, 13, 14 
Jacobs, Benjamin, 230 
Jaggi, Narendra, 225 
Janes, Edmund, 80 
January Term, 166, 187, 207 
Jaques, Jabez R., 42, 58 
Jarvis, Carolyn, 226 
Jefferson, Thomas, 4 
Jenkins, Richard, 2 1 3 
Jin, Zhenhu, 211 
John Wesley Powell Museum, 47 
Johnson, Clarence A., 44, 48 
Johnson, Lyndon, 178 
Jones, Malik, 214 
Jordan, Frank, 132 




nn, Peter, 2 3 1 
a Alpha, 53 
Kappa Delta, 73, 182 
Kappa Kappa Gamma, 52, 53 
Karenga, Maulana, 230 



Continuity & Change 



237 



Kasch, Philip W., 160 

Kasley, Kathryn Ann, 193 

Kates, Winifred, 80, 89, 92 

Kauder, Emil, 162 

Kay, Herbie, 121 

Keck, Boh, 162, 198,214 

Keeslar, Thomas H., 179 

Kelley, Jr., Joseph D., 160 

Kellogg Foundation, 187 

Kemp Hall, 84, 85, 100, 101, 137, 157, 

190, 195 
Kemp, Theodore, 81, 82, 86, 88, 89, 90, 95, 96 

97, 102, 104, 105, 106, 107, 109, 112 
Kemp, Vera Pearl, 1 1 1 
Kennedy, John E, 176 
Kennedy, Robert E, 176 
Kenney, O.S., 46 
Kenyon, Isaac, 14, 29 
Keplmger, L.W.,41 
Kern, Mary, 211 
Kern, Sarah J., 38 
Kerrick, Leonidas H., 41 
Kilgore, Rupert, 156, 162, 192 
King, Bernice, 212 
King, Gordon Dale Ruben, 137 
King, Jr., Martin Luther, 137, 175, 176, 185, 

212 
King, III, Martin Luther, 212 
King, Vernon C, 212 
King, Yolanda, 185,212 
Kiplinger's Personal Finance Magazine, 5 
Klauser, Lucile, 162 
Knights of Classic Lore, 73 
Kotter, Jeremy, 228 
Krieger, Ruth, 162 
Kuhl, Mary, 46 



ivbd4 



unesse, Christopher, 226 
the, Pedro, 162 



Lackland, Mel v in P, 64 

LaPlaca, Alison, 213 

Larson, Don, 162, 175, 198 

Law School, 56, 57, 65, 71, 76, 88, 89, 100, 

109, 110, 111 
Lee, Spike, 231 
Lehn, Jean-Marie, 2 30 
Leonard, Richard, 162 
Leopold, Nathan, 124 
Lichtenthaler; George W., 67 



Liebovitz, Annie, 228 

Lilly Endowment, 187 

Lincoln, Abraham, 28, 38 

Lincoln Academy Scholar, 6 

Lindahl, Karen, 207 

Lindbergh, Charles, 100 

Listen, John, 211 

Litta, Marie, 58 

Little, Pamela Diane, 193 

Livingston, Sigmund, 57 

Loom, K.B., 156 

Love, Malcolm, 132, 133 

Lovejoy, Arthur, 1 1 1 

Lucas, Scott W., 3, 11, 54, 57, 95, 134, 154 

Luerssen, Oliver, 162 




ougall, Curtis, 1 1 3 
Thomas, 13, 14, 23 
MagillHall, 152, 190 
Magoun, John, 14 
Maguire, Mairead, 230 
Main Building, 56, 88, 104 
Major's College, 45 
Major's Hall, 28, 89 
Mancinelli, Mario, 162 
Manley, Michael, 230 
Mansion, David Davis, 199 
Marden, John Wesley, 101 
Marquardt, George, 141, 143 
Marquis, Mrs. Chalmers C, 79 
Marquis, Charles H., 91, 199 
Marshall, George, 139 
Martin, C. Virgil, 121, 194 
Martin, John, 176 
Martin, Sylvester, 200 
Marvel, Carl S., 3, 87 
Matthews, James, 208 
May Term, 207 
Mayer, Clarence A., 73 
MayfieldJ., 24 
McCarrell, A.E, 88 
McCarron, John, 226 
McClun, H.J.E., 14 
McCord, Lillian, 162 
McCormick, J. Byron, 57 
McCree, Jr., Wade R, 226 
McGaw, Foster G., 194 
McGowan, James D., 184 
McKendree College, 12, 16, 22, 23, 27 






McKinley, William, 59 

McLean College, 13, 16 

McLean County, 9, 11, 26, 62, 65, 1 10, 216 

McLean County History Museum, 6 

McLean County Social Service Council, 201 

McMurtry, Larry, 191 

McNew, Janet, 205 

McNutt, James C, 73 

McPherson, Harry Wright, 119, 120, 121, 124, 

125, 138, 170 
McPherson Theatre, 43, 159, 170 
Meierhofer, Anne, 160 
Memorial Gymnasium, 82, 84, 92, 93, 97, 98, 

111, 158, 173, 176, 197, 205, 208 
Memorial Student Center, 152, 157, 159, 

172, 175, 188 
Merchant, Ismail, 231 
Merner Pfeiffer, Annie, 151 
Merriman, Charles P., 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 

23,42 
Meyers, Doris, 162 
Meyers, Joseph, 162 
Meyers, Wesley D., 141 
Middleton, Troy, 138 
Millar, Alice, 194 
Miller, Edwin, 21,27 
Miller, James, 14, 21,27 
Minier, George W., 10, 11 
Mohan, Ram, 230 
Montgomery, Robert M., 193 
Mortimer, Franklin Spencer, 134, 141 
Moss, CM., 58 
Mower, Jr., Glenn, 162 
Mueggenhurg, Nathan, 228 
Muhl, Fred L, 75, 76, 93, 95, 98, 99, 102, 104 
Muirhead, Pamela, 186 
Mullm, Delia, 10 
Munsell, Charles W.C., 31, 172 
MunsellHall, 151, 152, 159 
Munsell, Oliver S„ 30, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 45, 

46,48,49,55,59, 172 
Myers, Ellen, 226 
Myers, jr., Minor, 203, 226 



A. NaSc 



Neeman, Calvin, 195 
Neis, Marilyn, 218 
Neis, Tom, 218 
Nelson, Eric, 193 
Nelson, Matt, 226 
Neumeyer, Carl M„ 158, 162 
New England, 10 
Newcomb, Zela, 162 
Newman, Wingate Jones, 1 4 
Newton, Sir Isaac, 3 
Niehaus, Marian, 162 
Nott, David, 191 



Ol^/miller, Tim, 7, 213 
3orn, George T, 160 
Office of University Communications, 6, 7 
Ogden, Wilbur, 162 
Oggel, Elizabeth, 162 
Old Main, 71,78, 95, 116, 170 
Old North, 58, 63, 116, 167, 168, 170 
Oratorical Association, 49, 50 




, Ralph, 230 
onal Liberal Arts Institutions, 5 
National Science Foundation, 4 
Nazha, Susan, 2 1 8 
Nazha, William C, 218 



ge, Bob, 223 
JPajama Parade, 5 
Panhellenic Council, 73 
Parker, FA., 58 
Patton, George S., 138 
Pauls, Janet Carol, 193 
Peoria, Illinois, 30 
Perry, John, 21 
Pershing, John J., 100 
Petrzilka (Filip), Henry, 141 
Pett, Clara G., 79 
Pfeiffer Hall 151, 152 
Phi Alpha Delta, 86 
Phi Delta Theta, 73 

Phi Gamma Delta, 52, 53, 73, 81, 86, 124 
Phi Kappa Phi, 109, 122 
Phi Mu Alpha, 109,211 
Philomathian, 28 
Phoenix, Franklin Kelsey, 28, 192 
Phoenix Hall, 38 
Piker's Day, 93, 122, 124 
Pillshury, Arthur A., 93, 104, 105, 107 
Pillsbury Plan, 4, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, 110, 

111, 119 
Pitner, Ina, 79 



Continuity & Chang* 



2i° 



Plainfield, Illinois, 14 

Plath, James, 226 

Postlethwait, Richard, 116 

Poston, Edmund D., 41 

Potter, Bradford S., 42 

Powell, John Wesley, 4, 39, 41, 42, 47, 59, 65, 

67, 108, 127, 207 
Powell Monument, 108 
Powell Museum, 126, 143 
Preparatory Building, 47 
Pressor Hall, 110, 111, 112, 113, 116, 119, 

124, 154, 186, 191 
Project Kaleidoscope, 4 




le, Dan, 228 
y College, 25 
Quittmeyer-Morris, Susan, 199 




der, Doug, 195 
Rudolph, John, 231 
Rasmussen, Roger, 141 
Ratcliffe, Samuel C, 162,200 
Rees, Abigail, 80 
Reeves, Owen T., 88, 109 
Reminiscences, 25 
Renner, Charla, 229 
Rettich, Timothy, 205 
Rhodes, Ben, 204 
Rice, Jerry, 214 
Richter, Rudolph, 46 
Roberts, G.G., 58 
Robinson, Marie, 162 
Rock River, 14, 15, 16 
Roloff, Roger, 199 
Ross, Kate B., 45 
Ross, Paul, 162 
Rumsfeld, Donald, 230 
Ruoti, James, 187, 219,221 
Rupert, Carolyn E, 228 
Russell, Bill, 186 
Rust, Jr., Edward B., 205 
Rust, Harriett Fuller, 209 
Rust House, 209 



>witz, Stew, 7, 213 
_S#idburg, Carl, 124 
Schnaitter, Roger, 205 
School of Art, 80, 156, 192 
School of Dramatics, 157, 165, 179 
School of Music, 57, 58, 69, 87, 88, 89, 111, 

133, 157, 167, 171, 195 
School of Nursing, 160, 171, 228 
School of Oratory, 69, 112 
Schultz, June, 162 
Scifres, Sammy, 191 
Scobell, Sara, 6 
Scopes, John X, 124 
Scott, Tom W., 93 
Schultz, William Eben, 134, 162 
Schwartz, Gary, 213 
Science Hall, 84 
Sears, Clinton, 29, 30, 31 
Seeborg, Michael, 185 
Seigneur, Jeanne, 97 
Settles, Joseph L., 73 
Sexson, Kirstin Rajala, 218 
Shanks, Mary D., 159, 172 
Shaw Hall, 152 
Shaw, J.H., 72 

Shaw, William E., 133, 134, 140, 151, 156, 160 
Shay, Marietta Brown Reed, 56 
Sheean, Evelyn, 190, 194 
Sheean, Jack, 194 
Sheean Library, 6, 193 
Shellabarger Laboratory, 68 
Sherff, Fern Rosetta, 229 
SherffHall, 160, 172,208 
Sherfy, J.W., 24, 28 

Shirk Center, 5, 76, 205, 208, 213, 214 
Shirk, Russ, 205, 213, 214 
Short, Lee, 160 
Short, WE, 54 
Shur, Hannah 1., 44 
Shurtleff College, 14 
Siemsen, Heather, 223 
Sigma Alpha Iota, 109 
Sigma Chi, 73,81,86, 101,211 
Sigma Kappa, 73, 97, 124, 
Sigma Phi, 53 
Sigma Pi, 190 
Sikma.Jack, 195, 197 
Silberjohn, 162 
Simon, Paul, 230 
Sindlinger, Charles E, 88 
Smiley, Sam, 2 1 3 



240 



N/mors VV.vslowi Uni 



Smith, Edgar M., 63, 64, 70, 73, 77 

Smith, Gerald E., 138 

Smith, John Sylvester, 160 

Smith, Leighton, 2 30 

Smith, R.E., 127 

Snyder, Clarence E., 223 

Sousa, John Phillip, 117 

Spaulding, Mary M., 10 

Spotlight Alley, 170 

Starkey, Frank, 186 

Steele, Robert Benson, 65 

Steinem, Gloria, 230 

Sterling, John, 53 

Sterling, Linda, 223 

Sterling, Thomas, 53 

Stevenson I, Adlai, 3, 26, 28, 35, 37 

Stevenson III, Adlai, 117 

Stevenson Hall, 86, 188 

Stewart, Archibald E., 21 

Strange, James E, 230 

Strayer, Elaine, 95 

Streeter, Thomas, 191 

Stubblefield, George, 21 

Student Center, 1 5 1 

Student Journal, 50 

Sutorius, James, 213 

Swayne Private Laboratory, 68 

Swichtenberg, Glenn, 208 



irjr^ 



i 



Tau Kappa Epsilon, 53, 72, 73, 86, 

101, 182 
Taylor, James B., 41 
Taylor, Monica, 212 
Telling, Edward R., 139, 186 
Terrapin Club, 145 
The Ames Library, 222 
The Bee, 49, 72 
The Cheer Song, 91 
The Elite Journal, 50, 54,72, 
The Oracle, 50,53 
The Ventilator, 49 
Theta Alpha Pi, 109 
Thiebaut, Elaine, 95 
Thomas, E., 14 
Thomas, Gerald C, 98, 140 
Thrall, Charles, 162 

Through the Eyes of the Argus, 176, 179, 193 
Titterington, Martin, 41 
Toliver, Z. Edmund, 199 



Tracy, Spencer, 1 1 3 
Troxel, Russell, 162 
Truitt, Owen I., 73 
Tucker, Lawrence, 157, 162 
Tucker, Todd, 191 
Ture, Kwame, 230 
Tutwiler, Margaret, 230 




U.S. Geological Survey, 6 

S. Marine Corps, 6 
U.S. News & World Report, 5 
U.S. Senate, 6 

Underwood, Lucien Marcus, 42 
University Archives, 6 
University of Arizona, 6 
Uprising of the Mules, 5, 71 
Upshaw, Dawn, 199 




^an Pelt, John Robert, 200 

'an Pelt, Samuel, 200 
Vasey, George, 67 
Vayo, David, 230 
Vega, Tim Joseph, 193 
Velma J. Arnold Health Service, 190 
Vermillion, Neal, 226 
Vinyard, George, 156 
Vonnegut, Kurt, 2 31 
Votava, Michael, 228 




SN, 195 

BC, 125 
Walcott, Derek, 230 
Walker, Everette, 160, 167 
Wallace, Chris, 231 
Wallace, Sherry, 7, 213 
Wallis, William, 107, 137 
Walsh, Benjamin, 67 
Warner, Peter, 54 
Watkins, Bedford, 191 
Watson, Elmo Scott, 6, 16, 41, 44, 120, 13 3 
Watson, James D., 230 
Weber, Kathryn L., 6 
Weber-Sammataro, Nelv; 
Weege, Reinhold, 231 
Weis, W Michael, 226 



191, 193 



Continuity & Change 



241 



Welch, R.B., 42 

Welty, Sain, 104 

Wentworth, Erastus, 22 

Wenum, John, 226 

Wesley, John, 17 

Wesleyan Chapel, 190 

WeskyanEcho, 7,72 

Wesleyana, 6, 48, 49, 58, 72, 92, 91, 93, 97, 

100, 101, 119, 124, 128, 130, 181 
West, Cornel, 231 
West Hall, 81,86 
Westbrook, Arthur, 111, 132 
Western Whig, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 23, 24 
Westmoreland, William, 226 
Wheaton, H.M., 97 
Whikehart, Lewis, 162 
White-Cinder, Jeanne, 230 
Whitehurst, James, 162 
Whitlock, Dick, 204 
Wilder, Douglas, 212 
Wilder Field, 74, 95, 125, 134, 
Wilder Hall, 190 
Wilder, William Henry, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 73, 

76, 78, 190 
Wiley, Rhoda M., 45 
Wilkinsjr., Daniel, 26, 28 
Wilkins, David, 186 
Williams, Esther, 145 
Williams, Tina, 7, 213 
Willing, Jennie E, 45, 46 
Willis, Maurice, 162 
Wilson, Fletcher, 21 
Wilson, Oscar L., 69 
Wilson School of Art, 4, 69, 70 
Winkles, Bobby, 195 
Withey, George, 122 
Wolbach, Wendy, 226 
Women's Educational Association, 45, 46 
Women's University Guild, 79, 81, 84 
Wood, Debra, 208 

Works Progress Administration, 125, 134 
Wu, Harry, 230 



YMCA, 50, 71,89, 95 

WCA, 50, 71, 76,89,91,98 
York, Owen, 162 
Young, Andrew, 185 
Young, Fred, 95,98, 171 




242 Illinois Wesleyan Uni 



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